Care practices during infancy


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I prepared the presentation in my graduation while studying Child development and stages of life. The taking care of a baby aspect is crucial and most impressionable on a baby's life. Hence, here are some small tips that can come in handy while taking care of a new-born. Happy Parenting! :-)

PS - Few pictures used in slides are from google images. Indian babies are the ones in the family.

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Care practices during infancy

  1. 1. -Akanksha Sharma B.Sc. (hons.) H.Sc Section – C, III yr. Roll No. 4CARE PRACTICES DURING INFANCY
  2. 2. The Needs of InfantsChildren between the ages of0-3 require a tremendousamount of attention. Childrens brains arerapidly developing at this stage, and lack ofconnection, caring, and tenderness in veryyoung childrens lives can lead to profound andlong-term struggles later on. Given plenty oftime to explore, experiment, make mistakes andthen try again, while being championed andcheered on by relaxed, delighted, attentiveadults, children thrive.
  3. 3. CARE OF THE INFANT’S NEEDS Care of the new infant involves: Careful lifting of the babies Diapering Clothing Bathing and Feeding There are certain basic things about these aspects that have to be learned. In order to give the babies the best care.
  4. 4. LIFTING BABIES A small baby should be lifted by grasping both his feet or thighs with the right hand and slipping the left hand under his neck and head. He is then raised upon the left arm. By this method his entire spine is supported and no undue pressure is made upon his chest. Older infants may be lifted by grasping the body under the arms but should not be lifted by the wrists. A sudden pull at the wrist may cause injury to the elbow or shoulder joints.
  5. 5. DIAPERING A clean old absorbent cloth is good for making diapers. There are several ways of folding diapers. They can be used according to the age and need of the baby. For example, Triangular folding diapers ( Oblong shape – 91x45 cms ) Panel folding diapers (It has the advantage of providing the best padding effect with six thick layers in the area which becomes the wettest and is particularly used for small babies.) Kite fold method (It is used for bigger babies. It gives four thick layers of absorbing surface and allows more freedom for the baby‟s legs.)At night, extra padding may be placed in the diaperto absorb the urineSoiled diapers should be replaced immediately and washed.
  6. 6. INFANT’S CLOTHING• The baby‟s clothing and apparel should be of the right clothing styles that are safe, comfor- table, and seasonally appropriate for the baby.• In warm climate, all the clothing a baby needs is shirt and diaper.• In cold climates, sweaters can be added in the daytime and a long gown and socks to keep the feet warm at night.• Overclothing the baby during the day and night is a common mistake made by the most mothers.• Babies who are overclothed are apt to be restless and fretfull.• Old cotton garments next to the skin should be preferred.
  7. 7. BABY’S LAUNDRY• Soiled diapers should be changed immediately and placed in cold water, washed and dried in the sun. A wet diaper should never be kept without washing it. If the baby defecates, the diaper should be scrubbed with a toilet brush or rubbed on the washing stone. It should be rinsed many times and washed.• If the baby has just passed urine , the diaper should be washed in hot soapy water and rinsed thoroughly until the rinse water is clear, for soap is irritating to the baby‟s skin.• Bleaching agents should not be used to clean the diapers.• Also, harsh chemical detergents should be avoided.
  8. 8. ALL ABOUT BABY’S CRIES First you must understand what your baby is trying to tell you. Find out ways to transform a crying child into a happy cheerful one. Hunger cries are healthy lusty cries which can be signified If the baby is trying to put its finger in the mouth or makes sucking noises. The baby will always cry when it is wet. Cries after feedings may mean there is still some gas that escaped the bubbling, or his formula may not be right and may need adjusting.
  9. 9. REASONS:Crying could be due to many reasons,if the child feels: – Sleepy – Hungry – Irritated – Sick – Pain – Suffocated – Infection/fever – Hot or cold
  10. 10. BABYS SLEEPING• Babies tend to sleep all day.• A new born baby normally sleeps for the nine-tenths of the day.• At six months, it should sleep at least two-thirds of the day. There is nothing to worry about as each baby follows its own sleeping pattern.• The habit of regular sleep is established by waking the baby punctually for his daytime feedings and allowing him to sleep as long as possible at nights.• Pillows are quite unneccessary for the babies although they are not dangerous.
