Linked Data for a privacy-aware Smart Grid

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Recent developments around the Smart Grid promise more efficient power generation and distribution. In contrast to the current design of the electricity grid, the Smart Grid is heavily based on IT for managing communication flows. Given
the large number of market participants, data exchanged should be marked up in a way that facilitates flexible modelling, extension and integration. In addition, since much of the data exchanged is highly sensitive – comprising e.g. consumption data – current organisational means for privacy enforcement are not sufficient. In this paper, we propose a novel framework, which addresses these privacy issues by means of a
machine-interpretable representation of the user intent. More precisely, such machine- interpretable specifications enable an automated access control and enforcement of privacy rights on a technical level.

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Linked Data for a privacy-aware Smart Grid

  1. 1. INSTITUTE OF APPLIED INFORMATICS AND FORMAL DESCRIPTION METHODS † AND ZENTRUM F ¨UR ANGEWANDTE RECHTSWISSENSCHAFT ‡ Linked Data for a privacy-aware Smart Grid Andreas Wagner†, Sebastian Speiser†, Oliver Raabe‡ and Andreas Harth† | INFORMATIK 2010 KIT – University of the State of Baden-Wuerttemberg and National Laboratory of the Helmholtz Association www.kit.edu
  2. 2. Project MeRegioMobil This work was supported by the German Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology (E-Energy MeRegioMobil, Grant 01ME09005). The authors are responsible for the content of the presentation. Introduction Communication Architecture Policy Model Evaluation Conclusion References Wagner et al. – Linked Data for a privacy-aware Smart Grid INFORMATIK 2010 2/30
  3. 3. Agenda 1 Introduction 2 Communication Architecture and Data Model A Semantic Web-based Communication Architecture Linked RDF Data for the Smart Grid 3 Policies for a Privacy-aware Smart Grid Policy Model Policy-aware Data Access 4 Evaluation via Privacy Principles 5 Conclusion and Future Work 6 References Introduction Communication Architecture Policy Model Evaluation Conclusion References Wagner et al. – Linked Data for a privacy-aware Smart Grid INFORMATIK 2010 3/30
  4. 4. Smart Grid Basics What is the Smart Grid? The Smart Grid is a radical redesign of the ageing energy grid, which aims at profoundly changing the way how energy is created, distributed and consumed and promises to save considerable amounts of energy [1, 2]. ICT as a Smart Grid enabler Smart Grid includes a communication layer. There are many information between many actors. Introduction Communication Architecture Policy Model Evaluation Conclusion References Wagner et al. – Linked Data for a privacy-aware Smart Grid INFORMATIK 2010 4/30
  5. 5. Smart Grid Basics What is the Smart Grid? The Smart Grid is a radical redesign of the ageing energy grid, which aims at profoundly changing the way how energy is created, distributed and consumed and promises to save considerable amounts of energy [1, 2]. ICT as a Smart Grid enabler Smart Grid includes a communication layer. There are many information between many actors. Introduction Communication Architecture Policy Model Evaluation Conclusion References Wagner et al. – Linked Data for a privacy-aware Smart Grid INFORMATIK 2010 4/30
  6. 6. Smart Grid Overview Figure: Smart Grid Overview [2] Introduction Communication Architecture Policy Model Evaluation Conclusion References Wagner et al. – Linked Data for a privacy-aware Smart Grid INFORMATIK 2010 5/30
  7. 7. Smart Grid Challenges Resulting Challenges Allow data integration between various actors. Enforce data privacy within Smart Grid. Figure: Smart Grid Overview [2] Introduction Communication Architecture Policy Model Evaluation Conclusion References Wagner et al. – Linked Data for a privacy-aware Smart Grid INFORMATIK 2010 6/30
  8. 8. Contribution Web-based communication architecture → Section 2 (Semantic) Web technologies as a suitable communication architecture. Linked RDF as data model. Policy model → Section 3, 4 A policy model for expressing and enforcing privacy restrictions. Coupling of policies and published information. Introduction Communication Architecture Policy Model Evaluation Conclusion References Wagner et al. – Linked Data for a privacy-aware Smart Grid INFORMATIK 2010 7/30
  9. 9. Contribution Web-based communication architecture → Section 2 (Semantic) Web technologies as a suitable communication architecture. Linked RDF as data model. Policy model → Section 3, 4 A policy model for expressing and enforcing privacy restrictions. Coupling of policies and published information. Introduction Communication Architecture Policy Model Evaluation Conclusion References Wagner et al. – Linked Data for a privacy-aware Smart Grid INFORMATIK 2010 7/30
