Course Requirements<br />PaperA 2000 word paper (+/- 10%)  page research paper, topic to be of students choosing in consul...
Portfolio<br />Each student will keep a portfolio for the class which will be split into two blocks. The first block to be...
1: This section will relate to the readings from – Reading the American Past – And the end of each set of readings from th...
Week 2: Portfolio VideoQuestions<br />1.	How was Cabeza de Vaca’s Experience in America different from most other Spanish ...
Final Due Thursday December 17th 9:30 AM<br />A take home essay. The question for the take home essay will be “America did...
Everyone is entitled to his own opinion, but <br />not to his own facts.<br />Class covers chronological era up to 1877 th...
Early attempts at colonization<br />
Beringa<br />
1798 Philadelphia<br />French aristocrat Constantin-Francois de Chasseboeuf<br />meets Miami Chief Little Turtle<br />Chas...
Much mystery surrounds the travels of St. Brennan <br />7th century Catholic Missionary<br />He and crew of 60 are given c...
First (?) European transatlantic colonizers<br />Norse or Vikings<br />From Norway, via Iceland and Greenland to Newfoundl...
Some traditions recalled dreams, premonitions, and prophecies that foretold the coming of powerful strangers<br />
Europe’s Expansion<br />
Reconquista<br />Beginning in 711<br />Catholics began an attempt to retake Spain from the Muslims (Moors)<br />Finally co...
1400 Venice dominated the trade of the Eastern Mediterranean. <br />
Plague hit Europe in in mid 14th century<br />Black Death<br />Changed structure of society<br />1/3rd population dead<br ...
More food for those still alive<br />Survivors inherit property<br />Peasants began to move around<br />15th century a dan...
Genoese and Florentines looked west <br />Brought sailing know-how, mercantile instincts, and banking practices to cities ...
Portugal<br />Worked with Spain on the Reconquista<br />1415 Portuguese forces conquered Ceuta, the Muslim bastion at the ...
Prince Henry the Navigator, son of the Portuguese King <br />from 1415 until death in 1460 acted as an important conduit f...
<ul><li>Portugese came first to the Canary Islands
Appealing because of their inhabitants
The Guanche
had livestock, which could supply hides, tallow, and wool,
early visitors found they could extract orchil, a valued purple dye, from Lichens found on the island. </li></ul>But the G...
After the Canary Islands were taken Portuguese moved on to Madeira<br />Planted Cane Sugar<br />Like all planters Madeira’...
First, they brought to the islands a few Jews and Moors who still resided in Portugal<br />Many more Madeiran slaves were ...
 Cane took root in Madeira’s fertile soils <br />Owned and managed by Europeans with social as well as economic aspiration...
This mechanism developed into <br />European dominance<br />plantation agriculture <br />and a slave system to support bot...
Despite success of Portuguese exploring eastern Atlantic<br />Spain first country to head west looking for the east <br />
Christopher Columbus<br />Background<br />Born sane year as Isabella 1451<br />Genoa<br />Freelance Sailor<br />Father rai...
Ferdinand of Aragon and Isabella of Castile<br />1469 Unified Kingdom of Spain<br />1492Defeated Moors at Grenada<br />End...
Columbus’s First Voyage, 1492<br />
Niña, Pinta, Santa María<br />San Salvador (Watling’s Island)<br />Tainos (Arawaks) & Caribs<br />Cuba & Hispaniola<br />
Claimed land in name of Spain<br />Called locals “Indians”<br />Actually Taino’s (good - noble)<br />No religion <br />Act...
The people of these lands do not understand me nor do I, nor anyone else that I have with me [understand] them. And many t...
The world before Columbus<br />
Cabinets of curiosity,<br />Intellectuals and modern/ changing world<br />
The unknown adventurer<br />June 24, 1497<br />John Cabot stepped onto North American soil<br />Claimed the land for Henry...
Spain major player in Americas in 16th C<br />
Major  impact on Europe appears to be and was the wealth<br />Another important aspect<br />Continued exploitation of loca...
Limited number of migrants to the Spanish New World<br />From 1492 – 1592 approx 225,000<br />Still only 1-2% of populatio...
Leads to intermarriage<br />Very few women to keep the Spanish bloodlines “pure”<br />Limpieza de Sangre – clean blood<br ...
After Columbus’s voyage<br />And increasing Spanish presence in European activities <br />Others begin to follow<br />But ...
