Divorce, regional family norms and childcare by grandparents in Europe<br />Maaike Jappens & Jan Van Bavel<br />Interface ...
Family cultures in Europe<br />Great diversity of norms & attitudes about family life<br />in Europe<br />Northern Europe ...
‘Traditional family norms’<br />ESS2:<br /><ul><li>A woman should be prepared to cut down on her paid work for the sake of...
When jobs are scarce, men should have more right to a job than women.
When there are children in the home, parents should stay together even if they don’t get along.</li></ul>Principal compone...
Mean component scores for ‘traditional family norms’<br />
Grandparents and childcare<br /><ul><li>Grandparents are important childcare providers everywhere in Europe
Divorce: weakening of family ties? Less exchange of support?</li></ul>	To what extent do mothers rely on children’s grandp...
Number of children <13 in HH
Employment: in paid work
Level of education
Parents alive
Marital history
In first marriage
Never married, cohabiting with partner         
Never married, single        
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Divorce, regional family cultures, and childcare by grandparents ...

  1. 1. Divorce, regional family norms and childcare by grandparents in Europe<br />Maaike Jappens & Jan Van Bavel<br />Interface Demography<br />
  2. 2. Family cultures in Europe<br />Great diversity of norms & attitudes about family life<br />in Europe<br />Northern Europe <br />weak family ties, individualistic, liberal<br />Southern Europe<br />strong family ties, familialistic, traditional<br />But: heterogeneity between countries & within countries<br />
  3. 3. ‘Traditional family norms’<br />ESS2:<br /><ul><li>A woman should be prepared to cut down on her paid work for the sake of her family.
  4. 4. When jobs are scarce, men should have more right to a job than women.
  5. 5. When there are children in the home, parents should stay together even if they don’t get along.</li></ul>Principal components analysis<br />Scores of respondents aged 55 or older averaged per NUTS 1<br />region<br />(Regional classification harmonized with Eurostat’s NUTS system)<br />
  6. 6. Mean component scores for ‘traditional family norms’<br />
  7. 7. Grandparents and childcare<br /><ul><li>Grandparents are important childcare providers everywhere in Europe
  8. 8. Divorce: weakening of family ties? Less exchange of support?</li></ul> To what extent do mothers rely on children’s grandparents as their main source of childcare?<br /> &<br /> Is this influenced by the mother’s marital history and by the normative climate of the region they live in?<br /><ul><li>‘Mothers’: ESS2, aged 20-54, child(ren) <13 in household</li></li></ul><li>Multilevel logistic regression model <br />Y= grandparents are main source of childcare for youngest child<br />Baseline model:<br />Random effects of NUTS 1 region & country<br />Individual covariates:<br /><ul><li>Age
  9. 9. Number of children <13 in HH
  10. 10. Employment: in paid work
  11. 11. Level of education
  12. 12. Parents alive
  13. 13. Marital history
  14. 14. In first marriage
  15. 15. Never married, cohabiting with partner         
  16. 16. Never married, single        
  17. 17. Divorced, cohabiting with partner    
  18. 18. Divorced, single        
  19. 19. Widowed </li></li></ul><li>Results of baseline model<br /><ul><li>Age,
  20. 20. Number of children in HH,
  21. 21. Being in paid work,
  22. 22. High level of education,
  23. 23. Own mother not alive anymore:</li></ul> negatively correlated with grandparents as main source of childcare <br /><ul><li>Never been married, living with a partner
  24. 24. Being divorced or separated and single </li></ul> negatively correlated with grandparents as main source of childcare<br />
  25. 25. Random effects of multilevel logistic regression (baseline model, logit scale)<br />
  26. 26. Multilevel logistic regression model <br />Y= grandparents are main source of childcare for youngest child<br />Additional individual covariates<br /><ul><li>Parents (in law) in the household
  27. 27. Traditional family norms</li></ul>Covariate on the regional level<br /><ul><li>Traditional family norms (people>54)</li></ul>Covariates on the country level<br /><ul><li>Gross domestic product
  28. 28. Childcare coverage rate 0-2 years</li></ul>Interaction marital history*traditional family norms region<br />
  29. 29. Mothers using grandparents as main type of childcare & childcare coverage rate in country<br />
  30. 30. Mothers using grandparents as main type of childcare & traditional family norms in region<br />
  31. 31. Traditional family norms & mothers ever divorced in region<br />
  32. 32. Results: effect of macro-level variables<br /><ul><li>Co-residence between mother and parents(in law) is positively correlated with childcare by grandparents
  33. 33. Formal childcare coverage rates are negatively correlated with childcare by grandparents
  34. 34. Traditional family norms
  35. 35. On the regional level: are positively related to childcare by grandparents
  36. 36. Not a significant effect on the individual level
  37. 37. Interaction family norms in region * marital history of mothers: in more traditional regions, being divorced is slightly positively related to childcare by grandparents (but not significant)
  38. 38. No effect of GDP</li></li></ul><li>Conclusions<br />The probability that European mothers rely on<br />grandparents as their main source of childcare<br />is influenced by:<br /><ul><li>Various individual covariates</li></ul>i.a. marital history (smaller for divorced single mothers)<br /><ul><li>The childcare coverage rate of their country, but also by
  39. 39. The normative climate of the region they live in</li></ul>Living in a more traditional normative climate does not<br />significantly affect the probability for divorced mothers<br />to mainly rely on grandparents for childcare<br />
  40. 40. maaike.jappens@vub.ac.be<br />
  41. 41. Effects of covariates in multilevel model<br />

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