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A presentation on Petroleum for the
Course: B.Tech. Polymer Science in DU FYUP
Subject: Raw Materials,
Year - For Ist Year Students.
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Published in: Education, Business
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  2. 2. INDEX  Petroleum  Petrochemicals  Origin of petroleum  Carbide theory  Engler Theory  Modern Theory  Occurrence of petroleum  Refining of petroleum  Cracking  Thermal Cracking  Catalytic Cracking  End Credits
  3. 3. PETROLEUM Petroleum is a dark coloured viscous oil found in deep Earth crust. Chemically it is a mixture of various types of hydrocarbons along with oxygen, nitrogen and sulphur containing compounds. The average composition of petroleum is : C = 80 -85% H = 10 -14% S = 0.1- 0.5% N & O = Negligible. Liquid Oil Mineral Oil (Petroleum) Organic Oil
  4. 4. PETROCHEMICALS Petrochemicals are the chemicals which are made from raw materials dried from petroleum and its fractions. They are known as petrochemicals. Alkanes, alkenes, cycloalkanes, benzene and its homologues are dried from petroleum and its fractions. These are used as raw materials for the manufacturing of industrially important chemicals like phenol, ammonia, ethanol, vinyl monomers, styrene, acetic acid, acetone etc. and these find extensive used for the preparation of explosives, drugs, paints, adhesives, rubbers, insecticides etc.  Haldia Petrochemicals Ltd., often referred to as HPL, is the second largest petrochemical company in India, with the company claiming a total capacity equivalent to 7, 00,00.0 TPA of ethylene.
  5. 5. ORIGIN OF PETROLEUM Carbide Theory Engler Theory Modern theory
  6. 6. CARBIDE THEORY According to this theory, hydrocarbons present in the petroleum are formed by the action of water and inorganic chemicals. Ca + 2C CaC2 CaC2 + H2O Ca(OH)2 + C2H2 4Al + 3C Al4C3 Al4C3 + 12H2O 4Al(OH)3 + 3CH4 Disadvantages It fails to explain  The presence of optically active compounds.  The presence of nitrogen and sulphur compounds.  The presence of chlorophyll and haemine.
  7. 7. ENGLER THEORY According to this theory, petroleum is of animal origin. He suggested that petroleum is formed by the decay and decomposition of animals under high pressure and temperature. He suggested the following facts: Experiment the destructive distillation of fish oil and other animal fats under high pressure and temperature give a similar product to the natural petroleum. Presence of brine or sea water together with petroleum. Presence of optically active compounds, nitrogen and sulphur compounds and fossils in the petroleum area. Disadvantages It fails to explain the presence of chlorophyll, coal deposits in the vicinity of oil fields.
  8. 8. MODERN THEORY According to this theory petroleum is believed to be formed by the decay and decomposition of marine chemicals as well as that of vegetable, organisms or simply it is of animal as well as plant origin. This theory explains all the facts which were the drawbacks of previous theories.
  9. 9. OCCURRENCE OF PETROLEUM It is oftenly associated with natural gas which exerts pressure on the the oil surface and drives it out with great velocity through natural openings. America is the biggest oil producing country of the world followed by  Russia  Venezuela  Mexico  Romania  Iraq  Burma  Pakistan  India – In India, it is found in Bombay High, Assam, Gujarat and some parts of Bihar.
  10. 10. REFINING OF PETROLEUM Separation – Distillation and solvent refining Conversion – Carbon removal, hydrogen addition Reforming – Catalytic reforming, steam/ hydrocarbon reforming Rearrangement – Isomerization Combination – Catalytic polymerization, alkylation Treating, finishing, blending Protecting the environment
  11. 11. CRACKING •Types of cracking • Thermal Cracking • Liquid Phase Thermal Cracking • Vapour Phase Thermal Cracking • Catalytic Cracking • Fixed bed Catalytic Cracking • Moving Bed Catalytic Caracking
  12. 12. CRACKING It may be defined as the process of decomposition of higher molecular weight hydrocarbons having higher boiling point to lower molecular weight hydrocarbons having lower boiling point. Process of cracking involves following chemical changes:  Higher hydrocarbons are converted to lower hydrocarbons by C-C cleavage.  Straight chain alkanes are converted into branched chain alkanes.  Saturated hydrocarbons are converted into unsaturated hydrocarbons.  Cyclisation of aliphatic alkanes takes place.
  13. 13. THERMAL CRACKING When cracking is done in the presence of heat and pressure it is known as thermal cracking. Liquid Phase thermal Cracking In this process, residual oil is cracked at 470- 575o C at 7 – 10 atmospheric pressure. The cracked products are separated in a fractionating column. 3 important fractions are obtained in the following percentages: Cracked gasoline : 30 -35% Cracked gas : 10 – 15% Cracked residue : 50 – 55% Vapour phase thermal cracking In this petroleum fractions of low boiling range like kerosene oil are heated at a temperature of 670- 720oCat a small atmospheric pressure. In this yield of gasoline is good and anti – knock factors are better than octane number. (Octane no. is less than 70)
  14. 14. CATALYTIC CRACKING In this cracking is done in the presence of a catalyst usually a mixture of silica and alumina. It requires much lower pressure and temperature than thermal cracking. Fixed Bed catalytic Cracking The heavy oil charge is passed through pre – heater where it is heated to 425- 450oC which h is passed over a fixed bed of catalyst chamber maintained at fixed temperature and 1.5 kgcm-2 pressure. During their passage through the tower about 40% of the charge is converted into gasoline and about 2- 4 %carbon is formed. This carbon black is adsorbed by the catalyst belt and after 8- 10 hours the catalyst stops functioning due to the deposition of black layer of carbon which is later burned and the catalyst is activated. The vapours are then passed through the cooler where the gasoline condenses with some other gases. It is then sent to a stabilizer where the dissolved gases are removed and pure gasoline is recovered. Moving Bed Catalytic Cracking In this feed oil is first passed through the heater the pre heated oil vapours along with powder catalyst are then passed to a reactor which is maintained at 500oC temperature for catalytic cracking. Cyclone allows only cracked oil vapours to pass on to the fractionating column but retain the catalyst powder which becomes heavier due to coating with carbon where it is forced by air blast to the regenerator. In this carbon is burned and regenerated catalyst then flows through stand pipes for fixing fresh batch of feed oil.
  15. 15. CATALYTIC CRACKING Fixed Bed Catalytic Cracking Moving Bed Catalytic Cracking
  16. 16.  End Credits  Bibliography Wikipedia Google Images Teacher in Charge and Special Thanks To • Dr M. Singh Purpose • PowerPoint Presentation for B.Tech. Polymer Science • COPYRIGHT©2013 • Bhaskaracharya College Of Applied Sciences • All Rights Reserved • The characters and incidents portrayed and the names used herein are fictitious and any similarity of any person is entirely coincidental and unintentional.