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  2. 3. INTRODUCTION <ul><li>Textile : Flexible material composed of a network of Natural or artificial fibers often referred to as thread or yarn. Are formed by weaving, knitting, crocheting, braiding, knotting, or pressing fibers together. </li></ul><ul><li>Diversification of textiles : Textiles are considered which fulfils the demand like climatic protection, increase the aesthetic sense, over and all execute apparel need. </li></ul><ul><li>Technical Textiles : The technical textiles are defined as textile materials and products manufactured primarily for their technical performance and functional properties rather than their aesthetic or decorative characteristics. </li></ul>
  3. 4. INTRODUCTION (Contd.) <ul><li>Technical Textile Categories : Depending on the product characteristics, functional requirements and end-use applications the highly diversified range of technical textile products has been grouped into categories: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Agro Textiles (Agriculture, horticulture and forestry) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Building Textiles (Building and construction) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Clothing Textiles (Components of shoes and clothing) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Geo Textiles (Geo Textiles, Civil engineering) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Home Textiles (Components of furniture, household textiles) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Industrial Textiles (Filtration, cleaning and industrial) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Medical Textiles (Hygiene and medical) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mobile Textiles (Automobiles, shipping, railways) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Oeko Textiles (Environmental protection) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Packaging Textiles (Packing materials) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Protection Textiles (Personal and property protection) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sports Textiles (Sport and leisure) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Aerospace Textiles (aircraft and space textiles) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 5. INTRODUCTION (Contd..) <ul><li>What is Aerospace? </li></ul><ul><li>Aerospace comprises the atmosphere of Earth and surrounding space. </li></ul><ul><li>Aerospace is actually a compression of </li></ul><ul><li>Aeronautics (the science of flight within Earth's atmosphere) and </li></ul><ul><li>Space flight (the movement of a vehicle beyond the atmosphere). </li></ul><ul><li>Aerospace embraces the full spectrum of flight, and the aerospace industry manufactures the components and equipment for things that fly. </li></ul><ul><li>Aerospace Textiles: From pilot clothing to plane, textile would be anywhere in aircraft. </li></ul><ul><li>Aerospace textile is an area of technical textiles that covers special finished products to engineered textiles. It includes the textile containing articles for specific functional requirements to work in aircrafts, space suits, space shuttles, lunar and mars mission, and space transportation. </li></ul>
  5. 6. EVOLUTION <ul><li>High Cost and Low Damage Tolerance Early composites research provided the aircraft builders with important technology but the industry lacked the confidence to use laminated composites to manufacture wing and fuselage structures. The barrier issues were high cost and low damage tolerance. Industry wanted composite structures that cost less than aluminium and that were robust enough to withstand the rigors of airline services. </li></ul><ul><li>Breakthrough Technology: In the 1980s researchers looked to textile composites as breakthrough technology. Supporters argued for new concepts which would use knitting, weaving, braiding and through-the-thickness stitching for reinforcement and use existing U.S. textiles manufacturing technology for cost efficiency. </li></ul><ul><li>NASA’s Research: ACT(Advanced Composites Technology) program. Various types of textile composites. Stitching combined with resin film infusion that showed the greatest potential for overcoming the cost and damage tolerance barriers to wing structures. </li></ul>
  6. 7. EVOLUTION <ul><li>Boeing NASA alliance: Under NASA contract, Boeing chose the stitching of dry textile fabrics, in conjunction with the resin film infusion (RFI) process to develop cost-effective wing structures. </li></ul><ul><li>multi-needle quilting machine </li></ul><ul><li>it was relatively slow and unable to stitch thick layers of fabric. </li></ul><ul><li>Advanced Stitching Machine (ASM ) The next step in the development was a computer-controlled single-needle gantry machine. </li></ul><ul><li>Boeing got a contract from NASA to develop a larger machine capable of stitching entire wing covers for commercial transport aircraft. </li></ul><ul><li>This high-speed, multi-needle machine is known as the Advanced Stitching Machine (ASM). </li></ul>
  7. 8. EVOLUTION Then.. Now ! Single Needle Stitching Machine Advanced Stitching Machine (ASM)
  8. 9. KNOWING THE OUTERSPACE <ul><li>Outer space environment is the space, or vacuum that surrounds the uppermost reaches of the atmosphere of Earth and all other objects in the universe. </li></ul><ul><li>An unprotected human or any other unprotected living being placed in the outer space environment would perish in a few brief. </li></ul><ul><li>On Earth, the atmosphere exerts pressure in all directions. At sea level on Earth, that pressure is 101 kilopascals. In space, the pressure is nearly zero. </li></ul><ul><li>The skin expands much like an inflating balloon. Bubbles that form in the bloodstream render blood ineffective to transport oxygen and nutrients to the body's cells. </li></ul>
