Ethics of Philanthropy
IUPUI—Fall 07—Dr. Gunderman

Giving and Happiness: Laughter—Final Draft
Amy Stark --Page 1--6/11/20...
Ethics of Philanthropy
IUPUI—Fall 07—Dr. Gunderman

Giving and Happiness: Laughter—Final Draft
Amy Stark --Page 2--6/11/20...
Ethics of Philanthropy
IUPUI—Fall 07—Dr. Gunderman

Giving and Happiness: Laughter—Final Draft
Amy Stark --Page 3--6/11/20...
Ethics of Philanthropy
IUPUI—Fall 07—Dr. Gunderman

Giving and Happiness: Laughter—Final Draft
Amy Stark --Page 4--6/11/20...
Ethics of Philanthropy
IUPUI—Fall 07—Dr. Gunderman

Giving and Happiness: Laughter—Final Draft
Amy Stark --Page 5--6/11/20...
Ethics of Philanthropy
IUPUI—Fall 07—Dr. Gunderman

Giving and Happiness: Laughter—Final Draft
Amy Stark --Page 6--6/11/20...
Ethics of Philanthropy
IUPUI—Fall 07—Dr. Gunderman

Giving and Happiness: Laughter—Final Draft
Amy Stark --Page 7--6/11/20...
Ethics of Philanthropy
IUPUI—Fall 07—Dr. Gunderman

Giving and Happiness: Laughter—Final Draft
Amy Stark --Page 8--6/11/20...
Ethics of Philanthropy
IUPUI—Fall 07—Dr. Gunderman

Giving and Happiness: Laughter—Final Draft
Amy Stark --Page 9--6/11/20...
Ethics of Philanthropy
IUPUI—Fall 07—Dr. Gunderman

Giving and Happiness: Laughter—Final Draft
Amy Stark --Page 10--6/11/2...
Ethics of Philanthropy
IUPUI—Fall 07—Dr. Gunderman

Giving and Happiness: Laughter—Final Draft
Amy Stark --Page 11--6/11/2...
Ethics of Philanthropy
IUPUI—Fall 07—Dr. Gunderman

Giving and Happiness: Laughter—Final Draft
Amy Stark --Page 12--6/11/2...
Ethics of Philanthropy
IUPUI—Fall 07—Dr. Gunderman

Giving and Happiness: Laughter—Final Draft
Amy Stark --Page 13--6/11/2...
Ethics of Philanthropy
IUPUI—Fall 07—Dr. Gunderman

Giving and Happiness: Laughter—Final Draft
Amy Stark --Page 14--6/11/2...
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Giving laughter and its potential to generate human happiness

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Essay as presented to Dr. Richard Gunderman: IUPUI Fall 2007--Ethics of Philanthropy.

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Giving laughter and its potential to generate human happiness

