Spar Platforms


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Spar Platforms

  1. 1. SPAR PLATFORMS Group 1
  2. 2. SPAR Applications • Presently there are 17 SPARs in operation ▫ 3 Classic SPARs ▫ 13 Truss SPARs ▫ ONLY 1 Cell SPAR • All except the Kikeh Truss SPAR , located off the Malaysian coast, can be found in the Gulf of Mexico • SPAR platforms are used in ultra-deep waters
  3. 3. SPAR Applications SPAR Platforms are commonly used in deep water applications for: ▫ Drilling  Mad Dog SPAR ▫ Storage  Brent SPAR ▫ Production • Neptune SPAR ▫ Unmanned • Buoys
  4. 4. SPAR Projects Company Platform Type Year Installed Kerr-McGee Neptune Classic 1996 ChevronTexaco Genesis Classic 1998 ExxonMobil Hoover Diana Classic 2000 Kerr-McGee Nansen Truss 2001 Murphy Medusa Truss 2002 Kerr-McGee Boomvang Truss 2002 bp Horn Mountain Truss 2002 bp Holstein Truss 2003 Kerr-McGee Gunnison Truss 2004 bp Mad Dog Truss 2005
  5. 5. SPAR Projects
  6. 6. SPAR Design Considerations • All SPAR platforms utilize strakes to reduce vortex induced motions • Anodes are commonly found on SPAR hulls to reduce corrosion • Different topside decks can be attached to SPARs depending on the job. Some of these decks are: ▫ A full drilling rig (3,000hp) ▫ A workover rig (600-1,000hp) ▫ Production equipment • The world’s first production SPAR was used in 1996 • Previously, SPARs had been used as oil storage vessels (Brent project)
  7. 7. SPAR Design Considerations There are 3 basic designs • for SPAR Platforms 1. Classic SPAR 2. Truss SPAR 3. Cell SPAR The different SPAR • designs reflect industry innovations 1. Each design is an improvement on an older model and offers improved functionality at a reduced cost
  8. 8. • The world’s first production Classic SPAR, Neptune, was installed in the Gulf of Mexico in Classic SPAR Platform 1996 • Oryx Energy developed Neptune, and was later acquired by Kerr-McGee in 1999. • The Classic SPAR hull is basically a cylinder • This cylinder is separated into three main sections: 1. Upper section Compartmentalized and filled • with air to provide the buoyancy 2. Centerwell Flooded with seawater • 3. Keel section (“Soft Tank”) Compartmentalized to aid in • transportation . Also contains any field-installed ballast.
  9. 9. Genesis SPAR •Genesis was the second Classic SPAR ever built •Classic SPARs have 4 major components: a hull, a mooring system, risers, and topside decks. • SPAR designs are inherently stable due to their deep draft hulls. •Dry Tree technology can be utilized on a SPAR platform. •SPAR platforms tend to be 30% cheaper than other options in deep water.
  10. 10. • Truss Platforms were introduced by Kerr- McGee in 2001 when the Nansen was installed in the Gulf of Mexico Truss SPAR Platform • The Truss SPAR design has 3 main components: 1. Hard Tank Provides most of the in-place buoyancy for • the SPAR. 1. Truss Section Supports the heave plates and provides • separation between the keel tank and hard tank. 1. Keel Tank (“Soft Tank”) Contains the fixed ballast and acts as a • natural hang-off location for export pipelines and flowlines .
  11. 11. Perdido SPAR •Shell’s most recent Truss SPAR broke the deepwater record and will be operational in 2010. •Truss SPARs are characterized by the tubular members that provide a connection between the hard tank and the keel. •The truss system also support to the heave plates which reduce improve stability by reducing heave.
  12. 12. • The Cell SPAR was also designed by Kerr-McGee in the Red Hawk project Cell SPAR Platform • Red Hawk was installed in the Gulf of Mexico and made operational in 2004 • Cell SPARs have several design features including: The Hard Tank is made up of 6 cylindrical tubes that • surround a seventh central tube. Each of these tubes is 20 ft in diameter and contain • variable-ballast tanks and redundant, independent cells The middle hull section is an extension of three of the seven • cylindrical tubes, and serves as a rigid connection between the hard tank and the keel tank. The lower section, or keel, contains the permanent ballast •
  13. 13. Red Hawk SPAR •First and only Cell SPAR •The separate tubes are connected by heave plates •Heave plates give the structure added stability by reducing the force transferred from ocean waves and current.
  14. 14. SPAR Economics Classic SPARs ▫ The US does not have a facility large enough to construct SPAR hulls. Therefore, almost all SPAR hulls have been manufactured overseas , typically in Finland, and then transported to the US, which increases the cost of the project. Truss SPARs ▫ The hull of a truss SPAR is smaller, reducing both material cost and the cost of transportation. Also for some truss SPARs, the actual truss system can be made in the US and then mated with the hard tank when it arrives. Cell SPARs ▫ Because of the reduced size of the cylinders, fabrication of cell SPARs can take place in the US, meaning that there is no transportation cost.
  15. 15. SPAR Economics • SPAR designs are the most economical for ultra- deep water. • By utilizing a mooring system instead of permanent legs, SPAR platforms reduce materials cost and can be moved to different wells. • Oryx spent $300 million on Neptune, the world’s first production SPAR platform. • Neptune was estimated to save Oryx and it’s 50/50 partner $90 million.
  16. 16. SPAR Construction •Later the two completed halves are brought together •The Hard Tank of a Truss SPAR is constructed in halves •Then the two halves are joined to form the top of the Truss SPAR’s Hard Tank
  17. 17. SPAR Construction • The SPAR hull •The hull is joined and towed is shipped in out to the well location. sections that will later be mated together. •The SPAR hull is then flooded with seawater and up-ended. Once in place, the hull is connected to the •The topsides are then already installed mooring system. attached to the SPAR hull.
  18. 18. SPAR construction timeline: Perdido •
  19. 19. References •“Industry Projects.” Offshore Technology. 2009. 21 Apr. 2009 <>. • “Offshore: ABS to Class Cell Spar for Kerr-McGee.” Marine Link. 2 Apr. 2003. 19 Apr. 2009 <>. •quot;Perdido Development Project.quot; Shell. 5 Sept. 2008. Shell oil. 20 Apr. 2009 <>. •“SparTEC.” FloaTEC. 2009. 20 Apr. 2009 <>. •Ultramarine, Inc. Welcome to Ultramarine. 1996. 24 Apr. 2009 <>.