Getting to know sago (palm and starch)

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Sago starch, properties and application. Presented at the 9th International Hydrocolloids Conference, June 15-19, 2008, Singapore.

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Getting to know sago (palm and starch)

  1. 1. The Story of Sago (Metroxylon sagu): Unraveling the potentials A.  A.  Karim   Universi.  Sains  Malaysia   Penang,  Malaysia   9th International Hydrocolloids Conference, June 15-19, 2008, Singapore
  2. 2. Classification of commercial starch Tubers/roots– potato, sweet potato, cassava Cereals– corn, wheat, rice, oats, barley, sorghum
  3. 3. Classification of commercial starch Sago  starch  is  the  only  example  of   commercial  starch  derived  from  the   stem  of  palm  
  4. 4. Comparison of starch yield Crop   Yield     (tons/ha)    per  year   Sago   24   Rice   6.6   Corn   5.5   Wheat   5   Potato   2.5   The  produc.vity  of  sago  per  land  area  is  the  highest   among  the  starch  crops,  i.e.  3-­‐4  .mes  >  rice  and  ~17   .mes  higher  than  cassava  –  tremendous  poten.al  for   commercial  produc.on  
  5. 5. }  Sago  is  one  of  the   unexploited  crops     (commercially),  less   understood  and  appreciated  
  6. 6. }  Exploited  as  a  staple  food   for  people  in  certain  parts   of  Asia  and  the  Pacific   Region.
  7. 7. }  Long  matura.on  period   }  low  produc.on  volume,  due   to  lack  of  modern  farming   and  harves.ng  methods     }  low-­‐quality  starch  produced   (inefficient  extrac.on  and   processing  methods  )   }  lack  of  a  comprehensive   strategy  to  promote  the  sago   palm   Challenges  
  8. 8. Let’s  take  a  walk  through  the  sago  palm  forest    
  9. 9. Sago  palm  in  the  wild   Photo  credit:  M.  Okazaki,  A.B.  Loreto,  M.T.P.  Loreto,  M.A.  Quevedo  (le]);  Dulce  Flores  (right)     }  Sago  palm  is  found  growing  wild  in  the   marshlands  where  other  crops  cannot   thrive.   }  Sago  palm  thrives  in  wetland,  swampy   area,  and  other  areas  where  water  is   abundant.  
  10. 10. Sago  palm  –  the  robust  crop   Photo  credit:  M.  Okazaki,  A.B.  Loreto,  M.T.P.  Loreto,  M.A.  Quevedo  (le]);  Dulce  Flores  (right)     }  Sago  palm  is  tolerant  of  low  pH,  high   levels  of  Al,  Fe,  and  Mn  in  the  soil,  soil   salinity,  as  well  as  heavy  impervious  clays     }  Hence,  it  has  a  strong  advantage  for   cul.va.on  in  underu.lized  wet  and  peat   swamp  rain  forests  for  increasing   agricultural  produc.on  
  11. 11. Geographical  distribu.on  of  sago  palms   Most  of  the  2.6  million  ha  of  sago  palm   in  the  world  is  found  in  tropical  Asia,   mainly  in  PNG  (41%  of  the  global  total)   and  Indonesia  (47%  of  the  global  total)   ~  2.6  million  ha  of  natural  sago   forests  out  of  20  million  ha  of  total   swamp  area  in  Asia  and  the  Pacific   Region  -­‐  untapped/largely   unexploited   PNG  considered  the   centre  of  sago  palm   diversity   In  Malaysia,  sago  palms  are  largely     found  in  the  State  of  Sarawak     (East  Malaysia)  
  12. 12. Aerial  view  of  the  vast  sago  palm  in  the  Sepik  area  of  Papua  New  Guinea   Photo  credit:  Prof.  Toyoda,  Tokyo  University   Papua  has  been  considered  as  one  of   the  centers  of  sago  diversity,  due  to   the  vast  natural  stands  and  the  high   gene.c  varia.on  of  sago  palm  trees   that  have  been  found  in  these  areas   Unfortunately,  there  is  no  significant   development  in  establishing   industries  based  on  sago.  In  contrast,   the  sago  industry  in  Malaysia  (in  the   State  of  Sarawak)  is  well  established   and  has  become  one  of  the  important   industries  contribu.ng  to  export   revenue.  
