Technology and Censorship


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Technology and Censorship

  1. 1. Technology and Censorship<br />Carl Cullotta, Michael Gonzales, Tom Newnam<br />
  2. 2. Introduction<br />Technological Censorship:<br />Current US Laws<br />Freedom of Speech/Border Lines<br />Government control<br />Problems and issues<br />Offensive, obscene, and hate speech<br />Regulation<br />
  3. 3. Arguments for Censorship<br />Protection of children from mature content. <br />Hateful or offensive material that may be seen as in bad taste<br />Prevention of issues of national security across multiple nations<br />
  4. 4. Arguments Against Censorship<br />Invasion of the human right of free speech and/or choice<br />Third-party entities have no right to make decisions regarding what individuals view.<br />User has right to exercise discretion for the content they view<br />
  5. 5. Net Neutrality<br />According to Wikipedia:<br /> Principle proposed for user access networks participating in the Internet that advocates no restrictions on content, sites, or platforms, on the kinds of equipment that may be attached, and on the modes of communication allowed, as well as communication that is not unreasonably degraded by other traffic <br />
  6. 6. Net Neutrality<br />Internet service providers are providing a tiered-service model in order to control the pipeline and thereby remove competition as well as impose data discrimination.<br />If companies are capable of blocking certain services, could they also then block competitor services?<br />
  7. 7. Example – Comcast and P2P<br />Blocked or slowed connections related to P2P connections<br />Comcast initially denied such claims<br />Based on idea that P2P file sharing was aimed toward piracy<br />Interference on other services<br />In 2007, Comcast customers reported inability to use Google because forged RST packets are interfering with HTTP access to <br />
  8. 8. Net Neutrality - Australia<br />Intention to implement child-porn filter at the ISP level for “greater good” of protecting children<br />Government studies previously showed such filtering wouldn’t work<br />Invested $185 million+ anyway into implementation<br />Allowed users to opt-out of the program<br />Implemented using a blacklist of porn-oriented websites<br />
  9. 9. Net Neutrality – Australia<br />Wikileaks in March 2009 received a leak of the “blacklist” of websites that would form the basis of filter.<br />Found to contain legal websites including:<br />Online poker sites<br />Youtube links<br />Regular straight/gay porn websites<br />Wikipedia entries<br />Euthanasia sites<br />
  10. 10. Net Neutrality - Australia<br />Fringe religion websites<br />Christian websites<br />Tour operator website<br />Even blacklisted a dentist!<br />Argument that anything could be blacklisted<br />Thailand had similar intention<br />Websites found on blacklist included 1200 sites that criticized royal family<br />
  11. 11. Current US Laws<br />Freedom of Speech provided by the First Amendment<br />First Amendment Law does not protect against:<br />Defamation, hate speech<br />Causing panic, fighting words, and other threats to peace<br />Incitement to crime <br />Sedition<br />Obscenity, Child pornography<br />
  12. 12. Government Controlled Censorship<br />China blocks or filters Internet content relating to Tibetan independence, Taiwan independence, police brutality, the Tiananmen Square protests of 1989, freedom of speech, pornography, some international news sources (such as the VOA), certain religious movements (such as Falun Gong), and many blogging websites. <br />Referred to as China’s Golden Shield<br />Some 52 cyber dissidents are reportedly imprisoned in China for their online postings.<br />
  13. 13. Government Controlled Censorship<br />Current issue with China and Google<br />Previously Google, to enter China’s market, restricted user access, despite the company’s beliefs and statements<br />Google’s servers attacked in China, and Google initiated plans to leave the market due to conflict with company’s original mission<br />
  14. 14. Government Controlled Censorship<br />Other countries & restrictions<br />Germany, France, Iran<br />Nazi items<br />12 Enemies of the Internet (Pervasive) according to Reporters without Borders<br />Burma, China, Cuba, Egypt, Iran, North Korea, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Tunisia, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Vietnam<br />
  15. 15. Problems and Issues<br />US Government has heavy focus on net-neutrality<br />Provide aid to fund groups who push for net neutrality in their own countries<br />Some governments don’t believe the Internet should be an exception to their laws on media.<br />Many of these are in place for a reason<br />Problem that the individual using the computer may not necessarily be the owner<br />
  16. 16. Problems and Issues<br />Governments aid projects to circumvent censorship in other countries:<br />Proxies<br />VPN’s<br />Psiphon<br />Tor<br />
  17. 17. Problems and Issues<br />US based companies fit into the puzzle of net neutrality<br />ISPs, service operators<br />Carriers, and responsibility of transit<br />Example<br />Seven US based companies that aid in maintaining/developing China’s Golden Shield<br />Cisco, Nortel, Oracle, Motorola, EMC, Sybase, L-1 Identity Solutions<br />What should the US government do about this?<br />
  18. 18. Discussion<br />Should governments have control over their constituents use of the Internet? Should other governments have a say?<br />Who should have the responsibility of determining what should be available on the web?<br />
  19. 19. Discussion<br />What potential conflicts arise from censorship and freedom of speech? Where are borders crossed and should net-neutrality play a role for other countries with established laws on other forms of media?<br />
  20. 20. Conclusion<br />Censorship places restrictions on human rights of freedom of speech<br />Net Neutrality aims to create an atmosphere of equality amongst all Internet users<br />It is up to the user to be responsible for content that is viewed<br />Companies part of countries without restrictions should follow suit<br />