Principal Spanish Explorations of North America<br />
Juan de Ponce de Leon Florida 1521 Killed by Calusa Indians<br />Lucas Vázquez de Ayellón  1521 explores Atlantic coast no...
1539 Hernando de Soto<br />ex conquistador from Peru spent three vicious years in southeast then died in 1542 buried in th...
1565 French begin to show interest in North America<br />Pedro Menéndez de Avilés founds St Augustine in Florida, <br />by...
Second region of Spanish settlement<br />Southwest<br />1598 Juan de Oñate received Kings permission for settlement on Rio...
Oñate never found the vast wealth he wanted<br />1605 the viceroy in Mexico City recommended that Spanish withdraw from re...
Franciscan priests intervened<br />Oñate didn’t find gold<br />Priests found souls<br />Told crown either <br />we stay or...
Early French Explorers<br />Giovanni da Verrazano <br />explored Atlantic coast from Carolinas to Nova Scotia in 1534<br /...
Samuel de Champlain led eleven voyages to Canada by 1645<br />
Established colony at Acadia (Nova Scotia)<br />Founded Quebec in 1608<br />Sought friendly relations with Native American...
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Week 2 - Europe

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Week 2 - Europe

  1. 1. Course Requirements<br />PaperA 2000 word paper (+/- 10%) page research paper, topic to be of students choosing in consultation with professor Due Thursday 5th November <br />Children’s Story critical thinking paper. <br />A 1500 word paper (+/- 10%) Due Thursday 19th November<br />
  2. 2. Portfolio<br />Each student will keep a portfolio for the class which will be split into two blocks. The first block to be handed in on Thursday 15th October the second block to be handed in on Tues 8th December <br />There will be 2 sections within your portfolio<br />
  3. 3. 1: This section will relate to the readings from – Reading the American Past – And the end of each set of readings from this text are a number of comparative questions. The student shall select one (1) question from each set of readings and write a one (1) page answer. <br />2: Video quiz. On numerous occasions during the class I will show movies, documentaries, and several video clips. Questions will be set before the showing. Your answers to each set of video quiz’s will also be kept in the portfolio.<br />
  4. 4. Week 2: Portfolio VideoQuestions<br />1. How was Cabeza de Vaca’s Experience in America different from most other Spanish Conquistadors?<br />2. In the video, Professor David Weber reminds us that in frontier regions<br />A) people tend to develop a new culture.<br />B) democracy always emerges among settlers.<br />C) indigenous culture is totally destroyed.<br />D) expansion moves almost invariably from east to west.<br />
  5. 5. Final Due Thursday December 17th 9:30 AM<br />A take home essay. The question for the take home essay will be “America did not exist until 1877: discuss using evidence from the class readings and lectures”<br />p.s. I am available for favorite Professor dinner’s<br />
  6. 6. Everyone is entitled to his own opinion, but <br />not to his own facts.<br />Class covers chronological era up to 1877 the period of reconstruction<br />An “are” to an “is”<br />The United States “are”<br />The United States “is”<br />
  7. 7.
  8. 8. Early attempts at colonization<br />
  9. 9. Beringa<br />
  10. 10. 1798 Philadelphia<br />French aristocrat Constantin-Francois de Chasseboeuf<br />meets Miami Chief Little Turtle<br />Chasseboeuf notices facial similarities between Little Turtle and Asians and points out small gap between continents<br />‘Isn’t it possible’ asked Little Turtle that the Tartars, who resemble us so closely, came from America? Why shouldn’t we have been born here?’<br />
  11. 11. Much mystery surrounds the travels of St. Brennan <br />7th century Catholic Missionary<br />He and crew of 60 are given credit for discovering North America.<br />Artifacts have been found testiying to their exploration of Maine and Nova Scotia. <br />St. Brennan returned to Ireland and died at age 92<br />
  12. 12. First (?) European transatlantic colonizers<br />Norse or Vikings<br />From Norway, via Iceland and Greenland to Newfoundland<br />L'Anse aux meadows<br />
  13. 13. Some traditions recalled dreams, premonitions, and prophecies that foretold the coming of powerful strangers<br />
  14. 14. Europe’s Expansion<br />