  13. 13. }  Covers  an  area  of  1.5  million  ha  (i.e.,   12%  of  Sarawak’s  total  land  area)   }  In  2005,  export  of  about  45.3  thousand   tonnes  of  food  grade  sago  starch   earned  about  RM40.4  million   Photo  credit:  Abdullah  Chek  Sahamat,  CRAUN  Research  Sdn.  Bhd.  
  14. 14. SARAWAK: SAGO EXPORT VOLUME (1960-2004) - 5,000.00 10,000.00 15,000.00 20,000.00 25,000.00 30,000.00 35,000.00 40,000.00 45,000.00 50,000.00 55,000.00 60,000.00 65,000.00 1960 1962 1964 1966 1968 1970 1972 1974 1976 1978 1980 1982 1984 1986 1988 1990 1992 1994 1996 1998 2000 2002 2004 YEAR METRICTONNE SAGO  INDUSTRY  DEVELOPMENT   (Export  Volume)   Abdullah  Chek  Sahamat,  CRAUN  Research  Sdn.  Bhd.  
  15. 15. Sago  planta.on  development  by  LCDA,  Sarawak   Photo  credit:  Abdullah  Chek  Sahamat,  CRAUN  Research  Sdn.  Bhd.   Malaysia  has  been  pioneering  in  the  establishment  of  sago  palm   planta.on.  This  is  the  first  sago  plantaJon  in  the  world  (to   achieve  sustainable  produc.on)                                               Started  with  300  ha  in   1989,  then  increase  to   15,  740  ha  in  1994  
  16. 16. Sago  planta.on  development  by  LCDA,  Sarawak   Photo  credit:  Abdullah  Chek  Sahamat,  CRAUN  Research  Sdn.  Bhd.  
  17. 17. Sago  planta.on  in  Mukah,  Sarawak   Photo  credit:  Abdullah  Chek  Sahamat,  CRAUN  Research  Sdn.  Bhd.   SAGO  INDUSTRY  DEVELOPMENT   (Opportunities:  Plantation  Dev  &  Mgmt  Tech)  
  18. 18. Sago  planta.on  in  Mukah,  Sarawak   Photo  credit:  Abdullah  Chek  Sahamat,  CRAUN  Research  Sdn.  Bhd.   SAGO  INDUSTRY  DEVELOPMENT   (Opportunities:  Plantation  Dev  &  Mgmt  Tech)  
  19. 19. Classifica.on  of  sago  palm   Thorny  (spiny)         Non-­‐spiny        Photo  credit:  M.  Okazaki,  A.B.  Loreto,  M.T.P.  Loreto,  M.A.  Quevedo    
  20. 20. The  Sago  palm   Photo  credit:  M.  Okazaki,  A.B.  Loreto,  M.T.P.  Loreto,  M.A.  Quevedo     In  Sarawak,  Metroxylon  sagu  is  the   preferred  sago  palm  to  be  planted  by   the  local  farmers  as  the  thornless   nature  of  the  palm  makes  it  easier  to   manage.  
