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Absolutism and Revolution


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Absolutism and Revolution

  1. 1. Absolutism and Revolution<br />UNIT 2<br />
  2. 2. Absolute Monarchs in EuropeChapter 5<br />
  3. 3. Section 1<br />Spain's Empire and European Absolutism<br />
  4. 4. Spain’s Empire and European Absolutism<br />1500’s Spain first modern European power<br />Unified country, religion<br />Huge New World Empire<br />Silver and gold from new world fueled Spanish economy<br />1519Charles V (Charles I) ruled Spain and Hapsburg Empire (HRE, Netherlands)<br />1556Charles gives empire to son- Philip II (Spain, New World colonies, Netherlands) and brother Ferdinand (Hapsburg Empire)<br />Philipp was very religious and very aggressive<br />Took control of Portugal and all of their territory in the East Indies, Africa and India<br />Spanish king now controlled an empire across the globe<br />
  5. 5. Spain’s Empire and European Absolutism<br />Empire provided Philipp with great wealth<br />Gold and silver from the Americas poured into Spain<br />It allowed Philipp to keep a huge army<br />Philipp was also deeply religious<br />Reformation was going on in Europe and Philipp was a devout Catholic<br />He believed it was his duty to defend the Catholic faith from Protestants and Muslims<br />Fought against Ottomans and Protestant armies across Europe, used wealth to pay for army and navy<br />Used Inquisition to enforce religious unity<br />
  6. 6. Spain’s Empire and European Absolutism<br />Golden Age of Spanish Art and Literature<br />Wealth allowed Spanish to support the arts<br />Two great painters El Greco and Velazquez<br />El Greco- paintings reflected Catholic faith of Spain, his paintings were very emotional<br />Velazquez- painting reflected the pride of the Spanish monarchy, he was the official painter of the royal family<br />Don Quixote called the first modern European novel<br />Written by Miguel de Cervantes<br />About a Spanish nobleman who went crazy after reading too many books<br />About a person stuck in the past and frustrated with the changing world<br />
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  8. 8. Spain’s Empire and European Absolutism<br />The Spanish Empire Weakens<br />Netherlands was Protestant and had a prosperous middle class involved in international trade<br />Netherlands controlled by Spain and Philipp taxed them and took steps to crush Protestantism<br />Dutch fought them for 11 years and in 1579 they declared independence from Spain<br />
  9. 9. Spain’s Empire and European Absolutism<br />Defeat of the Spanish Armada<br />1580’s main rival to Spain was England<br />England Protestant country<br />England supported Dutch against Spain, attacked Spanish treasure ships<br />Philip II builds huge navy to defeat English (Armada)<br />1588 Armada defeated by English<br />
  10. 10. Spain’s Empire and European Absolutism<br />1600’s Spanish power declines<br />Wars drained wealth<br /><ul><li>Philipp borrowed money to fight wars from Italian and German bankers, caused country to have a huge debt</li></ul>Treasure from Americas led to neglect of farming, commerce, caused inflation (too much gold and silver a problem, money not worth as much)<br />Expulsion of Muslims and Jews deprived economy of skilled artisans, merchants, scholars<br />Philips successors not as able<br />Spain’s rulers also taxed the lower classes, nobles did not have to pay taxes<br />
  11. 11. Spain’s Empire and European Absolutism<br />Independent Dutch Prosper<br />United Provinces of the Netherlands were different than other European states<br />Had an elected governor that depended on support of merchants and landholders for power<br />During 1600’s Dutch had best banks and artists<br />Rembrandt greatest artist of period<br />Jan Vermeer painted pictures of Dutch domestic life<br />
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  13. 13. Spain’s Empire and European Absolutism<br />Dutch Trading Empire<br />Stability of government allowed Dutch to focus on economic growth<br />Dutch had largest fleet of ships in the world and used the Dutch East India Company to control the spice trade in the East Indies and Asia<br />Replaced the Italians as bankers of Europe<br />
  14. 14. Spain’s Empire and European Absolutism<br />Absolutism in Europe<br />During the 1400’- 1700’s European rulers claimed they had the authority to rule without limits<br />Rulers called absolute monarchs, their goal was to control every aspect of society<br />Believed in divine right, God created monarchy and they were God’s representative on Earth<br />Rulers did not have to answer to their subjects<br />