  11. 11. SLEEPING PATTERNS A baby can sleep well on his back or stomach. It will be good to alternate the positions with the head turned gently to one side or the other. Sleeping on his back may tend to flatten his head, although it will correct itself later. No baby should sleep in the same bed with another person, since adults and older children may roll over the baby in their sleep and hurt it. There is always a chance of infection. The baby should gradually be trained to go to sleep when put in his crib. Ten minutes of fussing is natural and normal. He the cries prolong than half an hour, baby should be checked if there is any discomfort to it or restlessness.
  12. 12. BABY’S BEDDING: SAFETY TIPS The reason to take care of the baby‟s bedding is because your baby‟s bedding may be causing him an allergy, and you may not have realized it, or it may be completely unsafe for him, and you may not be aware of it. For your baby, consider these small tips:• Do not use soft bedding for your newborn infant. This includes soft pillows, cushions, quilts, comforters and sheepskins. The baby may get suffocated.• Use only thin blankets for wrapping your infant in, and preferably, the kind that is used in hospitals as soon as your baby is born. Also make sure that the blanket does not have any loose strings or loops that could get caught in baby‟s fingernails and inadvertently fall over his face when he is asleep. A little caution will go a long way.• Make sure that the sheets that you use for baby‟s bedding are firmly tucked in, and cannot be pulled loose by wandering hands and legs.• Avoid using an electric blanket for baby‟s bedding; you never know.
  13. 13. GROOMING BABYOne should take care of the following about the infant: nail clipping hair care Skin care Baby acne Treatment of Diaper Rashes Tie a nappyIf the nails are long, cut them whilethe baby is asleep and not the bath time.With long nails, it may scratch itself anddevelop infections.
  14. 14. MASSAGING Massaging is an activity done in all Indian households for infants. It is considered that massage makes muscles and bones stronger and flexible, moreover, it helps to lower the body hair of the infant. Generally, massage is preferred before bathing a child and coconut, baby or olive oil are used for this purpose. A daily massage is a powerful tool that helps to maintain and strengthen affectionate bonds between the parents and the baby.
  15. 15. BATHING A daily bath is an honored tradition and pleasant for babies unless they are unwell. Tub baths have to be deferred until the umbilical cord falls off, which usually happens by the fifth or sixth day and before that sponge bath should be given. Put some talcum powder in the skin folds, this will prevent chafing in that area.
  16. 16. DON’TS WHILE BATHING Sick babies should not be given bath, unless ordered so by the doctor. Babies with skin troubles also should not be given bath. Too vigorous cleaning may irritate the baby‟s skin. It is neither necessary to go into the ears and nostrils with pick swabs nor to bathe the eyes or wash the mouth out, however, soap should always be carefully removed. With older infants in the crawling stage, an evening bath will help to wash off the day‟s dirt before bed time.
  17. 17. BABY NUTRITION Breast feeding should be preferred for the baby as Mother‟s first milk, COLOSTRUM, is fully of antibodies against various infections. If the child is fed with formula milk, hygiene should be kept in mind and the bottle and nipple should be sterilized before reuse.Types of FORMULA MILK used are: Evaporated or liquid-modified milk. Powdered milk Fresh water milk Fresh milk should be boiled for better safety and digestibility.
  18. 18. BOWEL AND BLADDER MOVEMENTS During the first two or three days of post-natal life, the baby‟s stools are small, soft and dark greenish-brown in color due to the meconium, the material which was present in the intestinal tract before the baby was born. Breast-fed infants have more regular bowel movements than bottle-fed infants. Any obvious change in the stools should be reported to the doctor as it may indicate some serious illness. When the baby is three or four months old, it is possible to regulate his bowels in such a way as to decrease the number of soiled diapers.