  21. 21. Sago  trunks  produces  an  erect   trunk  and  may  reach  7  to  15  m   in  length  and  akain  an  average   girth  of  120  cm  at  the  base  of   the  palm         Photo  credit:  M.  Okazaki,  A.B.  Loreto,  M.T.P.  Loreto,  M.A.  Quevedo    
  22. 22. • The  vegeta.ve  phase  lasts  7  –  15  years   • The  starch  is  found  in  the  pith  of  the  palm   • On  average,  each  palm  yields  150  –  175  kg  of  dry  starch;   a  yield  of  >  20  tons  of  sago  flour/hectar  is  possible  under   favourable  growing  condi.ons    
  23. 23. Growth stage Estimated age from planting (year) Palm description Plawei 10 Palms that have reached maximum vegetative growth Plawei Manit 11.5 Inflorescence emerging Bubul 12 Inflorescence developing Angau Muda 12.5 Flowering Angau Tua 14 Fruiting Different physiological growth stages of sago palm
  24. 24. Sago  palm  at  different  growth  stages   Angau Tua stage Plawei stage Angau Muda stage
  25. 25. Inflorescence emerging (Plawei Manit stage) Fruitless Inflorescence (from Angau Tua stage) Inflorescence developing (Bubul stage)
  26. 26. Sago  palm  (growth  stages)   Photo  credit:  Dulces  Flores  
  27. 27. Total starch content of sago pith from different growth stages Growth stage Height Starch content (%) Plawei Base Mid 24.9 20.1 Bubul Base Mid 33.4 35.2 Angau Muda Base Mid 41.3 41.4 Angau Tua Base Mid 39.4 31.3 Late Angau Tua Base Mid 31.6 21.8
  28. 28. Photo  credit:  Dulce  Flores   Cutting the palm tree
  29. 29. Photo  credit:  Dulce  Flores   Cutting the trunk into 60-100 cm sections
  30. 30. Photo  credit:  Dulce  Flores  
  31. 31. The small farmer brings his cut logs to the factory via the river.
  32. 32. The cut logs are transported to the factory via the river (left) The logs in transit to the starch factory (right) Photo  credit:  Dulce  Flores    
  33. 33. Photo  credit:  Prof.  Toyoda,  Tokyo  University     The  tradi.onal  method  of  extrac.on  of  sago  starch   The pith is rasped by means of a chopper or a small hoe made from bamboo
  34. 34. Photo  credit:  Prof.  Toyoda,  Tokyo  University     Water  is  added  to  the  rasped  mixture  of  fiber  and   pith  and  kneaded  by  hand  (or  trampled  by  foot)  
  35. 35. Photo  credit:  Prof.  Toyoda,  Tokyo  University     Collec.on  of  the   wet  starch  
  36. 36. Photo  credit:  Dulce  Flores     Some other traditional practices of sago extraction
  37. 37. Drying the thin strips/slices. Photo  credit:  Dulce  Flores  
  38. 38. Drying  stripped  pith   Photo  credit:  M.  Okazaki,  A.B.  Loreto,  M.T.P.  Loreto,  M.A.  Quevedo    
  39. 39. Storage  of  pith  chunks   Photo  credit:  M.  Okazaki,  A.B.  Loreto,  M.T.P.  Loreto,  M.A.  Quevedo    
  40. 40. Pulverizing of the dried strips by mortar and pestle
  41. 41. Use of grating machine
  42. 42. Rasping  of  debarked  sago  log  sec.ons   to  release  starch  granules  from   disintegrated  fibers   Modern  processing  of  sago  starch  
  43. 43. Sago  starch   Sago  palm  thrives  in  wetland,  swampy  area,  and  other  areas   where  water  is  abundant.       Photo  credit:  M.  Okazaki,  A.B.  Loreto,  M.T.P.  Loreto,  M.A.  Quevedo    
  44. 44. Sago granules under light microscope (x40) Iodine stained granules in sago fiber (x10) Iodine stained sago granules in sac (x40) Iodine stained granules in sago fiber (x40)