  9. 10. KNOWING THE OUTERSPACE <ul><li>The sudden absence of external pressure, which balances the internal pressure of body fluids and gases, can rupture fragile tissues such as eardrums and capillaries. </li></ul><ul><li>A deprivation of oxygen to the brain that results in unconsciousness in less than 15 seconds. </li></ul><ul><li>The temperature range found in outer space provides a second major hazard for humans. </li></ul><ul><li>Other-environmental problems encountered in outer space include weightlessness, electrically charged particle, ultraviolet radiation, and micrometeoroids. </li></ul>
  11. 12. COMPOSITE S FOR AEROSPACE TEXTILES <ul><li>A composite is commonly defined as a combination of two or more distinct materials, each of which retains its own distinctive properties, to create a new material with properties that cannot be achieved by any of the components acting alone. </li></ul><ul><li>The use of composites has evolved to commonly incorporate a structural fiber and a plastic, this is known as Fiber Reinforced Plastics, or FRP. The fiber provides the structure and strength to the composite, while a plastic polymer holds the fiber together. </li></ul><ul><li>Composite material structures are made of cloth with a high tensile strength. The fabric is saturated with the structural plastic in a liquid form; when the plastic cures and hardens, the part will hold its shape while possessing the strength characteristics of the fabric. </li></ul>
  12. 13. COMPOSITE S FOR AEROSPACE TEXTILES <ul><li>Carbon fibre </li></ul><ul><li>It is the material consisting of extremely thin fibres about 0.0002 - 0.0004'' in diameter and contains mostly carbon atoms as it is produced as the by-product during the cracking process of crude oil. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It is also called as graphite fibre </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>E xcellent tensile strength </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Heat resistance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chemical resistance. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Keeping in the view of these properties, these fibres are used as reinforcing moulds, and heat insulating materials. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Apart from this, these fibres are used as raw materials for the manufacture and design of special utility components of aviation machine, space rockets, </li></ul>
  13. 14. COMPOSITE S FOR AEROSPACE TEXTILES <ul><li>Kevlar fibers </li></ul><ul><li>Kevlar is the trade name for Aramid fibres. They are </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Heat resistant </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High strength and modulus. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Good resistance to abrasion. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Good fabric integrity even at elevated temperatures. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Corrosion resistance. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Malleability. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Kevlar fibres are known for the ability to provide quality and consistency, which are critical for aerospace applications. </li></ul><ul><li>Kevlar fabrics are used in containment wraps, which perform the important role in preventing the broken engine blades from damaging the aircraft or entering the compartment of the passengers. </li></ul>
  14. 15. COMPOSITE S FOR AEROSPACE TEXTILES <ul><li>Alumina-boria-silica fibres. </li></ul><ul><li>Nextel is the trade name for Alumina-boria silica fibers. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Retain strength </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flexibility with little shrinkage even at continuous temperatures up to 2012°F (1100°C). </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Silicon carbide fibre </li></ul><ul><li>These fibres are similar to carbon fibres </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Heat resistance. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Corrosion resistance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Elasticity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Withstand temperature as high as 1500 degree celcius. </li></ul></ul>
  15. 16. COMPOSITE S FOR AEROSPACE TEXTILES <ul><li>Nylon fiber </li></ul><ul><li>Nylon 6,6 is made of hexamethylene diamine and adipic acid, which give nylon 6,6 a total of 2 carbons. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Heat resistance. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Friction resistance. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Melting point of 256 degree celsius. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>E- Glass E- Glass or electrical grade was originally developed for stand-off insulators for electrical wiring. It was later found to have excellent fiber forming capabilities and is used almost exclusively as the reinforcing phase in the material commonly known as fibreglass. </li></ul>
