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  1. 1. Europe’s East
  2. 3. Europe, Asia, Eurasia <ul><li>Eurasia: one continent or two? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Unity and divisions of the continent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Coastlands and the Heartland. The Heartland and the Rimland </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Land </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rivers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Seas </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Winds </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Temperature </li></ul></ul></ul>
  3. 4. <ul><li>Human settlement patterns </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Search and struggle for resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Potential for development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Degree of security </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul>
  4. 5. Civilizations <ul><li>Settlers and nomads </li></ul><ul><li>Human civilization starts in the Middle East </li></ul><ul><li>The human trek to the East </li></ul><ul><li>Europe starts in the Southeast </li></ul><ul><li>The Asian base of Europe </li></ul><ul><li>Origins of the modern bias against Asia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Middle Ages : Perception of Asia as a source of danger , Europe defends against Asian invasions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Modern Age : Perception of Asia as backward and weak, object of exploitation , Europe moves in to conquer Asia </li></ul></ul>
  5. 6. Eurasia: the earliest civilizations
  6. 7. EURASIA, 116 C.E.
  8. 9. EURASIA, 1288
  9. 13. Europe’s Eastern frontier <ul><li>The belt between the Baltic and the Adriatic </li></ul><ul><li>East European state-forming nations: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Greeks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Germans </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Slavs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Eastern : Russians, Ukrainians, Belarusians </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Western : Poles, Czechs, Slovaks </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Southern : Serbs, Croatians, Slovenians, Macedonians, Montenegrins, Bosniaks, Bulgarians </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hungarians (Magyars) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Finns </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Balts (Lithuanians, Estonians, Latvians) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Romanians (19 th -century name) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Albanians </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Turks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tatars </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ALL, WITH THE EXCEPTION OF FINNS, GREEKS AND TURKS , LIVED UNDER COMMUNIST REGIMES IN THE 20 TH CENTURY </li></ul></ul>
  10. 16. Evolution of the European state system
  11. 17. EUROPE 0001
  12. 18. EUROPE 1000
  13. 19. EUROPE 1600
  14. 20. <ul><li>NATION-STATES VS. EMPIRES </li></ul><ul><li>A 3-way conflict of civilizations for control of Eastern Europe. Objects of the struggle: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trade routes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Security </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>THE RISE OF EMPIRES </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Western Christian ( German ) – “successors” to the Western Roman Empire, “Holy Roman Empire”, later the Habsburg Empire (Austria-Hungary) and the Hohenzollern Empire ( Germany ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Orthodox Christian ( Russian ) – “successor” to Eastern Roman Empire (The Romanov Empire) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Muslim ( Turkish ) – “successor” to the Arab Caliphate (The Ottoman Empire) </li></ul></ul>
  15. 21. EUROPE 1900
  16. 22. EUROPE 1914
  17. 23. How the East fell behind the West <ul><li>Western Europe begins modernization (16 th –17th centuries) </li></ul><ul><li>Eastern Europe as the West’s defence barrier </li></ul><ul><li>Eastern Europe as the West’s agricultural base </li></ul><ul><li>The West: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Industrializing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Global trade </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Capitalism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nation-state </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The East: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Farming (with pockets of industry) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Regional trade </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Feudalism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Empire </li></ul></ul>
  18. 24. <ul><li>MODERNIZATION CHALLENGES </li></ul><ul><li>TO EASTERN EUROPE </li></ul><ul><li>Political Independence: building modern nation-states </li></ul><ul><li>Industrialization </li></ul><ul><li>The agrarian question: turning peasants into farmers, developing modern agriculture </li></ul><ul><li>Social development </li></ul><ul><li>Building civil societies </li></ul><ul><li>POLITICAL OPTIONS </li></ul><ul><li>Western liberalism </li></ul><ul><li>Socialism of various types </li></ul><ul><li>Conservative nationalism or fascism </li></ul>
  19. 25. Marx and Engels in London, 1867
