European Landscapes<br />Physical Landscapes<br />Climate<br />Geomorphology <br />Hydrography<br />Cultural Landscapes<br...
Physical Landscapes<br />
European Climates<br />What’s significant about European Climates?<br />Location of Continent<br />Further to the North th...
What makes the European Weather?<br />
What makes the European Weather?<br />
Contemporary European Climates<br />
Contemporary European Climates<br />A Climates = Tropical<br />B Climates = Subtropical<br />C Climates = Temperate <br />...
Contemporary European Climates<br />Dominant European Climate Types<br />Cfb = Maritime Temperate = Fluctuating weather pa...
The Gulf Stream Effect – Real or Imagined?<br />
The Gulf Stream – North Atlantic Circulation<br />
The Jet Stream Effect – Typical Winter Air Movements<br />
Grosswetterlagen<br />Predominant Weather Patterns<br />Dependent upon north/south movement of the Polar Front<br />Positi...
Contemporary European Landscapes<br />
Contemporary European Landscapes<br />General Divisions of the European Landscape<br />Mountains <br />Orogeny<br />Caledo...
Contemporary European Landscapes<br />General Divisions of the European Landscape<br />Caledonian  <br />Northern Europe <...
Contemporary European Landscapes<br />General Divisions of the European Landscape<br />Hercynnian<br />Central Europe<br /...
Contemporary European Landscapes<br />
Contemporary European Landscapes<br />General Division of the European Landscape<br />Alpine <br />Southern Europe<br />Al...
Contemporary European Landscapes<br />
Contemporary European Landscapes<br />Impact of Glaciation<br />European Lowlands<br />Glacial Remnants<br />Northern Euro...
Contemporary European Landscapes<br />
General Hydrography of Europe<br />
Cultural Landscapes<br />
Overview<br />Introduction<br />How should geographers study religion in Europe?<br />Exploring the evolving religious lan...
How should geographers study religion in Europe?<br />They should focus on <br />Origins, diffusion and distribution<br />...
How do geographers study religion?<br />Origins, diffusion and distribution<br />Origins<br />Life, death and place of rel...
How do geographers study religion?<br />Origins, diffusion and distribution<br />Diffusion <br />Paths of conversion <br /...
How do geographers study religion?<br />Spatial characteristics of individual places<br />Sacrality<br />Why is it sacred?...
Exploring the evolving religious landscape of Europe<br />Prehistoric Europe<br />Animistic <br />Nature religion <br />“p...
Exploring the evolving religious landscape of Europe<br />Prehistoric Europe<br />Animistic - The cave at Lascaux (17000 B...
Exploring the evolving religious landscape of Europe<br />Prehistoric Europe<br />Nature religions <br />Stonehenge and dr...
Exploring the evolving religious landscape of Europe<br />Prehistoric Europe<br />Nature religions <br />Stonehenge and dr...
Exploring the evolving religious landscape of Europe<br />Prehistoric Europe<br />Pagan religious systems <br />Athens and...
Exploring the evolving religious landscape of Europe<br />Jewish Europe<br />End of Jewish State under Roman Empire - 66CE...
Exploring the evolving religious landscape of Europe<br />Jewish Europe<br />Renewed Anti-semitism from late 1800s onwards...
Exploring the evolving religious landscape of Europe<br />Christian Europe<br />Apostle Paul  <br />Birth of Christianity<...
The Roman Empire at the height of its political power and maximum geographic expansion<br />The gradual spread of Christia...
Exploring the evolving religious landscape of Europe<br />Christian Europe<br />Christianity splits Europe <br />1517 Mart...
The Roman Empire after its split in 330, divided into an Eastern and a Western Section <br />The fragmented Western Empire...
Exploring the evolving religious landscape of Europe<br />Islamic Europe<br />Birth of Islam <br />622 AD <br />Advancemen...
What should the European reaction to the increasing presence of Muslims be? Should they react at all?<br />
Examining European sacred places<br />Why are some sacred places more popular than others? The example of Christian sacred...
Examining European sacred places<br />Ancient Pilgrimage Route to Santiago de Compostela<br />Main Cathedral in Compostela...
Examining European sacred places<br />What makes Santiago de Compostela sacred? <br />The place itself<br />UNESCO World H...
Examining European sacred places<br />What makes Santiago de Compostela sacred? <br />The place itself<br />Santiago = Sai...
Examining European sacred places<br />What makes Santiago de Compostela sacred? <br />The movement associated with it<br /...
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Week 3 - Slide 1

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Week 3 - Slide 1

  1. 1.
