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Introduction Quality means fitness for use whether for a product or service. An asset which may be offered to the potential customer of a product or service. Quality as a class, kind or grade is applied in a better sense. The degree to which a product meets the requirements of customer.
Quality management Quality assessment is a probe of the level of quality being achieved. Total quality control works on the basis of the following functions(I) Quality of design(II) Quality of planning(III) Quality of production(IV) Quality of shipment(V) Quality of field service
Quality assurance Quality assurance refers to the assurance to the customers that the products, parts, components, tools etc. contain specified characteristics and are fit for the intended use. And to get the product of specified quality it is important that employees work enthusiastically. Employees will work with their heart only when they are satisfied and their morale is high.
Factors affecting employees morale(I) Psychological factors(a) Monotony and boredom(b) Frustration(c) Absence of incentives(II) Physiological factors: after working continuously workers feel fatigue and results in low quality(III) Technical factors(a) Unclear specifications and faulty design(b) Substandard tools and equipment(c) Complex operations and improper maintenance
(IV) Other factors(a) Absence of proper ventilation(b) Absence of sufficient light(c) Absence of normal temperature(d) Absence of subsidized canteen facility(e) Absence of Urinals in sufficient no.(f) Absence of provision of safety gloves
How to motivate the employees Job rotation Suggestion from employees Quality campaigns should be promoted Reasonable wage linked with productivity and quality Adequate training Promotion policy should be good enough Breaks Simple operations Suitable tools Better working conditions
What should be done for qualityassurance(I) Quality specifications should be established(II) Proper inspection and testing procedure should be followed(III) Periodical evaluation of methods and procedures
Quality control Today in modern era products are manufactured in huge quantity but they all are not same. You may find some variations in it, these variations are tolerable up to certain limit but after that product becomes useless. And variation is of two types(I) Chance variation(II) Assignable cause of variation
Functions of quality control(I) To see production design is good or not(II) To check that product is not harmful for customers(III) To maintain discipline(IV) To see that material tools etc are of standard quality(V) To provide current information on trends(VI) To fix the responsibility of employee(VII)To reduce proportion of scrap(VIII)To see that after sale services are good after product is sold
Methods used to assure quality(I) Inspection method(II) Statistical quality control methods(a) Various types of control charts(b) Pareto analysis(III) Automated control
ISO:9000 ISO:9000 quality system standard series was developed by the technical committee 176 of the international standard organization and approved in its present form in 1987. The environment is competitive and customers were required to perform special inspections at great expenditure to assess the supplier’s quality standards. It is a result of joint action of 26 largest consumer and production nations including India under the sponsorship of ISO.
No guarantee of quality ISO: 9000 is conditional. It guarantees consistency of quality of output subject to following procedures. Even after registration company producing 25% bad quality prior to registration may continue to do so. Of course, ISO identifies problem areas. These can be taken as inputs to quality improvement programme.
Generic standards The ISO:9000 standards are generic – they are written for all companies irrespective of the size, industry, country or sectors of company activity being measured.