PRESENTATION ONTQM, 5S, KAIZEN, JIT, KANBAN, POKA YOKE DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING AMRUTVAHINI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING, SANGAMNER 2011-2012
TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT (TQM) ‘Total’ : Made up of whole ‘Quality’ : Degree of excellence ‘Management’ : Act of handling, controlling, directing, staffing an organisation. “Maximum user satisfaction at minimum cost” “TQM is both a philosophy and a set of guiding principles that represent the foundation of a continuously improving organisation.” Quality is determined by the combined efforts of various departments such as design, process planning, engineering, purchase, production and inspection. The golden rule of TQM “Do unto others as you would have do unto you”.
TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT (TQM) ELEMENTS OR PILLARS OF TQM1) Top 6) Continuous Management’s improvement commitment to 7) Measurement of quality performance2) Customer focus 8) Benchmarking of the 9) Teams organisation 10) Inventory3) Employee Management improvement and 11) Communication empowerment 12) Quality Costs
TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT (TQM) QUALITY Prior To TQM With TQM ELEMENTS1) Definition Product oriented Customer focused2) Priorities Second to service and cost First to service and cost3) Decisions Short term Long term4) Emphasis Detection Prevention5) Errors Operation System6) Responsibility Quality control Every one7) Problem Solving Managers Teams8) Procurement Price Life cycle cost, based on partnership9) Manager’s role Plan, assign, control and Delegate, coach, enforce facilitate and mentor
5-S“5 S is a technique that results in a well-organized workplace complete with visual controls and order.” Developer- „Iwao Kobayashi‟ Sort (SEIRI) : Clear unnecessary items from work area. Straighten/Set in order (SEITON) : Organize work area in an orderly manner. Shine (SEISO) : Clean work area. Standardize (SEIKESTU) : Maintain work area cleanliness. Sustain (SHITSUKE) : Maintain self-discipline in work area.
5-S There’s no second chance to make the first impression
5-S BENEFITS OF IMPLEMENTATION It reduced the idle time & fatigue to workers. Reduction of wastage of material Improvement in quality & Productivity Punctuality, commitment & discipline Improved effectiveness of employees Reduction in Non- Value-Added Activities Following cost gets decreased- Record keeping & administrative cost Deterioration cost Handling cost
KAIZEN „KAI „: Change ; „ZEN‟ : Better „Changes for better‟ or „ Continous Improvement‟ Masaaki Imai – developer of Kaizen “Kaizen is a Japanese word for the phylosophy, that defines management’s role in continously encouraging & implementing small improvement involving everyone.” Kaizen makes the process more efficient , effective and adaptable. Kaizen focuses on simplication of complex process by breaking them down into their sub-process and then improving them
KAIZEN Key Elements of Kaizen foundation of Kaizen Quality Team Work Effort Personal Involvement of Discipline all employees Improved Willingness to Morale Change Quality Circles Communication Suggestions For Improvement
KAIZENJOB FUNCTIONS AS PERCIEVED BY JAPANESE MANAGERS
KAIZEN KAIZEN IMPROVEMENT FOCUSES ON Value added & non-value Documentation of standard added work activities. operating procedures Muda: wastes 5-S frame work 1. Over Production Better Communication through 2. Delay visual displays- posters, bulletins. 3. Transportation Just In Time Principles 4. Inventory Poka – Yoke : to prevent or 5. Defective Parts detect errors 6. Wasted Motion Team Effort on Problem solving, 7. Processing conflict reduction & Principles of Material communication. Handling
KAIZENKAIZEN : SMALLSUGGESTIONS •Work Improvement •Environment Improvement •Process Improvement •Machine capability Improvement •Quality Improvement •Customer Service Improvement An example of a Kaizen type improvement would be the change in color of a welding booth from black to white to improve operators visibility
JUST IN TIME (JIT) “JIT is manufacturing philosophy that produces necessary units, with the required quality, in the necessary quantities, at the last safe moment.” Eliminates waste of time, labour and storage space. It’s a “pull” system of production: actual orders provide a signal when to manufacture. Non-value-adding activities are removed for the purposes of : Reducing Cost Improving Quality Improving Performance Improving Delivery Adding Flexibility Increase innovativeness
JUST IN TIME (JIT) Advantages of JIT Limitations of JIT Reduction in storage Little room for space mistakes Less working Production is very capital reliant on Less likelihood of suppliers stock perishing No spared finished Avoids the build up product to meet of unsold finished the expected product demand
KANBAN„KAN‟ : Card ; „BAN‟ : SignalJapanese term for "visual record”Coined by : Taiichi OhnoThe Kanban card is “A message that signals depletion ofproduct , parts or inventory that when received willtrigger replenishment of that product, part or inventory.”Bernstein identifies as “a highly efficient and effectivefactory production system”.No. of kanbans =
KANBAN scanning bar codes and transmitting electronic orders.POURS is an innovative Web-based solution that streamlines the process,training and support associated with inventory management.
POKA- YOKE „POKA‟ – „mistake‟ ; YOKERU – „Proofing‟ Developer: Shigeo Shingo (1960)- The industrial engineers at Toyota. “Techniques that help operators avoid mistakes in their work caused by choosing the wrong part, leaving out a part, installing a part backwards, etc” It provides instant feedback and prevention of quality problems It is a tool that is Mistake-proofing systems Does not rely on operators catching mistakes Inexpensive ‘Point of Origin inspection’ Quick feedback 100% of the time This tool can be applied to any process, be it in manufacturing or the service industry.
POKA- YOKE Steps in applying Poka- Causes Of Defects Yoke1. Poor procedures or standards. 1. Identify the operation or process2. Machines. - based on a Pareto Analysis.3. Non-conforming material. 2. Analyze the 5-whys and understand the ways a process4. Worn tooling. can fail.5. Human Mistakes. 3. Decide the right Poka-yoke approach, such as using a, Except for human mistakes these • Shut out Type: Preventing an conditions can be predicted and error being made, or an corrective action can be • AttentionType: Highlighting implemented to eliminate the that an error has been made. cause of defects.
POKA- YOKE ERROR TYPES i. Processing Error: Process operation missed or not performed per the SOP. ii. Setup Error: Using the wrong tooling or setting machine adjustments incorrectly.iii. Missing Part: Not all parts included in the assembly, welding, or other processes.iv. Improper part/item: Wrong part used in the process.v. Operations Error: Carrying out an operation incorrectly; having the incorrect version of the specification.vi. Measurement Error: Errors in machine adjustment, test measurement or dimensions of a part coming in from a supplier.
POKA- YOKE EXAMPLES OF POKA- YOKE3.5 inch diskettes Circuit breakers prevent The sink is fitted withcannot be inserted electrical overloads and light sensors. Theseunless diskette is the fires that result. When sensors ensure thatoriented correctly. the load becomes too the water is turned off great, the circuit is broken in the sink.