  45. 45. Sago  starch   Native  sago  starch  granules         Broad  granule  size   distribu.on  (10-­‐65  µm;   average  31  µm)     Compare:   Rice  (3-­‐10  µm)   Corn  (5-­‐20  µm)   Cassava  (5-­‐25  µm)   Potato  (15-­‐85  µm)  
  46. 46. Comparison  of  some  starch  proper.es   }  Amylose  content:  26  –  30%  (sago);  28%  (corn),  34%  mung   bean,  22%  potato,  18-­‐20%  cassava   }  X-­‐ray  pakern:  C-­‐type;  corn  (A-­‐type);  potato  (B-­‐type)   }  Pas.ng:  Similar  gela.niza.on  proper.es  to  that  of  potato   starch   }  Retrograda.on:  resembles  corn  and  mungbean   }  Swelling  power  &  solubility:  higher  than  corn,  close  to  sweet   potato  or  cassava  but  lower  than  potato   }  Whiteness:  L=79  (sago);  potato,  corn,  mungbean,  cassava   (90-­‐93)   }  Acid/enzyme  suscep.bility:  Sago  is  most  resistant  compared   to  other  starches  
  47. 47. Comparison  of  some  starch  proper.es   S.  Takahashi,  Sago’85  
  48. 48. Pasting Profile of Sago Starch from Different Growth Stages
  49. 49. Pasting Profile of Sago Starch
  50. 50. Particle size distribution pattern of sago starch at base and mid heights of different growth stages. 0.0 5.0 10.0 15.0 20.0 25.0 30.0 LATM ATM AMM BM PM LATB ATB AMB BB PB Particle size (µm)
  51. 51. Amylose content of sago starch from different growth stages Growth stage Height Starch content (%) Plawei Base Mid 24.4 22.9 Bubul Base Mid 23.6 22.7 Angau Muda Base Mid 24.7 24.2 Angau Tua Base Mid 26.6 25.4 Late Angau Tua Base Mid 27.1 26.0
  52. 52. Pasting Profile of Sago Starch from Different Growth Stages 0 30 60 90 120 40 60 80 100 120 0 3 6 9 12 15 Time, mins Viscosity,RVU Temperature,°C BL LAT AM PL AT Temperature profile 0 30 60 90 120 40 60 80 100 120 0 3 6 9 12 15 Time, mins Viscosity,RVU Temperature,°C BL LAT AM PL AT Temperature profile
  53. 53. Viscosity,RVU Temperature,°C PM BM AMM ATM LATM PB BB AMB ATB LATB 70 72 74 76 78 80 Base height Mid height Pasting tem Peak visc Breakdown Setback Growth stages Growth stages
  54. 54. Polymorphic form of sago starch
  55. 55. Uses  of  Sago  Starch  
  56. 56. Uses  of  Sago  Starch   Sago  pearls  
  57. 57. Uses  of  Sago  Starch  
  58. 58. •  Leaves  as  roofing  material       Useful  parts  of  sago  palm  
  59. 59. •  The  bark  as  housing   materials       Useful  parts  of  sago  palm  
  60. 60. Conclusion   }  In  view  of  the  significantly  high  yield  and  century-­‐long   economic  life  span  of  sago  palm,  sago  starch  should  be  in   a  very  strong  posi.on  to  compete  with  starch  produced   from  annual  crops     }  If  sufficient  sago  starch  of  suitable  quan.ty  were   produced,  it  should  be  able  to  penetrate  and  compete   favourably  in  the  current  world  starch  market.  
  61. 61. Acknowledgement   }  CRAUN  Research  Sdn.  Bhd.,  Sarawak,  Malaysia   }  Ministry  of  Science,  Technology  &  Innova.on   }  Japan  Sago  Society   }  Japan  Society  for  Promo.on  of  Science  (JSPS)   }  Professor  Toyoda,  University  of  Tokyo,  Japan   }  Dr  Dulce  Flores,  U.P.  Mindanao,  Philiphine   }  Dr  Okazaki  et  al.,  Tokyo  University  of  Agriculture  &   Technology,  Japan   }  Dr  T.  Noda,  NARCH,  Hokkaido,  Japan   }  Prof.  Takeda,  University  of  Kagoshima,  Japan
  62. 62. Thank  you  for  your  aken.on  

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