  10. 10. Overview of a Semantic Web-based Communication Architecture I Figure: Semantic Web Stack Introduction Communication Architecture Policy Model Evaluation Conclusion References Wagner et al. – Linked Data for a privacy-aware Smart Grid INFORMATIK 2010 8/30
  11. 11. Overview of a Semantic Web-based Communication Architecture II Data access layers URIs for identification of participants. TCP/IP stack with HTTP as transfer protocol. For low-power devices, e.g., a light-weight layered architecture: IEEE 802.15.4 (physical and MAC layer). 6LoWPAN (internet layer, IPv6 version for IEEE 802.15.4 networks). Introduction Communication Architecture Policy Model Evaluation Conclusion References Wagner et al. – Linked Data for a privacy-aware Smart Grid INFORMATIK 2010 9/30
  12. 12. Overview of a Semantic Web-based Communication Architecture III Data representation layers RDF(S) (if necessary extended with OWL features) for machine-interpretable data encoding. Linked Data principles for data publishing and integration: Use (HTTP) URIs for identification of entities. When someone looks up a URI, provide useful (RDF) data. Include links to other URIs. Application layers Proof and trust mechanisms for privacy and security. SPARQL as means for querying RDF data. . . . Introduction Communication Architecture Policy Model Evaluation Conclusion References Wagner et al. – Linked Data for a privacy-aware Smart Grid INFORMATIK 2010 10/30
  13. 13. Overview of a Semantic Web-based Communication Architecture III Data representation layers RDF(S) (if necessary extended with OWL features) for machine-interpretable data encoding. Linked Data principles for data publishing and integration: Use (HTTP) URIs for identification of entities. When someone looks up a URI, provide useful (RDF) data. Include links to other URIs. Application layers Proof and trust mechanisms for privacy and security. SPARQL as means for querying RDF data. . . . Introduction Communication Architecture Policy Model Evaluation Conclusion References Wagner et al. – Linked Data for a privacy-aware Smart Grid INFORMATIK 2010 10/30
  14. 14. Linked RDF Data for the Smart Grid Mary’s Linked Data Example: Customer Electric Vehicle ex:uamp760e Smart Meter ex:sm Washing Machine ex:coolWash Premise ex:apt ex:Mary Energy Efficiency Service Provider Metering Provider Cool Wash Weather Data Usage Statistics Figure: Mary’s Linked Data Obligatory and non-obligatory data Obligatory data: data associated with legal consequences (e.g., billing). Data is managed by a trusted party, e.g., a metering provider. Non-obligatory data: all other data. Data is managed by the device (e.g., car) or a gateway actor (e.g., smart meter). Introduction Communication Architecture Policy Model Evaluation Conclusion References Wagner et al. – Linked Data for a privacy-aware Smart Grid INFORMATIK 2010 11/30
  15. 15. Linked RDF Data for the Smart Grid Mary’s Linked Data Example: Customer Electric Vehicle ex:uamp760e Smart Meter ex:sm Washing Machine ex:coolWash Premise ex:apt ex:Mary Energy Efficiency Service Provider Metering Provider Cool Wash Weather Data Usage Statistics Figure: Mary’s Linked Data Obligatory and non-obligatory data Obligatory data: data associated with legal consequences (e.g., billing). Data is managed by a trusted party, e.g., a metering provider. Non-obligatory data: all other data. Data is managed by the device (e.g., car) or a gateway actor (e.g., smart meter). Introduction Communication Architecture Policy Model Evaluation Conclusion References Wagner et al. – Linked Data for a privacy-aware Smart Grid INFORMATIK 2010 11/30
  16. 16. Linked RDF Data for the Smart Grid II Mary’s Linked Data / / lookup on ex : coolWash ; data resides at washing machine ex : coolWash r d f : type sg : Appliance ; sg : manufacturer <http : / / coolWash .com/ company>; sg : owner ex : mary ; sg : washingData washer : program40 ; sg : consumption sm: data20100310 . Introduction Communication Architecture Policy Model Evaluation Conclusion References Wagner et al. – Linked Data for a privacy-aware Smart Grid INFORMATIK 2010 12/30
  17. 17. Linked RDF Data for the Smart Grid III Mary’s Linked Data II / / lookup on sm: data20100310 ; data resides at smart meter sm: data20100310 r d f : type sg : Consumption ; r d f : value ” 1 . 0 4 ” ˆ ˆ sg :kWh; i c a l : d t s t a r t ”2010−03−10T00 : 0 0 : 0 0 ” ; i c a l : dtend ”2010−03−10T01 : 0 0 : 0 0 ” . Introduction Communication Architecture Policy Model Evaluation Conclusion References Wagner et al. – Linked Data for a privacy-aware Smart Grid INFORMATIK 2010 13/30