  16. 17. PROPERTIES OF AEROSPACE TEXTILES <ul><li>The essential properties of textile composites in aerospace applications are: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>High specific modulus. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>High specific strength. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Resistant to chemicals and organic solvents. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Good fatigue. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Thermal insulated and thermal resistant. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Impact and stress resistant. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Better dimensional stability and conformability. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Low flammability. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Non-sensitive to harmful radiations. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  17. 18. PROPERTIES OF AEROSPACE TEXTILES <ul><li>Other Properties Required for Aerospace Textiles </li></ul><ul><li>It is also need to consider incorporating maintainability requirements into aerospace materials. Some of the properties desirable from maintainability point of view are; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Washable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Abrasion resistance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tear resistance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Moisture resistance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>UV stabilisation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Material standardisation </li></ul></ul>
  18. 19. APPLICATION OF AEROSPACE TEXTILES <ul><li>Based on the applications, textiles used in Aerospace are broadly divided into </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Aircraft Textiles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Space Textiles. </li></ul></ul>
  19. 20. APPLICATION OF AEROSPACE TEXTILES: AIRCRAFT TEXTILES <ul><li>Aircraft textiles The textile articles being used in aircrafts are mainly for the below purposes. </li></ul>
  21. 22. APPLICATION OF AEROSPACE TEXTILES: SPACE TEXTILES <ul><li>Space Suit </li></ul><ul><li>The clothing used in space crafts is generally called space suits. </li></ul><ul><li>When astronauts travel through space, they face complex environment. Earth's gravitational attraction holds atmosphere comprising a mixture of gases like nitrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide and thick form of water vapour. This atmosphere protects us from various factors. When the astronauts leave the surface of earth and travel into the space, they must be ready to meet the environment available there. Hence, there is a need for a system to determine, detect and prevent certain level of radiations, pressures and temperatures encountered by the astronauts to keep him alive in that environment. Such a system is a space suit. A space suit is a complex system of equipment, specially designed to protect and keep a person comfortable in the rough environment of outer space. </li></ul>
  22. 23. APPLICATION OF AEROSPACE TEXTILES: SPACE TEXTILES <ul><li>Properties of a space suit </li></ul><ul><li>The space suit must possess the following properties: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lighter in weight. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flexible in handling. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Soft in touch. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Comparable in strength with metal. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Modifiable in size and shape. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thermal insulated and thermal resistant. </li></ul></ul>
  25. 26. APPLICATION OF AEROSPACE TEXTILES: SPACE TEXTILES <ul><li>Design of an Extra Vehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) </li></ul><ul><li>An Extra Vehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) was designed by the NASA Engineers. </li></ul><ul><li>It consists of 14 layers of structures to perform random functions such as thermal resistant, vapour absorbing and impact resistant layers. </li></ul><ul><li>The inner layers of the suit do activities like cooling and ventilation. An EMU consists of wide operations in it like; Drink bag, communication systems, TV camera and lights. </li></ul>
  26. 27. APPLICATION OF AEROSPACE TEXTILES: SPACE TEXTILES <ul><li>First Layer It is made up of knitted form of Nylon tricot is lined </li></ul><ul><li>Second Layer Spandex material fabric (a poly-urethane elastic thread) with plastic tubing is laced. </li></ul><ul><li>Third Layer It is a Urethane-coated nylon fabric layer called the pressure bladder layer </li></ul><ul><li>Fourth Layer Over the third layer a pressure-restraining layer made of Dacron, is laced. These two layers are employed to protect the astronauts from pressures balancing both internal and external pressures. </li></ul><ul><li>Fifth Layer Above those two layers, a thin liner of nylon coated with Neoprene is placed. </li></ul><ul><li>Sixth To Twelfth Layer Followed by a series of 7 layers, thermal micrometeoroid garment of aluminised Mylar laminated with Dacron. These 7 layers are thermal insulated, protecting the astronaut from heat phenomenon and impact resistant protecting from meteoroids. </li></ul><ul><li>Thirteenth and Fourteenth Layer </li></ul><ul><li>The final or the outer layer of space suit, which is exposed to various radiations, is made of a blend of Gore-tex, Kevlar and Nomex materials. </li></ul>
  27. 28. APPLICATION OF AEROSPACE TEXTILES: SPACE TEXTILES <ul><li>G- Suit </li></ul><ul><li>Tightly fitting trousers worn by aviators to control the blood circulation at higher level of acceleration. It is to reduce blood flow to lower side of human body under the influence of acceleration or deceleration. </li></ul>Generally, a g-suit is composed of inflatable bladders, containing air or liquid that can be pressurized using a g-sensitive valve and held firm to legs and abdomen under higher values of g (gravitational force). The principle desired function of g-suit is to resist the blood draining from brain and upper body parts to legs of aviators. The initial effect of blood pooling in lower parts is a reduced level of vision termed as grey- out (= browning of scene) called g-induced loss of consciousness (g- LOC).