  15. 15. Spain’s Empire and European Absolutism<br />Monarch gained power because of the growth of cities and the growth of the economy <br />Because of this there was a need for strong central authority<br />Middle class backed monarch because a strong government was good for business <br />Monarchs allowed businessmen to use the wealth of the colonies to grow the countries economy<br />1600’s century of change in Europe<br />Religious and territorial conflicts led to continuous warfare<br />Governments had to build huge armies and increase taxes to pay for wars<br />Monarchs had to increase power<br /><ul><li>They regulated religion, social gatherings
  16. 16. Created new governments to control the countries economic life</li></li></ul><li>The Reign of Louis XIV<br />Section 2<br />
  17. 17. The Reign of Louis XIV<br />Religious Wars and Power Struggles<br />1562-1598Huguenots and Catholics fought 8 religious wars, during this time chaos spread through France<br />Huguenots were French Protestants<br />1572St. Bartholomew’s Day Massacre sparked 6 week war between Catholics and Protestants<br />1589 Henry IV (a Protestant king) takes throne and gives up Protestantism and becomes Catholic to bring peace<br />1598 Henry issues the Edict of Nantes that allowed Huguenots to live in peace across France and set up their own churches<br />After a generation of war people welcomed peace and Henry began to restore French monarchy and prosperity<br />
  18. 18. The Reign of Louis XIV<br />After the death of Henry his son, Louis XIII took over<br />1624 he appointed Cardinal Richelieu as his minister<br />Richelieu was the real power in France<br />Took steps to increase the power of the Bourbon monarchy in France<br />Took power from Huguenots, dictated their living conditions <br />Took power from nobles, made them more dependent on the king for protection<br />Put middle class in more powerful government positions<br />Richelieu also became involved in wars with the most powerful European dynasty the Hapsburgs (the Thirty Years War)<br />
  19. 19. The Reign of Louis XIV<br />Writers turn toward Skepticism<br />New French intellectual movement grew at this time, they had witnessed the religious wars <br />Many turned to the idea of skepticism (nothing can be known for certain), and the began to doubt the teaching of the church<br />Montaigne- developed new for of literature, the essay, to express a writers thoughts and feelings<br />Believed that humans could never have an absolute knowledge of what is true<br />Descartes used observations to determine that we could never know what was true<br />Influenced modern thinkers by developing the scientific method<br />
  20. 20. The Reign of Louis XIV<br />Louis XIV Comes to Power<br />Louis became king at age 4 in 1642 and ruled for 72 years<br />Believed that he and France were one (“I am the state”)<br />When Louis was young the real power behind the throne was Cardinal Mazarin<br />The nobles hated him because he raised their taxes and made the central government stronger<br />1648- 1653 many riots broke out across France protesting Mazarin’s policies<br />Louis felt threatened and he never forgot about this, he decided to make the monarchy so strong that this would not happen again<br />Rebellions failed because peasants and townspeople grew tired of the fighting<br />Because they were tired of wars they accepted Louis oppressive laws<br />
  21. 21. The Reign of Louis XIV<br />When Mazarin died Louis took control of the government himself<br />Weakened power of the nobles by removing them from his government<br />Increased the power of government agents who collected taxes and administered justice (intendants), they were not part of the nobility<br />Louis made sure local officials kept in touch with him regularly<br />
  22. 22. The Reign of Louis XIV<br />Louis surrounded himself with luxury at his palace Versailles<br />Palace became a symbol of wealth, seat of government, home for nobles<br />Made nobles dependent on Louis <br />Kept intendants in power in other parts of the country<br />By keeping nobles at Versailles it kept them from fighting each other, they fought for favor of Louis<br />Louis was a patron of the arts and he made ballet and opera more popular<br />The purpose of art was to glorify the king and promote his absolute rule<br />
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  24. 24. The Reign of Louis XIV<br />Economic Growth<br />Louis used finance minister Jean Baptiste Colbert to help France attain economic and political power<br />Colbert wanted France to become self sufficient and used mercantilist policies to meet his goals<br /><ul><li>Expanded manufacturing
  25. 25. Placed a high tariff on goods from other countries
  26. 26. Recognized importance of colonies to help economy</li></ul>After Colbert’s death in 1685 economic progress slowed<br />Louis also canceled Edict of Nantes <br />Many Huguenot businessmen and artisans left France and it took many skilled workers out of the economy<br />