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- 1. •Data Encoding is a method to convert the data into signal form because we cannot transmit data until it is converted into signal. •Whenever we transmit a data it is always in the form of a signal. It can be in digital or analog form.
- 2. Encoding Method Digital to Digital Digital to Analog Analog to Analog Analog to Digital
- 3. •It is logical to represent digital data with a digital signal •Signal changes value as the data changes value from 0 to 1 and 1 to 0 • It involves various methods: Unipolar Encoding, Bipolar Encoding and Polar Encoding.
- 4. •It uses only one polarity. The polarity of the pulse shows whether it is positive or negative logic. •Positive logic refers to binary 1. •Negative logic refers to binary 0.
- 5. •It uses two voltage level a positive and one negative. •It includes : 1. NRZ: Non-Return to Zero 2. RZ: Return to Zero 3. Biphase
- 6. NRZ: Non- Return to Zero NRZ: Non- Return to Zero L-Type NRZ: Non- Return to Zero Inversion
- 7. NRZ-L: Non-Return to Zero L-Type •It is a Low or –ive logic encoding technique of NZR. •+ive voltage level is represented by 0 and –ive voltage is represented by 1.
- 8. NRZ-I: Non-Return to Zero Inversion •In it bits are represented between +ive and –ive voltages. •If bit is zero there is no change •But if next bit is one the change take place.
- 9. Difference in NRZ-L and NRZ-I Signal
- 10. RZ: Return to Zero •It uses three values +ive,-ive and zero. •In RZ, Signal change not between bits but during each bits. •In RZ, the signal is return to zero in midway of each duration. •Bit 1 is represented by +ive to zero and 0 by –ive to zero.
- 11. Biphase Encoding •In it signal does not return to zero instead it continues to opposite polarity and the middle transition of each bit is used for synchronization. •It is of two types: 1.Manchester 2.Differential Manchester
- 12. Manchester: •Transition in middle of each bit period •Transition serves as clock and data •Low to high represents one •High to low represents zero •Used by IEEE 802.3
- 13. Differential Manchester: •Mid bit transition is clocking only •Transition at start of a bit period represents zero •No transition at start of a bit period represents one •Note: this is a differential encoding scheme •Used by IEEE 802.5
- 14. •It also uses three voltage level +ive,-ive and zero. •Bit 0 is represented by voltage level zero. •Bit 1 is represented by both +ive and –ive voltage level. •If a bit is 1 and represents by +ive then the second bit 1 is represents by –ive voltage level
- 15. •In it digital binary data is converted into analog wave form. •Digital to analog techniques: 1. ASK: Amplitude Shift Keying 2. FSK: Frequency Shift Keying 3. PSK: Phase Shift Keying
- 16. •These are nothing but analog modulation techniques such as: 1. Amplitude Modulation 2. Frequency Modulation 3. Phase Modulation

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