  2. 2. European Landscapes<br />Physical Landscapes<br />Climate<br />Geomorphology <br />Hydrography<br />Cultural Landscapes<br />Cultural Attributes<br />Religion<br /> Selected Aspects of the Cultural Landscape<br />
  3. 3. Physical Landscapes<br />
  4. 4. European Climates<br />What’s significant about European Climates?<br />Location of Continent<br />Further to the North than North America<br />Climate classification: Koeppen<br />Gulf Stream<br />North Atlantic Circulation <br />Climate Change debate <br />Predominant Weather Patterns<br />Grosswetterlagen(GWL) – Weather Patterns<br />
  5. 5. What makes the European Weather?<br />
  6. 6. What makes the European Weather?<br />
  7. 7. Contemporary European Climates<br />
  8. 8. Contemporary European Climates<br />A Climates = Tropical<br />B Climates = Subtropical<br />C Climates = Temperate <br />D Climates = Continental<br />E Climates = Polar<br />Subgroups indicate season changes in precipitation and temperature variation<br />
  9. 9. Contemporary European Climates<br />Dominant European Climate Types<br />Cfb = Maritime Temperate = Fluctuating weather patterns, often overcast skies, high humidity, cool summers, warm winters<br />Dfb = Warm Summer Continental = Often Dryer summer than Cfb, cool, wet winter<br />Csa = Mediterranean Climate = Hot, Dry Summer, Wet, cool, rainy winter<br />
  10. 10. The Gulf Stream Effect – Real or Imagined?<br />
  11. 11. The Gulf Stream – North Atlantic Circulation<br />
  12. 12. The Jet Stream Effect – Typical Winter Air Movements<br />
  13. 13. Grosswetterlagen<br />Predominant Weather Patterns<br />Dependent upon north/south movement of the Polar Front<br />Position of Highs and Lows over Europe<br />Drive or block the movement of Low Pressure Systems from the Atlantic<br />
  14. 14. Contemporary European Landscapes<br />
  15. 15. Contemporary European Landscapes<br />General Divisions of the European Landscape<br />Mountains <br />Orogeny<br />Caledonian <br />Hercynian<br />Alpine <br />
  16. 16. Contemporary European Landscapes<br />General Divisions of the European Landscape<br />Caledonian <br />Northern Europe <br />Norway, Sweden, UK and Ireland<br />Cambrian (542-488 mya)<br />
  17. 17. Contemporary European Landscapes<br />General Divisions of the European Landscape<br />Hercynnian<br />Central Europe<br />Germany, France, Spain<br />Silurian (443-416 mya) to Carboniferous (359-299 mya)<br />
  18. 18. Contemporary European Landscapes<br />
  19. 19. Contemporary European Landscapes<br />General Division of the European Landscape<br />Alpine <br />Southern Europe<br />Alps, Pyrenees, Dinaric Alps<br />Spain, France, Italy, Germany, Switzerland, Austria<br />Tertiary (65-1.8 mya)<br />
  20. 20. Contemporary European Landscapes<br />
  21. 21. Contemporary European Landscapes<br />Impact of Glaciation<br />European Lowlands<br />Glacial Remnants<br />Northern Europe <br />Moraines<br />Terminal moraines<br />Loess Belt <br />Windblown glacial outwash deposits<br />
  22. 22. Contemporary European Landscapes<br />
  23. 23. General Hydrography of Europe<br />
  24. 24. Cultural Landscapes<br />
  25. 25. Overview<br />Introduction<br />How should geographers study religion in Europe?<br />Exploring the evolving religious landscape of Europe<br />Prehistoric <br />The Greeks and Romans<br />Jewish Europe<br />Christian Europe<br />Islamic Europe<br />Examining European sacred places<br />
  26. 26. How should geographers study religion in Europe?<br />They should focus on <br />Origins, diffusion and distribution<br />Spatial characteristics of individual places and movements<br />Significance, drawing power<br />Pilgrimage paths, spatial connections<br />Sharing of and struggling over religious space<br />
  27. 27. How do geographers study religion?<br />Origins, diffusion and distribution<br />Origins<br />Life, death and place of religious teachers<br />Founders <br />Missionaries <br />Saints <br />Supernatural events <br />Miracles, apparitions<br />
  28. 28. How do geographers study religion?<br />Origins, diffusion and distribution<br />Diffusion <br />Paths of conversion <br />Hierarchy<br />Networks of modern religious movement<br />Distribution <br />Expansion<br />Drawing power <br />Networks and overlap<br />
  29. 29. How do geographers study religion?<br />Spatial characteristics of individual places<br />Sacrality<br />Why is it sacred?<br />Hierophany<br />Encounter with a manifestation of the sacred - miracle, apparition, vision <br />Life of founder or saint<br />Node of larger movement<br />How did the sacred manifest itself? <br />How sacred is it?<br />Drawing power <br />
  30. 30. Exploring the evolving religious landscape of Europe<br />Prehistoric Europe<br />Animistic <br />Nature religion <br />“pagan” myths<br />Examples <br />The cave at Lascaux<br />Stonehenge and the Celtic Druids <br />Athens as a model of greek cosmology<br />