  15. 15. Reconquista<br />Beginning in 711<br />Catholics began an attempt to retake Spain from the Muslims (Moors)<br />Finally completed in 1492 with the marriage of<br />Ferdinand of Aragon and Isabella of Castille<br />
  16. 16. 1400 Venice dominated the trade of the Eastern Mediterranean. <br />
  17. 17. Plague hit Europe in in mid 14th century<br />Black Death<br />Changed structure of society<br />1/3rd population dead<br />Result<br />
  18. 18. More food for those still alive<br />Survivors inherit property<br />Peasants began to move around<br />15th century a dangerous place<br />Big challenges lead to some taking big risks<br />
  19. 19. Genoese and Florentines looked west <br />Brought sailing know-how, mercantile instincts, and banking practices to cities of Spain and Portugal. <br />The commercial community of fifteenth century Lisbon hoped they could find a way to outflank Muslims and Venetians,<br />i.e. those who still held the keys to the doors of African gold and Asian Luxury goods <br />
  20. 20. Portugal<br />Worked with Spain on the Reconquista<br />1415 Portuguese forces conquered Ceuta, the Muslim bastion at the mouth of the strait of Gibraltar that blocked Portugal's access to the Atlantic coast of Africa<br />Ideal of Reconquista allowed for expansion into ‘heathen’ lands<br />
  21. 21. Prince Henry the Navigator, son of the Portuguese King <br />from 1415 until death in 1460 acted as an important conduit for bringing together technology, money, and prestige <br />pushed for greater expansion down Africa’s coast<br />New ship design the caraval allowed them to take advantage of winds and tacking against the winds <br />It was sturdier and larger than earlier European sea going ships<br />
  22. 22.
  23. 23. <ul><li>Portugese came first to the Canary Islands
  24. 24. Appealing because of their inhabitants
  25. 25. The Guanche
  26. 26. had livestock, which could supply hides, tallow, and wool,
  27. 27. early visitors found they could extract orchil, a valued purple dye, from Lichens found on the island. </li></ul>But the Guanche themselves made colonization of the Island difficult<br />
  28. 28. After the Canary Islands were taken Portuguese moved on to Madeira<br />Planted Cane Sugar<br />Like all planters Madeira’s new landlords wanted workers that were <br />plentiful, <br />robust, <br />long lived <br />inexpensive. <br />
  29. 29. First, they brought to the islands a few Jews and Moors who still resided in Portugal<br />Many more Madeiran slaves were Guanche, however, captured during the most aggressive period of warfare in the Canaries. <br />Also Africans enslaved by Portuguese explorers from the African coast. <br />
  30. 30. Cane took root in Madeira’s fertile soils <br />Owned and managed by Europeans with social as well as economic aspirations <br />Worked by men and women totally denied such aspirations <br />
  31. 31. This mechanism developed into <br />European dominance<br />plantation agriculture <br />and a slave system to support both <br />This system fell into gear with a loud clunk that would echo on every continent bordering the ocean <br />
  32. 32. Despite success of Portuguese exploring eastern Atlantic<br />Spain first country to head west looking for the east <br />
  33. 33. Christopher Columbus<br />Background<br />Born sane year as Isabella 1451<br />Genoa<br />Freelance Sailor<br />Father raised in household of Prince Henry the Navigator<br />Sailed to central Africa<br />Convinced Asia was 2,500 miles to west<br />(actually 11,000)<br />
  34. 34. Ferdinand of Aragon and Isabella of Castile<br />1469 Unified Kingdom of Spain<br />1492Defeated Moors at Grenada<br />Ends Islamic presence in Spain<br />Sponsor Columbus<br />Tried to persuade<br />Portugal<br />England<br />France<br />Spain<br />To let him sail West to China<br />
  35. 35. Columbus’s First Voyage, 1492<br />
  36. 36. Niña, Pinta, Santa María<br />San Salvador (Watling’s Island)<br />Tainos (Arawaks) & Caribs<br />Cuba & Hispaniola<br />
  37. 37. Claimed land in name of Spain<br />Called locals “Indians”<br />Actually Taino’s (good - noble)<br />No religion <br />Actually worshipped Zemis- Ancestral Spirits<br />
  38. 38. The people of these lands do not understand me nor do I, nor anyone else that I have with me [understand] them. And many times I understand one thing said by theses Indians . . . For another, its contrary<br />Columbus talking about Taino<br />
  39. 39. The world before Columbus<br />
  40. 40. Cabinets of curiosity,<br />Intellectuals and modern/ changing world<br />
  41. 41.