  18. 18. Policy Model Intuition Policies model user intent → help to preserve data privacy. A Policy is bound to its associated data. Policies are taken into account whenever data is accessed. Policy Definition A Policy models a timespan during which it is valid via ical:dtstart and ical:dtend. A Policy allows a number of usages, which is restricted to a specific purpose and to a recipient. A perspective restricts the (granted) data access to specific data - it is specified via SPARQL queries. Introduction Communication Architecture Policy Model Evaluation Conclusion References Wagner et al. – Linked Data for a privacy-aware Smart Grid INFORMATIK 2010 14/30
  19. 19. Policy Model II Usage Purpose Policy Agent Description Date Perspective validFrom validTo perspective allows recipientpurpose Figure: Policy Definition Private and public policies Policies specified by a private party. Policies specified by law. Introduction Communication Architecture Policy Model Evaluation Conclusion References Wagner et al. – Linked Data for a privacy-aware Smart Grid INFORMATIK 2010 15/30
  20. 20. Policy Model II Usage Purpose Policy Agent Description Date Perspective validFrom validTo perspective allows recipientpurpose Figure: Policy Definition Private and public policies Policies specified by a private party. Policies specified by law. Introduction Communication Architecture Policy Model Evaluation Conclusion References Wagner et al. – Linked Data for a privacy-aware Smart Grid INFORMATIK 2010 15/30
  21. 21. Policy Model III Linked recipient and purpose Purpose and recipient are externally defined resources at a trusted source. Purpose and recipient are integrated via Linked Data principles. Solution is similar to the Creative Commons approach. Any Purpose NonCommercial Commercial StatisticsConsulting Billing Advertisement Commercial Consulting Welfare Consulting Figure: Exemplary Purpose Hierarchy Introduction Communication Architecture Policy Model Evaluation Conclusion References Wagner et al. – Linked Data for a privacy-aware Smart Grid INFORMATIK 2010 16/30
  22. 22. Policy Model IV An example policy for Mary’s UltraAmp 760e I washer : eCarPol r d f : type sg : Policy ; i c a l : d t s t a r t ”2010−01−01T00 : 0 0 : 0 0 ” ˆ ˆ xs : dateTime ; i c a l : dtend ”2010−12−31T23 : 5 9 : 5 9 ” ˆ ˆ xs : dateTime ; sg : allows #ultraAmpUse . #ultraAmpUse r d f : type sg : Usage ; sg : purpose gov : Purpose# service ; sg : r e c i p i e n t <http : / / ultraAmp .com/ company>; sg : perspective #ultraAmpPerspective . Introduction Communication Architecture Policy Model Evaluation Conclusion References Wagner et al. – Linked Data for a privacy-aware Smart Grid INFORMATIK 2010 17/30
  23. 23. Policy Model V An example policy for Mary’s Mary’s UltraAmp 760e II #ultraAmpPerspective r d f : type sg : Perspective ; sg : d e f i n i t i o n ”PREFIX . . . CONSTRUCT { ?s ?p ?o } WHERE { ?s r d f : type sg : Appliance . ?s sg : manufacturer <http : / / ultraAmp .com/ company>. ?s ?p ?o . FILTER (?p != sg : consumption ) }” . Introduction Communication Architecture Policy Model Evaluation Conclusion References Wagner et al. – Linked Data for a privacy-aware Smart Grid INFORMATIK 2010 18/30
  24. 24. Policy-aware Data Access I Access procedure i) Requestor performs a HTTP lookup on a URI (e.g., ex:uamp760e). ii) Web server returns an authorisation required response. iii) Requestor sends a request, i.e., a specification of identity and purpose. iv) Device matches the request with an applicable policy (either a law-based or a user policy) → if request and policy match, requested data and (signed) policy is sent. Introduction Communication Architecture Policy Model Evaluation Conclusion References Wagner et al. – Linked Data for a privacy-aware Smart Grid INFORMATIK 2010 19/30
  25. 25. Policy-aware Data Access II Matching procedure The matching procedure is implemented as a rule, checking whether . . . i) requestor is subsumed by the recipient description and ii) the requested purpose is subsumed by the allowed purpose (both w.r.t. the applicable policy) Assumption: the same purpose and recipient definition is employed → subclass-of or same-as check is sufficient for realising the subsume operation. Introduction Communication Architecture Policy Model Evaluation Conclusion References Wagner et al. – Linked Data for a privacy-aware Smart Grid INFORMATIK 2010 20/30
  26. 26. Policy-aware Data Access III Policy and Request Matching Rules Law Policies Private Policies Domain Ontologies (Smart Grid, Appliances) Taxonomies (Purposes, Agents) Figure: Dependencies for Policy Matching Introduction Communication Architecture Policy Model Evaluation Conclusion References Wagner et al. – Linked Data for a privacy-aware Smart Grid INFORMATIK 2010 21/30
  27. 27. Evaluation via Privacy Principles I Principle: data economy Data economy: use as little personal information as possible. An ideal system w.r.t. data economy would employ an anonymisation directly at the data source. Early anonymisation is not possible in general, as e.g., consumption data is required to have personal data associated (e.g., for billing purposes). Employing pseudonyms would satisfy the data economy principle, while allowing, e.g., a regular billing process. Approach may be extended to incorporate such anonymisation features. Introduction Communication Architecture Policy Model Evaluation Conclusion References Wagner et al. – Linked Data for a privacy-aware Smart Grid INFORMATIK 2010 22/30
