7. work study and method measurement


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7. work study and method measurement

  1. 1. Introduction Work design is the study and design of a work system in an organizational context. The economic concept of work is associated with wages and employment.
  2. 2. Assumptions of work design Work system tries to improve productivity and effectiveness Work systems are in three states- design, betterment, improvement Work design considers all aspects of the work system Work design integrates abilities and talents
  3. 3. Work study approach • Method study • Work measurement • Ergonomics ( principles of modern economy) • Incentives Work study
  4. 4. Work measurement Work measurement refers to the different ways of finding out how long a job or part of a job should take to complete. It is the process of establishing the time that a given task would take when performed by a qualified worker working at a defined level of performance.
  5. 5. Work measurement plan • To analyze the labor needs of an operation • To develop labor standards for that operation • To measure and analyze deviations from those standards • To work for continuous improvement in the labor standards used in operation. The objective of work measurement plan are:
  6. 6. • To develop a methodology for establishing and maintaining standard accuracy • Improving operations by conducting engineering analysis. • Revising standards and related system data and • To assist in budgeting, estimating, production planning and performance evaluation using labor standards The activities under the work measurement plan are:
  7. 7. Work measurement process The analysis phase: in this phase the job is divided into convenient and discrete elements The measurement phase: a specific measurement technique is used to establish the time required by a qualified worker working at a defined level of performance to complete each element of work. Synthesis phase: the various elements are added together with appropriate allowances to work out the standard time for the complete job.
  8. 8. Work measurement techniques Time study Use of predetermined standards
  9. 9. Factors affecting the choice of a suitable measurement technique Purpose of measurement Availability of database Extent of details required Available time for measurement Cost of measurement
  10. 10. Time study Time study is carried out by direct observations of the work. The purpose of time study is to set normal times and then standard times to carry out the specific work. Time study aims at establishing the time for a qualified worker to perform a specified work under stated conditions and at a defined rate of working. Time study is carried out by a qualified practitioner, who observes the work, records the work being done and then notes down the time with the help of time measuring device, usually a stop watch. The practitioner observes no. of cycles of the task depending on the variability in the task and the level of accuracy required. The total no. of observations are made over a range of working conditions especially in cases where the working conditions are variable and subject to change during the day or over a period. The observation should also cover a range of workers to neutralize the individual effect. Once a normal time for each element of the work is determined allowances are added to arrive at the standard time.
  11. 11. Requirements for a time study Time study should be carried out by a qualified person The person carrying out the time study must be fully trained and experienced in the work. The work must be clearly defined and the method of doing the work should be efficient. The working conditions should be defined
  12. 12.  There are two elements of the normal time for a specified work. The first element is timing and the second element is the rating. (I) Timing: it is the actual time recorded by the observer for doing the element of work or operation under study. The time is recorded with the help of stop watch or computerized study board and is measured in centi-minutes
  13. 13. (II) The method of one worker usually differs from the method of working of another worker. The results in difference observed times for each worker for the same work carried. The reason for this difference is speed, efforts, consistency and training of the worker for the specified task. A worker doing a task for the first time will take more time as compared to the person who is doing it for so long. o The task being carried out by the worker is rated by the observer to adjust the actual time to a standardized normal time keeping in view the defined level of performance.
  14. 14.  The rating is on a scale with 100 as its standard rating. Thus rating is a direct observation technique to convert the observed time required for qualified worker working at a defined level of performance. During the observation, a trained observer makes an assessment of the worker’s rate of working relative to his concept of the rate corresponding to standard rating. Thus on the 0-100 scale, the observer makes a judgment of the worker’s rate of working . The rating is then used to convert the observed time to normal time by using the following formula.  Normal time= (observed time x observed rating)/standard rating
  15. 15. Example  An observer times an element of a task as 50 centi minutes. Calculate the normal time in the following situations: (A) If the observer assesses that the task is performed slowly than the standard 100 and his rating is 90 (B) If the observer assesses that the task is performed faster than the standard 100 and his rating is 110 (C) If the observer assess that the task is performed at standard rate
  16. 16. Allowances  Different conditions require different time to complete the task. So keeping this thing in mind some allowance is provided to the worker. And the time of allowance depends on the working conditions. The various allowances are summarized as under: (I) Fatigue allowance (II) Attention to personal needs. This allowance ranges between 4% to 7% of the total time. (III)Delay allowance based on actual delays that occur (IV)Contingency allowance
  17. 17. Standard time  The time taken by a qualified worker to perform a particular observation is reffered to as standard time.  Standard time is represented by formula Normal time + allowances Or Normal time/1- allowance factor
  18. 18. Steps in conducting a time study (I) Define the task. (II) Identify the various elements of the tasks precisely (III)Decide the no. of measurements for each task (IV)Measure and record (V) Calculate the average element time (VI)Calculate normal time (VII)Calculate standard time
  19. 19. Example  Observed cycle time 6 min, 8, 6, 7, 9, minutes  Worker is rated to perform the task at 95%  15% allowance factor is used  Calculate the standard times
  20. 20. Appropriate method for work measurement  Predetermined motion time system  Estimation  Timing  Models
  21. 21. Predetermined motion time system  The measurement units used in this method is in ten thousandth(.0001) of a minute or hundred-thousandth of an hour(.00001 hour). This method is suitable for a very short cycle work of around one minute of total duration such as small assembly work. The examples of such works are assembling or disassembling nuts and bolts, using a screw driver or doing tack welding or spot welding on a small job.
  22. 22. Estimation  This method is suitable for long works or project work where some estimation of time is required for completing the job. Estimation is divided into three categories as discussed below:  Analytical estimation  Category estimation  Comparative estimation
  23. 23. Timing  Each timing is rated by assessing the rate at which the worker was working. This provides the normal time for the elements and hence for the whole job, which are independent of the worker and could be used as the time for a trained, experienced worker to carry out the same elements.
  24. 24. Models  Models are generated as mathematical formula in which the observed data are inserted to compile a time for completion of the task or project. It is an easy and efficient method for recycling time standards for elements of repetitive work over and over again.
  25. 25. Method study  Method study is an important area in production planning to plan various elements of production, deciding on the type of machine to be used for a specific task, establishing the capacity of the machine, and planning the no. of people to be deployed to complete the task.  Time study measures the time taken in completing the task whereas method study focuses on the method adopted for completing the task in an efficient and economic way.