  1. 1. Ethics of Philanthropy IUPUI—Fall 07—Dr. Gunderman Giving and Happiness: Laughter—Final Draft Amy Stark --Page 1--6/11/2008 Giving laughter and its potential to generate human happiness. Introduction: When asked if humor could be used in analyzing The Constitutions of Freemasonry (London 1717 CE), Dr. Kevin Robbins—a noted historian of philanthropy in the West--said, “You can only use humor in the footnotes.” This was a difficult task, because humor surrounded the Freemasons throughout the 1700s: Alexander Pope was their poet laureate and Voltaire was initiated into Freemasonry at the invitation of Benjamin Franklin at the Lodge Les Neuf Soeurs in Paris. All three men are renowned—in part—for their comedic abilities. The very genesis of Freemasonry was infused with laughter--complete with drinking songs--as most lodge meetings were held in taverns. Ben Franklin said, “Beer is living proof that God loves us and wants us to be happy.” For the purposes of this essay, happiness is defined as a state where: your physical needs are met, you have a sense of pride in what you contribute to your species, and at any given moment--even during times of tragedy--you are able to summon a few moments of joy each day. Beer may not garner support as a purveyor of happiness today, but laughter has the potential to spread happiness, if only for a moment. All philanthropists--lovers of our species-- would be well served to recognize laughter’s potential to generate human happiness, and consider its use throughout all gifting phases: providing relief when urgently needed, making tomorrow better, or assisting in our continual evolution as a species. This essay will review three types of gifts that the evolutionary philanthropists may choose to give: knowledge, joy and hope. Laughter provides a readily-available and cost-effective tool in distributing these gifts, and it is something that everyone--barring physical or mental challenges-- has the potential to give. Using laughter to spread data, knowledge and wisdom “A witty saying proves nothing.” --Voltaire
  2. 2. Ethics of Philanthropy IUPUI—Fall 07—Dr. Gunderman Giving and Happiness: Laughter—Final Draft Amy Stark --Page 2--6/11/2008 Voltaire is correct in his assessment; wit alone cannot prove a fact. Some witty sayings, however, can prompt an individual to remember raw data, which in turn could better his situation. A witty mnemonic, for example, is a useful tool for encouraging retention and synthesis into useable knowledge. Mnemonics that generate laughter may also prompt the receiver to become a benefactor, creating a ripple effect surrounding the original witticism, touching future generations. Mnemonic devices are commonly used among early adopters of new technologies to impart critical knowledge regarding network infrastructure. A co-worker once shared a technology mnemonic used to exemplify the OSI Model--a theoretical view of the different points of failure in Internet communications. (Appendix i) Before the technician shared the mnemonic, he laughed robustly for a few moments, and said, “I hope you won’t be offended, but my favorite sentence to remember the OSI Model is: Princess Diana never tried screwing Prince Andrew. The first letters in each word correspond to the separate layers: Physical, Data Link, Network, Transport, Session, Presentation, and Application.” A form of bawdy humor was used to impart valuable data, and it was retained because of the witty (albeit sociallyunacceptable) mnemonic. I have shared that story with others, and the reaction has always been one surrounded by laughter. The mnemonic turned this exchange of data into a kinetic gift of knowledge with two benefactors, which appeals to the evolutionary philanthropist Throughout the recorded history in the West, lovers of wisdom—philosophers-- used humor to impart valuable information to their students. Socrates, for example, has been attributed with saying, “My advice to you is get married: if you find a good wife you'll be happy; if not, you'll become a philosopher.” This statement highlights a common underlying thread found in source-material for most humorists in the West—self- deprecation. British satirist, Alexander Pope – a diminutive sickly-hunchback--used humor to expose the frailties of the
  3. 3. Ethics of Philanthropy IUPUI—Fall 07—Dr. Gunderman Giving and Happiness: Laughter—Final Draft Amy Stark --Page 3--6/11/2008 human condition and the folly of certain attitudes and actions. In his Essay on Man, Pope writes a few stanzas containing a cogent wisdom that is especially relevant today: For forms of government let fools contest; Whate'er is best administer'd is best. For modes of faith let graceless zealots fight; His can't be wrong whose life is in the right. In faith and hope the world will disagree, But all mankind's concern is charity.1 Short lyrical stanzas lend themselves to retention, and with the correct tune, these six lines could easily be used in a drinking song. Pope’s charity—wisdom--to mankind was a gift of tolerance and his humor and rhyming structure infused this gift with movement-- making it kinetic. If you believe the authors of, Plato and a Platypus Walk Into a Bar... Understanding Philosophy Through Jokes by Thomas Cathcart and Daniel Klein, laughter has the potential to teach profound wisdoms. Seemingly obscure philosophical tenants may be readily understood when delivered through humor.2 The British Broadcasting Company (BBC) recently published an article claiming The Simpsons reveal deep philosophical insights into American existentialism: “The Simpsons is more than a funny cartoon - it reveals truths about human nature that rival the observations of great philosophers from Plato to Kant… The Simpsons, like Monty Python, is an Anglo-Saxon comedic take on the existentialism which in France takes on a more tragic hue.”3 An abrupt and incongruent segue is a comedic device often employed by the writers of the early 1970s BBC Television Series, Monty Python’s Flying Circus. This comedic troupe added broad movements and sounds to British satire, continually self-deprecating their own culture while taunting the French. Ben Franklin would be pleased to know that Eric Idle—an original member of the group—wrote his own tribute to wisdom shared over a beer entitled The Philosopher’s