  19. 19. SAFETY OF THE INFANT Learn how to prevent, detect, and treat common health issues that occur in babies. Also learn how to prevent dangerous situations for the baby Track Babys Growth and Development When Can Baby Drink Water? Baby Safe Sleeping Positions Detecting Hearing Impairment Cradle Cap Treatment Remedy
  20. 20. IMMUNIZATION SCHEDULE Beneficiar Age Vaccine y As soon as the child is born, Infants Birth BCG and it is exposed to the OPV environment, a protection 6 weeks DPT and OPV is required to safeguard the 10 weeks DPT and child against diseases and OPV 14 weeks DPT and infections. OPV Immunization forms one of the most important and cost 9 months measles effective strategies for the prevention of childhoodDPT and 18 months sicknesses and disabilities and is thus a basic need for OPV booster all children. dose
  21. 21. KEEP YOUR BABYHAPPY AND ENTERTAINED As you are a part of your baby‟s optimum development, you must take part in activities that involve both of you, so that your baby will be kept entertained for a great many hours, and your bond with her will also grow in leaps and bounds. Here are some ideas for you: You can try reading to him, or telling him short stories, or simply talking to him and singing to him. Babies love the human voice, and can listen to it happily for hours. If you are reading, for instance, you can change your voice according to the characters in the story, and your baby will have a wonderful time listening to the different tones and voices that you make up for him. Make the time, everyday, to spend time alone with your baby. You can use this time to take him out for a stroll in your neighborhood park, and show him and name for him the different flowers, trees and butterflies that you will see in the great outdoors. Make it an enjoyable experience for both your baby and yourself.
  22. 22. YOUR NEW BORNAND SKIN RASHES• Skin rashes are very common for a newborn baby, and although some may require supervision and treatment by a doctor, most do disappear on their own.• Here is a list of some of the more common skin rashes in your newborn. Rest assured that most of them will disappear after your baby is a few weeks or months old.• Neonatal acne, or „pink pimples‟ as they are called, are brought on by the exposure to maternal hormones within the womb. These need no treatment whatsoever and will disappear on their own when your baby is a few weeks old.• Erythema toxicum is something that looks like mosquito bites. This is also a common newborn rash, and will disappear on its own after a few weeks.• Mongolian spots are a very common newborn baby skin rash, in dark skinned babies. These require no treatment, and will disappear on their own by the time the baby reaches school age.• Salmon patches are a simple nest of blood vessels. Also known as „stork‟s bite‟ when it occurs at the back of the baby‟s neck, or an „angel‟s kiss‟ when it occurs between the eyes, the cause may be maternal hormones. These too disappear after a period of time although it is true that some salmon patches never disappear.
  23. 23. SWADDLING “Swaddling” is also called as “tight wrapping” of your baby, it is an age-old technique used to make the baby feel safe and secure. Swaddling involves wrapping a baby securely from shoulders to feet with a small blanket. Swaddling makes infant care easy. There are more swaddling techniques which give an effective infant care.
  24. 24. BENEFITS:• Swaddling is a great way to calm and soothe your fussy infant.• It lowers the risk of SIDS and thus makes infant care easy. Babies at the age of 3 months, when the risk of SIDS is greatest, traditional American swaddling techniques allow a baby to escape.• This infant care method makes your baby feel secure and comfortable similar to how they felt while in uterus. It allows your baby to stay in more stable position while your baby is sleeping for longer hours and be less restful.• In the first few days of life, this infant care helps your baby stay warm while sleeping, until his or her inner thermostat kicks in.• Your baby naturally falls asleep when swaddle.• Swaddling helps your baby sleep on his or her back.• Babies have very little control over their muscle movements and often wake suddenly. Swaddling lessens the problem of awakening of your baby due to sudden arm and leg movements there by improving your sleep quality.• Keeps your baby‟s face uncovered.• It eases infant care by preventing your baby moving around the cot and getting into dangerous or uncomfortable position.• A swaddle baby is easy to carry and hold.• It can also help baby focus on breast or bottle feeding by keeping little hands out of the way.
  25. 25. Lay down the foundation of a new dawn, By taking care of a NEW – BORN. THANKING YOU..!