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Medieval Europe


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Medieval Europe

  1. 1. Medieval Europe<br />Chapter 8 & 9<br />
  2. 2. Western Europe<br />Small area on the western end of Eurasia<br />A frontier – sparsely populated, undeveloped area on the outskirts of civilization<br />Untapped potential<br />Dense forests, fertile land, rich mineral resources, and many rivers/ seas for travel, trade, and power<br />
  3. 3. Early Medieval Europe(The Middle Ages/Dark Ages)5th to 12th Century<br />Fall of the Western Roman Empire (A.D. 476)<br />Germanic tribes form independent kingdoms<br />Time of violence, illiteracy, isolation<br />Majority of population is poor and uneducated<br />Little/no trade<br />Decrease in population<br /> – warfare, raids, disease<br />Christianity – single unifying force<br />A blend of Greco-Roman, Germanic,<br /> and Christian Traditions<br />
  4. 4. The Franks <br />Merowig – Unites the Frank’s  warrior society<br />Clovis (486) – Conquers and unites Gaul<br />Preserves Roman customs<br />converts to Christianity <br />Hereditary rule land divided among son’s<br />Charles “The Hammer” Martel <br />Defeats invading Muslims at Battle of Tours (732)<br />Pepin ‘The Short” – reunites Gaul<br />Fights for Pope driving Lombards out of Rome (754)<br />Anointed “Protector of the Church” by Pope<br />
  5. 5. The Age of Charlemagne<br />Charles the Great – Carlos Magnus<br />Father of Europe – Reunites much of Europe for a brief time<br />Frankish Empire – Aachen (Capital) time of war<br />Bureaucracy counties/counts, missi dominici<br />Improves education and economy<br />Missionaries<br />Crowned as Holy Roman Emperor by Pope <br />Christmas Day 800<br />Dies in 814<br />Treaty of Verdun (843)<br />
  6. 6. Time of InvasionsA. D. 800 - 1000<br />Threats from the Muslims (south), Slavs (east), Magyars (east), and Vikings (North)<br />Vikings most dangerous and biggest threat to safety<br />Effects Europeans way of life - raid and loot towns (brutal)<br />Warrior society<br />Great seafarers – explore new lands and begin to trade<br />Long boats – sail up stream and in open waters<br />
  7. 7. Vikings effect on Europe<br />Increase isolation, decrease in unity<br />Decrease power of central government<br />Increase power of nobles <br />Increase dependency on agriculture<br />Decrease in trade<br />Little or no interdependence<br />Decrease in education/literacy<br />Development of Feudalism and Manorialism<br />
  8. 8. Feudalism<br />
  9. 9. Feudalismloosely organized system of rule in which powerful local Lords pledge service and loyalty to a greater Lord<br />A political system with a weak central government based on a hierarchy (decentralized)<br />An alliance of mutual protection between the king and his nobles (Lords) is formed<br />Vassal – lower lord serving a greater lord<br />1st developed by Charles Martel but takes hold in Europe in the 900’s<br />Knights (Cavalry) given land in exchange for loyalty<br />Training - page/squire<br />Tournaments<br />Chivalry<br />
  10. 10. The Feudal Contracta complex system of obligations and benefits<br />An agreement between a Lord and his Vassal<br />The Lord provides the Vassal with a fief<br />The Vassal gives homage<br />Vassal creates a Manor<br />The higher Lord has very little power or influence <br />Local Lord must provide an army, serve on the royal court, provide shelter/education, and pay taxes to the higher Lord<br />Local Lord (vassal)<br />Raise private army, set up local court, create local laws and currency<br />Noblewoman (Lady of the Manor) –active role running estate<br />
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  12. 12. The Manor<br />The Lord’s estate <br />The heart of the Medieval economy<br />Based on agricultural production (self sufficient)<br />Includes the castle, church, town(s), farms, gazing land, and river(s)<br />Manoralism – links Lord and serfs together by mutual obligations<br />