  20. 26. The role of Russia <ul><li>In the Modern Age, Russia expands to take most of the Heartland </li></ul><ul><li>Fills much of the space first integrated by the Mongols </li></ul><ul><li>Expansion driven by: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Struggle for independence and security </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Access to resources and trade routes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Human settlement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Political interests of imperial elites </li></ul></ul>
  21. 28. Coat-of-arms of the Russian Empire
  22. 29. Moscow Kremlin Moscow Kremlin
  23. 30. The Winter Palace of Russian Emperors, St. Petersburg
  24. 31. <ul><li>THE RUSSIAN SYSTEM </li></ul><ul><li>The state is huge, costly, militarized </li></ul><ul><li>Society (especially the peasantry) is exploited heavily by the state </li></ul><ul><li>The state is a highly centralized autocratic hierarchy, with bureaucracy controlling the economy </li></ul><ul><li>Society has very little autonomy from the state </li></ul><ul><li>Individual rights and liberties are circumscribed </li></ul><ul><li>Market economy has very limited potential for development </li></ul><ul><li>When reforms become necessary, the state acts as the main agent of reforms </li></ul><ul><li>Society influences the state mostly by resistance to it (passive or active) </li></ul>
  25. 32. <ul><li>By the end of the 19 th century, the flaws of the Russian system become manifest </li></ul><ul><li>The gap between Europe and Russia widens fast, the Russian system is too inefficient, too rigid, resistant to reform </li></ul><ul><li>The 1904-05 war with Japan and then World War I exhaust the Russian state </li></ul><ul><li>1917: the entire state collapses, leaving society to its own devices. REVOLUTION </li></ul>
  26. 33. Empires Fall <ul><li>As a result of World War I, the four empires which had dominated Eastern Europe – </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Russian, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Turkish, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Austro-Hungarian, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>German – </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>COLLAPSED </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>THE FUTURE OF EASTERN EUROPE WAS </li></ul></ul>
  27. 35. Russia Raises the Red Flag <ul><li>1917: Communists (Bolsheviks) took power in Russia </li></ul><ul><li>They proclaimed the start of a world revolution against capitalism </li></ul><ul><li>From being behind the West, Russia seemed to jump ahead of it – to the next, postcapitalist stage of world history </li></ul><ul><li>Western Marxism, a product of developed capitalism, was transplanted into a country which had just entered the capitalist stage </li></ul><ul><li>Russia’s challenge: to prove that modernization was possible without capitalism </li></ul><ul><li>Russia’s new role was a sign of the profound crisis of Western civilization </li></ul>
  28. 36. Whites and their supporters fleeing abroad after defeat in the Civil War
  29. 37. The Totalitarian Deadlock <ul><li>To modernize Russia fast, the Communists resorted to the power of command </li></ul><ul><li>For that, the state had to reimpose itself upon society </li></ul><ul><li>The goals of keeping power and defending the state against foreign enemies became paramount </li></ul><ul><li>In the 1930s, Russia restored its imperial and autocratic traditions under Stalin’s dictatorship – and called it “ victory of socialism ” </li></ul><ul><li>The goal of social development was subjugated to the goal of security </li></ul><ul><li>The resulting model was deeply flawed, fit only for situations of extreme emergency (war) </li></ul>
  30. 38. Stalin as a young revolutionary (1902)
  31. 42. <ul><li>Global civil war and interstate conflict </li></ul><ul><li>Fierce Left-Right struggles in European countries since WWI, the lure and fear of revolution </li></ul><ul><li>Stalinism in Russia as a new stage in the Russian civil war: forced modernization to strengthen the state and make it fit for the next round of interstate wars </li></ul><ul><li>Fascism as a new stage in European Left-Right conflict: to defeat the Left internally and externally </li></ul><ul><li>Projection of the internal conflicts on interstate relations </li></ul><ul><li>Spain: a classic example </li></ul><ul><li>Appeasement: betrayal of Czechoslovakia </li></ul><ul><li>The fall of democracies across Europe was due to both internal (Left vs. Right) and external (German policies) factors </li></ul>
  32. 43. Empires Strike Back <ul><li>In the 1920s and 1930s, the rising forces in Eastern Europe are socialism and nationalism </li></ul><ul><li>Failure of old elites </li></ul><ul><li>The peasantry moves to take over land </li></ul><ul><li>Rise of working–class movements </li></ul><ul><li>Nationalist mobilization </li></ul><ul><li>The Great Depression </li></ul><ul><li>Defeat of liberal democracy </li></ul><ul><li>By 1939, Russia and Germany became 2 dominant empires in the region – but their organization was vastly different from that of their predecessors </li></ul>
  33. 44. Hitler and Mussolini in Munich, June 1940
  34. 45. German poster depicting Soviets: “The lower race”
  35. 46. Hitler’s Empire, 1942
  36. 47. German POWs in Russia
  37. 48. Buchenwald, 1945: Survivors of Hitler’s “Final Solution”
  38. 49. The Red Army takes Berlin, May 1945