  4. 4. Ethics of Philanthropy IUPUI—Fall 07—Dr. Gunderman Giving and Happiness: Laughter—Final Draft Amy Stark --Page 4--6/11/2008 Drinking Song: “There’s nothing Nietzsche couldn’t teach ya bout the raisin’ of the wrist, Socrates himself was permanently pissed…” (Appendix ii) I used this phrase during my undergraduate work to remind myself of the correct pronunciation of Nietzsche. Using laughter to spread a temporary feeling of pleasure (Joy) “The best way to cheer yourself up is to try to cheer somebody else up.”—Mark Twain Laughter by its very definition begs itself not to be taken too seriously, but there is a scholarly trend to study laughter scientifically, in an attempt to quantify its benefit to the recipient. Could the Reader’s Digest be correct in their tenant, “Laughter is the Best Medicine?” The positive biological side-effects of laughter--and subsequent feelings of joy--are well documented. Laughter has been attributed with boosting immunity and curing many ills (from heart disease to depression). In the early 1990s a physician in Mumbai, India, Dr. Madan Kataria, developed laughter yoga to promote overall health in his patients. This type of yoga is particularly beneficial as a gentle aerobic exercise for those with restricted movements.4 The number of classes teaching laughter yoga techniques is growing rapidly, and this meme has a very strong Internet presence. A simple Google search on “laughter yoga” will attest to the growth of this phenomenon. Classes do not use professional comedians to initiate laughter, they merely start laughing while making silly faces and moving in odd ways. As any child will attest, laughter is contagious, and these groups do nothing but laugh for 30-45 minutes. Can there be anything negative about this? A unique feature of laughter yoga is the lack of a joke butt. No one is offended as an individual, or as a member of a larger societal-group. In his book, The Morality of Laughter, F.H. Buckly states, “the butt [of a joke] is made to feel inferior, and those who laugh reveal their sense of superiority over him.”5 Laughter yoga is a source of butt-free humor.
  5. 5. Ethics of Philanthropy IUPUI—Fall 07—Dr. Gunderman Giving and Happiness: Laughter—Final Draft Amy Stark --Page 5--6/11/2008 Politicians have consistently been a socially-acceptable butt for jokes throughout recorded history. Political humor can be found in all forms of media in the West—print, radio, TV, etc.—but is this true in the East? This is a vital question in a world where the exponential growth of communication technology will soon allow direct grassroots-communication between East and West. Tolerance and understanding will be important during this technological paradigm shift, and humor can prove valuable as all cultures laugh. Butt-free jokes are preferred but rare, and on occasional an entire societal-group rises to the esteemed position of a sociallyacceptable butt — such as lawyers. It is well beyond the scope of this essay to comment on the history--and shear number-- of lawyer jokes. Feeling superior to politicians and lawyers has generated copious amounts of laughter for over 2 millennia, and continues to be viable source for humor in American culture. The Pew Internet and American Life study found that, “35% of internet users, or about 43 million people, said they used email to discuss politics, and one of the most popular email subjects was jokes about the candidates and the election.”6 The Internet is providing a new medium to share kinetic joy, with and without butts. Using laughter to spread Hope God is a comedian playing to an audience too afraid to laugh.-- Voltaire Another common technique used in humor is wordplay, and Bob Hope traveled internationally for over 50 years, to entertain U.S. troops during times of peace and war. Mr. Hope delivered moments of joy (and hope) to tens-of-thousands of men and women very close to war zones in all U.S. conflicts from WWII through Desert Storm. One of Bob Hope’s proudest moments occurred in October 1997 when, “Resolution 75 was unanimously passed by members of both houses making him an Honorary Veteran - the first individual so honored in the history of the United States.”7 In the worst of circumstances, laughter provided an evolutionary moment
