WWI overview and Europe PP - Slide 1


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WWI overview and Europe PP - Slide 1

  1. 1. LONG-TERM CAUSES OF THE WAR<br />NATIONALISM<br /> had been a major factor in European culture for 100 years or more<br />helped to define nation-states <br /> used as a device to disguise or treat society’s problems<br />GERMAN realpolitick<br /> with its unification, Germany sought to assert its place in Europe<br />central location—feared two-front war, sought continental hegemony to balance British and French international empires<br />THE SYSTEM OF ALLIANCES BETWEEN NATIONS<br /> alliances demanded that nations enter into wars outside of their making<br /> reliance on rail schedules further cemented this<br />
  2. 2. DECLINE OF THE OTTOMAN EMPIRE, late 1800s onward<br />European involvement in Ottoman affairs only grew during this time<br />Russians defending Slavic interests<br />Austria taking border territories<br />Britain and France managing financial affairs<br />In response, the Young Turks forced reforms <br />overthrow of the sultan<br />constitutional reforms<br />modernization of industry and military (using German advisors)<br />Turkification of minorities (as a means of mitigating fragmentation)<br />
  3. 3. Nobody cares about trench foot! (or any other details of Western Front combat)<br />Here’s what we do care about, though…<br />the “home front”: a nation’s entire population and economy was turned toward the war effort<br />women and minorities in the labor force<br />rationing of supplies<br />governmental regulation of the economic sector<br />incorporation of colonial peoples into the army<br />the role of technology<br />higher casualties: machine guns, airplanes, poison gas, tanks, medicine<br />integration of non-military technology into the war effort<br />impact on imperial system<br />Britain and France take German colonies<br />Japan increases its imperial sway over China<br />Britain and France gain influence over Ottoman territories in the Middle East<br />
  4. 4. MAIN EFFECTS OF WORLD WAR ONE, BY REGION:<br />WESTERN EUROPE: few changes to the map, but failure to resolve the issues underlying the conflict<br />EASTERN EUROPE: Russian Revolution and civil war, establishment of new nations such as Poland<br />MIDDLE EAST: breakup of Ottoman Empire, establishment of new states (such as Greece and Turkey) and mandates (Br- and Fr-controlled territories in Middle East)<br />SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA: hardship caused by war effort, greater calls for independence<br />SOUTH ASIA: hardship caused by war effort, greater calls for independence (Gandhi)<br />EAST ASIA: weakening of China and growth of its civil war; increased Japanese hegemony and imperialism in the region<br />
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  7. 7. Before World War One<br />After WW1<br />Balkan independence<br />After WW1<br />Br mandates<br />Fr mandates<br />
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  9. 9. Ottoman<br />Austro-Hungarian<br />Russian<br />German<br />they went from imperial control<br />to administration under the mandate<br />system via the League of Nations<br />unable to establish an overseas <br />empire, it sought to dominate <br />mainland Europe<br />this group sought to reform Ottoman policies, growing more conservative over the course of the century<br />
  10. 10. nationalism<br />German expansionism<br />the system of mutual <br /> defense alliances<br />their demands for independence <br />grew louder and more powerful<br />a foreign policy term meaning to<br />act in a calculating and pragmatic <br />manner, without idealism<br />it became a more aggressive expansionist<br />in the early 20th century after defeating<br />Russia in war<br />
  11. 11. greater deaths due to better killing technology<br />women involved in the labor force<br />greater integration of science into the military<br />Japan<br />United States<br />you come up with one and ask me<br />you come up with another one<br />