  13. 13. The Manor System<br />Based on agricultural production<br />Self sufficient - Subsistent<br />Use of barter system <br />Serfs – peasants tied to the land responsible for agricultural production/laborers<br />Pay fees for certain rights<br />Able to produce for self (very little)<br />Lord provides shelter and protection<br />Harsh life no luxuries<br />Church provides salvation<br /> festivals only time of rest/enjoyment<br />Inefficient – wooden plow, ox yoke, 2-field system<br />
  14. 14. The Medieval Church<br />Village Church – Parish Priest<br />Both a religious and social center<br />Sacraments leads to salvation<br />Tithe tax (10 %)<br />Monastic Life <br />nuns and monks withdraw from worldly life<br />Benedictine Rule (530) – regulates life (harsh)<br />Francis of Assisi and Dominic (friars) – preach to the poor<br />Monasteries/convents – centers of learning and social services<br />Unifying force in Europe Papal Supremacy<br />Patriarchal<br />Cannon laws<br />Excommunication/interdict<br />Corruption, abuses, anti-Semitism<br />Cluny Reforms-revive Benedictine Rule, nobles forbidden to interfere with monastery affairs, accept only those perusing religious propose<br />
  15. 15. Expansion and Change leads to Economic RevivalA.D. 1000<br />Agricultural Production increase in population<br />New technology – drain land, iron plow, harness, 3-field system<br />Change in Climate<br />Trade – diffusion within Europe and with the East<br />Decrease in violence – safe to travel<br />Desire/need for more goods raw materials/luxury goods<br />Fairs  trade route (rivers) – provide goods/entertainment<br />
  16. 16. Expansion and Change leads to Economic RevivalA.D. 1000<br />Commerce <br />Money system (capital) – bill of exchange, insurance, usury<br />Growth of middle class – partnerships, guilds<br />Growth of Towns – sites of trade fairs <br />Trade centers merchants/artisans settle into one area<br />Charters right and privileges granted by King<br />
  17. 17. The High Middle Ages1050 – 1300’s<br />The Rise of Nation-States in Europe<br />Monarchies begin to consolidate and strengthen power<br />The economy, education, and art begin to flourish<br />Cause<br />Expansion of royal domain<br />Justice system<br />Loyal/efficient bureaucracy<br />Royal taxes<br />Royal army<br />Ties with the middle class<br />Ties with the church<br />
  18. 18. The Growth of Royal Power in Western Europe:strong central governments with organized bureaucracy<br />England - united by a limited (Parliamentary) Monarchy<br />King Edward – king of England (Anglo-Saxon)<br />William, Duke of Normandy<br />Battle of Hasting (1066)<br />Feudalism<br />Domesday book<br />Royal Exchanguer<br />Henry II – energetic/edu.<br />Common Laws/Traveling Justice<br />Jury System<br />Conflict with Church<br />King John – corrupt/poor leader<br />Losses to France<br />Interdict Fief of Papacy<br />Magna Carta (1215)<br />Parliament<br />France – united by an Absolute Monarchy<br />Hugh Capet <br />Founder of 300 yr. dynasty<br />Consolidates power and forms ties with church<br />Philip II (“Augustus”)<br />Middle class bureaucracy (charters)<br />Royal army/Royal Tax<br />Gains land from England (1223)<br />Louis IX – devoted & religious<br />Crusades<br />Royal inspectors<br />Outlaws private wars & serfdom<br />Philip IV – ruthless<br />Clash with the church (successful)<br />Avignon Papal Court<br />Estate General (1302) – representatives from the 3 classes (no real Power)<br />
  19. 19. High Middle Ages<br />England<br />France<br />
  20. 20. The Holy Roman Empire and the Church:Remains Fragmented<br />Duke Otto of Saxony – King Of Germany<br />Close ties with Rome Crowned Holy Roman Emperor (962)<br />Later rulers lose power to nobles (Feudalism)<br />Conflicts with church over Cluny Reforms <br /> Pope Gregory VII - Ends practice of secular leaders appointing Bishops (lay investitures)<br />Henry IV – nobles side with church and Henry excommunicated (1076)<br />(1122) Concord of Worms<br />Fredrick Barbarossa – desire to expand empire (Frankish)<br />Defeated by Lombards and Papal forces in Northern Italy<br />Fredrick II – attempts to expand (unsuccessful)<br />