  42. 42. The unknown adventurer<br />June 24, 1497<br />John Cabot stepped onto North American soil<br />Claimed the land for Henry VII and England<br />
  43. 43.
  44. 44. Spain major player in Americas in 16th C<br />
  45. 45. Major impact on Europe appears to be and was the wealth<br />Another important aspect<br />Continued exploitation of local population<br />
  46. 46. Limited number of migrants to the Spanish New World<br />From 1492 – 1592 approx 225,000<br />Still only 1-2% of population<br />The majority of people to move to “New Spain” were male<br />1 women in twenty in 1519 <br />To 1 women in three 1589<br />
  47. 47. Leads to intermarriage<br />Very few women to keep the Spanish bloodlines “pure”<br />Limpieza de Sangre – clean blood<br />All people categorized and assigned a fixed position in New Spain<br />
  48. 48.
  49. 49. After Columbus’s voyage<br />And increasing Spanish presence in European activities <br />Others begin to follow<br />But first I want to stay with Spain as they headed north<br />
  50. 50. Principal Spanish Explorations of North America<br />
  51. 51. Juan de Ponce de Leon Florida 1521 Killed by Calusa Indians<br />Lucas Vázquez de Ayellón 1521 explores Atlantic coast north of Florida – 1526 set up a short lived colony in Georgia <br />1528 Pánfilo de Narváez surveyed Gulf coast – ended in shipwreck<br />Cabeca De Vaca<br />Spain in North America<br />
  52. 52.
  53. 53. 1539 Hernando de Soto<br />ex conquistador from Peru spent three vicious years in southeast then died in 1542 buried in the Mississippi<br />Francisco Vásquez de Coranado<br />southwest and great plains in 1540 looking for the fabulous wealth of the seven cities of Cíbola<br />1542 turned back<br />Juan Rodríguiz Cabrillo <br />1542 along the coast of California died on Santa Catalina Island off coast from LA. <br />Men sailed on to Oregon before storm turned them back<br />
  54. 54. 1565 French begin to show interest in North America<br />Pedro Menéndez de Avilés founds St Augustine in Florida, <br />by 1600 population of about 500<br />
  55. 55. Second region of Spanish settlement<br />Southwest<br />1598 Juan de Oñate received Kings permission for settlement on Rio Grande<br />Hoped to find mines<br />Farming and ranching also drew Spaniards into the region<br />
  56. 56. Oñate never found the vast wealth he wanted<br />1605 the viceroy in Mexico City recommended that Spanish withdraw from region<br />Isolation<br />Distance from centre<br />Made New Mexico to expensive<br />Especially with Peru’s Silver and Mexico’s gold<br />
  57. 57. Franciscan priests intervened<br />Oñate didn’t find gold<br />Priests found souls<br />Told crown either <br />we stay or you will have to move thousands of converts<br />1608 Crown gave New Mexico reprieve<br />As it did to Spanish Florida<br />New Mexico changed from a proprietary colony to a crown colony<br />
  58. 58.
  59. 59. Early French Explorers<br />Giovanni da Verrazano <br />explored Atlantic coast from Carolinas to Nova Scotia in 1534<br />Jacques Cartier <br />explored St. Lawrence Valley between 1534 and 1543<br />
  60. 60. Samuel de Champlain led eleven voyages to Canada by 1645<br />
  61. 61. Established colony at Acadia (Nova Scotia)<br />Founded Quebec in 1608<br />Sought friendly relations with Native Americans<br />Efforts were made to restrain fur trade in the colony’s population<br />Population 3,000 by 1750<br />Catholicism only acceptable religion in 1625<br />
  62. 62. Important role of Jesuit Missionaries<br />Believed the Indians could retain their traditions while still accepting Catholicism<br />Concentrated attention on five confederated Huron nations<br />Mastered Indian languages and cultures<br />Only Europeans who measured up to Indian standards of bravery<br />
  63. 63. ©2004 Wadsworth, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Thomson Learning™ is a trademark used herein under license. <br />New France and the Jesuit Missions<br />
  64. 64. VideoBlack Robe<br />Churchlost ground around 1640s <br />especially after the crown assumed control of New France after 1663<br />
  65. 65. New France Under Louis XIV<br />Tried to transform colony into model absolutist society<br />Frenchmen also settled in the Caribbean<br />Founded sugar colonies on <br />Saint-Domingue, <br />Guadeloupe<br />Martinique<br />

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