  31. 31. Exploring the evolving religious landscape of Europe<br />Prehistoric Europe<br />Animistic - The cave at Lascaux (17000 BP)<br />
  32. 32. Exploring the evolving religious landscape of Europe<br />Prehistoric Europe<br />Nature religions <br />Stonehenge and druidic sun cult<br />
  33. 33. Exploring the evolving religious landscape of Europe<br />Prehistoric Europe<br />Nature religions <br />Stonehenge and druidic sun cult<br />
  34. 34. Exploring the evolving religious landscape of Europe<br />Prehistoric Europe<br />Pagan religious systems <br />Athens and Greek cosmology - The Golden Ratio<br />
  35. 35. Exploring the evolving religious landscape of Europe<br />Jewish Europe<br />End of Jewish State under Roman Empire - 66CE<br />Diaspora development <br />Coexistence in early Christian Europe (4th Century AD onwards)<br />Heavy persecution in Christian Europe<br />Crusades beginning in 11th Century <br />Expulsions - Inquisition<br />Eastern European Tolerance<br />Poland<br />Enlightenment reintegration<br />Emancipation Period in 1700 -1800s<br />
  36. 36. Exploring the evolving religious landscape of Europe<br />Jewish Europe<br />Renewed Anti-semitism from late 1800s onwards<br />Racial (Racist) Science<br />Zionism <br />Large-scale emigration<br />Holocaust <br />Return to Europe after WW II<br />Russian and Eastern European Jews <br />Remaining anti-semitism<br />The Holocaust Memorial (Berlin)<br />
  37. 37.
  38. 38. Exploring the evolving religious landscape of Europe<br />Christian Europe<br />Apostle Paul <br />Birth of Christianity<br />Gnostic and Literalist Christians<br />Christianity unifies Europe<br />Literalist dominance<br />Edict of Milan 313 <br />State religion<br />Christianity splits Europe <br />Council of Nicea 325 AD <br />Series of Ecumenical Councils <br />Creedal difference<br />Great Schism 1054 split Latin from Orthodox Churches<br />
  39. 39.
  40. 40. The Roman Empire at the height of its political power and maximum geographic expansion<br />The gradual spread of Christianity to Europe<br />
  41. 41. Exploring the evolving religious landscape of Europe<br />Christian Europe<br />Christianity splits Europe <br />1517 Martin Luther <br />Reformation movement begins<br />Calvin, Zwingly<br />16/17th Century Church of England <br />Arrival of LDS in Europe - 19th Century<br />Results<br />Europe is predominantly Christian Continent today, yet very diverse denominations exist<br />Most European nation states have “state churches” <br />Certain brands of Christianity are officially sanctioned<br />
  42. 42. The Roman Empire after its split in 330, divided into an Eastern and a Western Section <br />The fragmented Western Empire at the beginning of Frankish expansion<br />
  43. 43.
  44. 44. Exploring the evolving religious landscape of Europe<br />Islamic Europe<br />Birth of Islam <br />622 AD <br />Advancement of Islam <br />Spain <br />Ottoman Empire <br />Challenges to Christianity<br />Questions of Church vs. State in Islam <br />Sharia<br />Example of Turkey <br />Modern Controversies<br />
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  56. 56.
  57. 57. What should the European reaction to the increasing presence of Muslims be? Should they react at all?<br />
  58. 58. Examining European sacred places<br />Why are some sacred places more popular than others? The example of Christian sacred places <br />What makes places sacred? <br />The place itself <br />The movement associated with it<br />What places can we distinguish?<br />Where are these places? <br />Santiago de Compostella<br />St. Marie De la Mer<br />What happens at these places? <br />The anatomy of a pilgrimage<br />
  59. 59. Examining European sacred places<br />Ancient Pilgrimage Route to Santiago de Compostela<br />Main Cathedral in Compostela - Final Point of the Journey<br />
  60. 60. Examining European sacred places<br />What makes Santiago de Compostela sacred? <br />The place itself<br />UNESCO World Heritage Site<br />Camino de Santiago (Way of St. James) <br />Pilgrimage route(s) from France to Spain<br />One of the most visited religious sites in Europe and the world <br />Tremendous Infrastructure<br />Santiago = Saint James<br />
  61. 61. Examining European sacred places<br />What makes Santiago de Compostela sacred? <br />The place itself<br />Santiago = Saint James<br />One of the 12 Apostles<br />Early missionary<br />Returned to Palestine AD 44<br />Martyred <br />His remains were moved to Spain <br />Hermit Paleyo is led to remains by vision in 813<br />Declaration as Holy Town in 1213 by Pope Alexander<br />
  62. 62. Examining European sacred places<br />What makes Santiago de Compostela sacred? <br />The movement associated with it<br />Movement from sacred sites to holy cities <br />Movement of increasing intensity <br />

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