  28. 28. Evaluation via Privacy Principles II Principle: purpose limitation Purpose limitation: specifies that information has to be used in accordance with the purpose it was originally published for. Approach supports purpose limitation, as requested data is always released together with a policy describing the intended purpose. No mechanism to modify the original purpose later on (assuming policy integrity). One can implement checks for purpose modifications and legitimate usage. Introduction Communication Architecture Policy Model Evaluation Conclusion References Wagner et al. – Linked Data for a privacy-aware Smart Grid INFORMATIK 2010 23/30
  29. 29. Evaluation via Privacy Principles III Principle: transparency Data economy: data may only be used, if the affected person is informed about the usage details. Fully integrated. Assumption: for each task data is (again) requested → with each lookup, the user is notified about request, purpose and recipient. Introduction Communication Architecture Policy Model Evaluation Conclusion References Wagner et al. – Linked Data for a privacy-aware Smart Grid INFORMATIK 2010 24/30
  30. 30. Conclusion and Future Work I Conclusion (Semantic) Web technologies provide a suitable communication architecture for the Smart Grid. Publishing linked RDF data fosters a privacy-aware Smart Grid. The policy layer (based on (linked) RDF data) allows users to express their intents. Via a coupling of user data and its associated policy, technical enforcement of privacy becomes feasible. Introduction Communication Architecture Policy Model Evaluation Conclusion References Wagner et al. – Linked Data for a privacy-aware Smart Grid INFORMATIK 2010 25/30
  31. 31. Conclusion and Future Work II Future work Work on technical enforcement of privacy, i.e., automated privacy checks (at certain actors) in the Smart Grid. Use machine-interpretable service descriptions. Check what data (maybe employing an a priori data transformation, e.g., anonymisation) can be used for a particular service. Enforce privacy checks at crucial points (e.g., metering provider) in the Smart Grid. Scalability of our approach; crucial in particular w.r.t. low-power devices. Introduction Communication Architecture Policy Model Evaluation Conclusion References Wagner et al. – Linked Data for a privacy-aware Smart Grid INFORMATIK 2010 26/30
  32. 32. Questions? Introduction Communication Architecture Policy Model Evaluation Conclusion References Wagner et al. – Linked Data for a privacy-aware Smart Grid INFORMATIK 2010 27/30
  33. 33. MeRegioMobil – Project Context I The eEnergy Initivative: A program funded by the German Ministry of Economics and Technology in cooperation with the Ministry for Ecology. Climate change, the increasing demand for energy, and the scarcity of resources will cause great challenges to Europe. In order to supply all demand in the public and private sector in an economic and ecological way, the eEnergy initiative is supported by private enterprises and politics. Introduction Communication Architecture Policy Model Evaluation Conclusion References Wagner et al. – Linked Data for a privacy-aware Smart Grid INFORMATIK 2010 28/30
  34. 34. MeRegioMobil – Project Context II Energy efficiency and information technology were rarely linked in the past. This will change with the “internet of energy”, an innovative program also called eEnergy. Analogously to terms like eCommerce or eGovernment, eEnergy stands for the digitalization and optimisation of processes in the energy sector along the entire value chain – from the producer to the consumer. Existing infrastructure shall be optimized and effectively modernized to support the integration of renewable and distributed energy sources as well as the reduction of CO2 emissions. Introduction Communication Architecture Policy Model Evaluation Conclusion References Wagner et al. – Linked Data for a privacy-aware Smart Grid INFORMATIK 2010 29/30
  35. 35. References I European Technology Platform - SmartGrids Vision and Strategy for Europes Electricity Networks of the Future. European Comission, 2006. http://www.ec.europa.eu/research/energy/pdf/ smartgrids_en.pdf. NIST Framework and Roadmap for Smart Grid Interoperability Standards. National Institute of Standards and Technology, 2010. Introduction Communication Architecture Policy Model Evaluation Conclusion References Wagner et al. – Linked Data for a privacy-aware Smart Grid INFORMATIK 2010 30/30

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