  28. 29. APPLICATION OF AEROSPACE TEXTILES: SPACE TEXTILES <ul><li>Parachute </li></ul><ul><li>It is effectively contributing in aerospace motion for men and materials. </li></ul><ul><li>Parachutes help the safe decent of person or material from aerospace to ground surface. </li></ul><ul><li>Generally, a parachute composes of thin light- weight fabric, supporting tapes and suspension lines. </li></ul><ul><li>Nylon, polyester, Kevlar and Nomex fiber types are used in fabric for parachute. Flexibility and weather resistance.  </li></ul>
  29. 30. SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS <ul><li>Safety systems </li></ul><ul><li>Safety systems are inevitable for all aircrafts. The safety systems while ensuring safety of the aircraft / aircrew / traveller, do not directly contribute towards operational capability of the aircraft. Their addition into the aircraft thus brings a weight overhead and it is a challenging task for the designer to minimize their weights. </li></ul><ul><li>Fabrics are now universally and extensively used in the design of safety sytem of aircraft due to their light weight and a host of other favourable properties. Eg: Life Jackets, Survival Packs. </li></ul><ul><li>Environment or Protective system </li></ul><ul><li>Fabrics are also used in other aerospace application like, protective systems viz; flying clothing, fire proof/ fire retardant zones, pressure suits etc and environment systems viz; passenger seats, cabin upholstery, pressure suits, camouflage covers. </li></ul>
  30. 31. MARKET SCENARIO <ul><li>In the present scenario, technical textiles have been identified as a great potential area for upgrading the Indian textile industry. Since the conventional textiles industry has reached a level of saturation in terms of development, innovation and value-addition, technical textiles offer a great opportunity to succeed in the post WTO scenario. </li></ul><ul><li>Secondly as the country is transforming into a developed nation, huge emphasis is being laid down in adopting latest technologies and procedures in various fields. Therefore the market for technical textiles is very positive and poised for a stupendous growth. Attractive statistics for market potential seem inviting for global intervention. </li></ul><ul><li>Since the growth of technical textiles industry serves the interests of the government and the nation, hence it is inevitable to see a major thrust on the development of this industry by giving impetus on product and local consumption. This offers a compelling reason for the buyers and sellers of technical textiles to keep their focus on India and develop a rational strategy to seize the emerging opportunities. </li></ul>
  31. 32. MARKET SCENARIO <ul><li>The technical textile market in India was worth Rs417.6 bn (US$10.4 bn) in 2007/08, and this is set to grow to Rs701.5 bn in 2012/13 Further, as per an internal document prepared by the textile ministry, it is estimated that the technical textile market would grow to Rs.78,060 Cr. by 2014 – 15 with an annual growth rate of 14 %. </li></ul>
  32. 33. INDUSTRY LEADERS <ul><li>International manufacturers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Apex Mills Corp. - Inwood, NY </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fiber Materials, Inc. - Biddeford, ME </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dunmore Corp. - Bristol, PA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stern & Stern Industries, Inc. - Hornell, NY </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Saint-Gobain - Merrimack, NH </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Morgan Thermal Ceramics - Augusta, GA </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Indian manufacturers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Aerospace Materials Pvt. Ltd. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thanavala Enterprise </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Drive Technologies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>RNG Performance Materials </li></ul></ul>
  33. 34. CONCLUSION <ul><li>Aerospace textiles are mainly built to safe guard the life of an aerospace traveller. Protecting the human body from a disaster or from the high rays in the upper layer of the atmosphere and space, which are threat for the life of human, is the ultimate aim of Aerospace Textiles . </li></ul><ul><li>The development of space and aerospace textiles is a great boon to the present-day textile industry. At present, these kinds of textiles are making a significant contribution to the increasing market for textiles. There is scope for lot of research on aerospace textiles and also for horizontal and vertical growth in aerospace textiles to save the life. </li></ul>
  34. 35. THANK YOU!