  21. 21. The World in 1050<br />W. Europe – end of Isolation, little technology or education beginning of diffusion (High Middle Ages)<br />Byzantine Empire – united and prosperous trade center<br />Islamic Civilization – intellectual and scientific advancements united by religion<br />India – thriving urbanization united by religion<br />China – strong central government(dynastic rule) with great technological advancements<br />Africa – kingdoms and trading empires (diffusion)<br />Americas (Mayans) – engineering and architectural advances<br />
  22. 22. The End of the Middle Ages<br />The High Middle Ages can be described as a period of transition between what is known as the “Dark Ages” (Early Middle Ages) and The Renaissance. Four events played a role in ending the Middle Ages. They are:<br />The Crusades<br />The Black Death<br />Papal /Church Corruption<br />The Hundred Years War<br />Evaluate the events and explain how each changed Europe forever ending the time known as Medieval Europe.<br />
  23. 23. The Crusades – Holy WarEuropean Christians attempt to retake Holy Land <br />Pope Urban – “God wills it” (1095) Council of Clermont<br />Expand Rome’s power<br />Reasons for participation <br />Religious zeal<br />Wealth and land<br />Escape/opportunity<br />Adventure<br />
  24. 24. The Crusades<br /> 1st Crusade (1096)<br />dominated by French Nobles<br />Recapture Jerusalem and set up Crusader States<br /> 2nd Crusade (1147)<br />reestablish lands lost to Muslims<br />Unsuccessful<br />3rd Crusade (1187)<br />King’s Crusade<br />Saladin takes Jerusalem<br />4th Crusade (1202)<br />No religious goal<br />Lay siege and loot Constantinople<br />
  25. 25. Effects of the Crusades on Europe<br />Religious Schism between East and West<br />Rise in Anti-Semitism and Inquisition<br />Decline in Feudalism<br />Rise in Monarchy and Papal power<br />The Reconquista in Spain<br />Muslim Rule (A.D. 700’s) – Religious tolerance<br />Ferdinand & Isabella unite Spain as a Christian Kingdom (1492)<br />Diffusion with East - Venetian Merchants<br /> technology/education<br />Increase in luxury goods <br />Increase in long distance trade<br />Exploration<br />
  26. 26. Trade Routes<br />
  27. 27. Learning, Literature, & the Arts during the High Middle Ages<br />1100’s – dynamic changes take place<br />Political Stability<br />Economic Prosperity (Trade routes/towns)<br />Agricultural Revolution<br />A need for better Education<br />Universities<br />Academic Guilds<br />Rediscover Greco-Roman Culture<br />Scholasticism<br />Sciences<br />Literature – Latin language of the Scholars<br />Vernacular<br />Arts and Architecture<br />Romanesque vs. Gothic<br />Flying buttresses, sculptures, and stain glass windows<br />Illuminated Manuscripts<br />
  28. 28. The End of the Middle AgesA Time of Crisis<br />The Black Death – bubonic plague (1348)<br />Arrives from the east carried by fleas on rats travelling on merchant ships<br />Epidemic – 1/3 of the European population dies<br />Social upheaval – no explanation, no cure<br />Turn to witchcraft, pleasures, or the church<br />Viewed as a punishment from God<br />Normal life breaks down<br />Economic Effects – loss of workers decrease in production<br />Survivors demand higher pay  inflation <br />Restrictions on land, guilds  revolts<br />The Church – division of the church<br />Loss of leadership (plague) no answers <br />Pope Clement V – moves papal court to Avignon (Fra.) ”Babylonian Captivity”<br />1378  Pope elected in Rome (two popes)<br />Challenges to canon law<br />John Wycliffe Bible is source of Christian Truth<br />Jan Has – calls for reforms<br />The Hundred Years’ War (1337-1453)<br />Series of conflicts b/t England and France<br />Political/economical rivals<br />National pride<br />England’s desire for land on the continent<br />Edward III – claims French Crown<br />War erupts<br />Early English victories – longbow<br />Joan of Arc – French victories<br />Rallies France-raises morale<br />Martyr<br />The Cannon<br />The Feudal System become obsolete<br />