  39. 50. <ul><li>In 1945, with the defeat of fascism, communism replaced it in Eastern Europe </li></ul><ul><li>Occupation by Soviet troops was a key factor – but the case of Yugoslavia showed that communist regimes could be established by internal forces </li></ul><ul><li>Attractiveness of socialism: rapid modernization on an egalitarian basis </li></ul><ul><li>The Right was discredited </li></ul><ul><li>Eastern European communism became a specific avenue of development (both social and national ) </li></ul>
  40. 51. Establishment of Communist regimes in Eastern Europe
  41. 52. <ul><li>3 dimensions of the problem of communism in Eastern Europe after World War II </li></ul><ul><li>1. The need for fundamental societal changes </li></ul><ul><li>2. Existence of political forces prepared to lead the postwar transformation </li></ul><ul><li>3. Role of the USSR </li></ul>
  42. 53. <ul><li>Eastern Europe in 1945 </li></ul><ul><li>2 groups of countries: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Germany and her former allies: </li></ul><ul><li>Romania </li></ul><ul><li>Hungary </li></ul><ul><li>Bulgaria </li></ul><ul><li>Finland </li></ul><ul><li>2. Victims of aggression: </li></ul><ul><li>Poland </li></ul><ul><li>Czechoslovakia </li></ul><ul><li>Austria (?) </li></ul><ul><li>Yugoslavia </li></ul><ul><li>Albania </li></ul>
  43. 55. <ul><li>Shattered states and societies </li></ul><ul><li>Discredited elites </li></ul><ul><li>Economies destroyed </li></ul><ul><li>Legacies of ethnic warfare </li></ul><ul><li>Masses in turmoil </li></ul><ul><li>Intensive political struggles in each country </li></ul><ul><li>In Western Europe, too: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Capitalism shattered </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Socialism popular </li></ul></ul>
  44. 56. <ul><li>The Right is either eliminated or severely weakened </li></ul><ul><li>The situation favours the Left </li></ul><ul><li>But what was East European Left in 1945? </li></ul><ul><li>3 types of left-wing forces: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Agrarian socialists </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social Democrats </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Communists </li></ul></ul>
  45. 57. <ul><li>Throughout East Europe, left-wing parties were banned since 1920s or 1930s </li></ul><ul><li>Only in Czechoslovakia the Left, including CP, was fully legal until the German occupation - and was dominant in politics </li></ul><ul><li>Now the Left is free to act and take advantage of the postwar crisis </li></ul><ul><li>Its issues are popular: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Punishment of collaborators </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Building democracies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Socialist reforms </li></ul></ul>
  46. 58. <ul><li>Even without the Soviet factor , Eastern European politics would have shifted drastically leftward </li></ul><ul><li>The Soviet factor was a double-edged sword </li></ul>
  47. 59. <ul><li>Stalin’s support of East European Leftists </li></ul><ul><li>The only Left Moscow was prepared to tolerate had to follow Stalin’s orders </li></ul><ul><li>And the orders were not necessarily: take power now! </li></ul><ul><li>And one did not have to be a Communist </li></ul><ul><li>No independent Left had a right to exist , from the Kremlin’s point of view </li></ul><ul><li>Logic of totalitarianism </li></ul><ul><li>This puts East European communists in a situation radically different from the Russian situation in 1917 </li></ul><ul><li>Fundamental contradiction between the Left project and Stalinism </li></ul>
  48. 60. <ul><li>East European Communists welcomed Soviet aid, but did they want to be Soviet puppets? </li></ul><ul><li>Some did, others not </li></ul><ul><li>Those who did not, tried to find other options </li></ul><ul><li>And the West was more or less willing to treat them as legitimate forces in the region </li></ul><ul><li>But Stalin would not tolerate the slightest dissent from the Kremlin line </li></ul><ul><li>He was the Red Emperor </li></ul><ul><li>And dissenters were severely punished </li></ul><ul><li>Degree of Soviet control was determined by Soviet strategic considerations </li></ul><ul><li>Any leeway was possible only if Soviet interests demanded it </li></ul>
  49. 61. <ul><li>The logic of Red imperialism </li></ul><ul><li>Geopolitics and security above all </li></ul><ul><li>In 1945-47, Stalin considered it pragmatic to allow a degree of freedom to East European countries </li></ul><ul><li>“ People’s Democracies” </li></ul><ul><li>In 1948-49, he decided to go for full control and isolation from the West </li></ul><ul><li>East European Communists were to serve as the tools for the Soviet takeover </li></ul><ul><li>The issue of national independence </li></ul><ul><li>It required a massive purge of East European Communist Parties </li></ul><ul><li>Installation of Soviet-type totalitarian regimes </li></ul>
  50. 62. The Soviet Empire, 1949
  51. 63. Communism’s Impact <ul><li>The Communist regimes carried out modernization policies </li></ul><ul><li>Eastern European societies became industrialized , educated , more egalitarian </li></ul><ul><li>Resistance to Soviet control fostered nationalist movements </li></ul><ul><li>Struggle for democracy and human rights </li></ul><ul><li>As societies developed, their ability to challenge the states grew </li></ul><ul><li>As the Soviet model stagnated and the West regained its strength, capitalism began to look more and more attractive </li></ul><ul><li>By late 1980s, East European communist reforms became plans for Westernization </li></ul><ul><li>Under Gorbachev, Russia recognized that it could no longer offer an alternative to the West </li></ul><ul><li>In the 1990s, the East became the West’s periphery again </li></ul>