  6. 6. Ethics of Philanthropy IUPUI—Fall 07—Dr. Gunderman Giving and Happiness: Laughter—Final Draft Amy Stark --Page 6--6/11/2008 of hope for those is a desperate situation. Bob Hope has been granted 58 honorary doctorates, and as a commencement speaker clearly defined his kinetic gift of hope: “We're proud of you because you're going to start carrying the torch of freedom and knowledge. And, someday, you'll have to pass that torch on to others. When you do, it should be burning stronger and brighter.”8 Hope is a relay race, where wisdom is passed from generation to generation, trusting there will be an improvement with each handoff. Where is this relay-race taking us collectively as a species? The Dalai Lama defines the finish line very simply—happiness. Often described as jovial and quick to laugh, the Dalai Lama is an example of hope in the face of oppression. It is his contention that happiness is a birthright, and that we all have the potential to transcend our current state of suffering through the active use of compassion. Some of the Dalai Lama’s tenants are echoed in a book entitled, Characters, Strengths and Virtues: A Handbook and Classification, by Dr. Martin Seligman and his co-author Christopher Peterson. After 20 years of research they concluded that humor and hope are transcendent character strengths that generate a positive attitude and happiness. They outline six core character-strengths found in those individuals that experience “Authentic Happiness”:9 * Wisdom and knowledge--creativity, curiosity, open-mindedness, love of learning and perspective. * Courage--Bravery, persistence, integrity and vitality. * Humanity--Love, kindness and social intelligence. * Justice--Citizenship, fairness and leadership. * Temperance--Forgiveness, humility, prudence and self-regulation. * Transcendence--Appreciation of beauty and excellence, gratitude, hope, humor and spirituality.”10 (Emphasis added) Laughter is closely linked to hope, in that both offer a transcendent experience for our species. We are able to rise above our current set of circumstances and examine the slow but steady growth of our species.
  7. 7. Ethics of Philanthropy IUPUI—Fall 07—Dr. Gunderman Giving and Happiness: Laughter—Final Draft Amy Stark --Page 7--6/11/2008 How can evolutionary philanthropists use laughter as a tool? There's no trick to being a humorist when you have the whole government working for you.--Will Rogers Comedy can be dangerous, as we witnessed when cartoon images of Mohammed provoked violent reactions early in the 21st century. It is socially acceptable to ridicule yourself -either as member of a societal group, or as an individual, but only with extreme caution can you mock a group in which you are not an active participant (e.g. No one except Michael J. Fox can ridicule Parkinson’s disease). Sharing a personal anecdote of embarrassment is the safest material to generate laughter. By making yourself the butt of a joke, the audience can experience a sense of superiority, allowing them to transcend their own memories of humiliation: “.. like the time I walked right into a light-post on Meridian because I was not paying attention to where I was going. My first reaction was not one of pain, but panic! What if someone saw me do that? I promptly donned an air of casualness so that an on-looker might believe I did it on purpose.”11 Childhood foibles and family anecdotes may provide humorous source material, but the story must be appropriate and tempered for the situation. My father, for example, loved to share limericks around the dinner table at large family gatherings--to the delight of the family. I feel certain he never shared these limericks with fellow church-members, however, and I doubt he ever really knew a man from Nantucket. If you have no appropriate anecdotal stories, there are numerous pithy sayings that touch some point of commonality between the giver and the receiver. Several lawyer and politician jokes--that can be memorized and shared easily--are found in the works of Mark Twain, Ambrose Bierce and Will Rogers. These American humorists provide excellent source material to spread wisdom, joy and hope through their witticisms. (See Appendix iii) Robin Williams stated a profound wisdom when he gave the comic advice, “When all else fails, go for the dick joke.” Words and images associated with the penis have been used as a
  8. 8. Ethics of Philanthropy IUPUI—Fall 07—Dr. Gunderman Giving and Happiness: Laughter—Final Draft Amy Stark --Page 8--6/11/2008 symbol for luck and happiness throughout the recorded history of the West. Greco-Roman homes, for example, used phallic symbols in much the same way horse-shoes are used to capture luck today (a keen observer will notice the shape of a horse-shoe is unmistakably phallic). Great literary figures--such as Shakespeare--used Robin William’s advice, prompting a modern British academic, Héloïse Sénéchal, to chronicle the Bard’s use of sexual imagery, and how he catered to the bawdy sensibilities of the Globe Theatre’s audience. A computer program was written to scan the entirety of Shakespeare’s work, tracking all references to the male reproductive organ— and other sexual references—through synonyms commonly used in that culture. Next to every explicit word or phrase used, the modern meaning appears in [brackets]. In The Tragedy of Romeo and Juliet, for example, Mercutio ridicules Romeo’s love-sick condition by saying: “O here's a wit [penis] of cheveril, that stretches from an inch narrow to an ell broad [45in, or a large penis]!”12 From words and images on well preserved walls in Pompeii, through Shakespeare’s horn-mad allusions, to Freud’s penis-envy, the use of the male member as a source of happiness and humor, has an enduring quality that cannot be ignored. In October 2007 a graduate level class, under the direction of Dr. Leslie Lenkowsky laughed loudly when he referenced a common pharmaceutical called Viagra. Dr. Lenkowsky often uses humor as an instructional tool, but the Viagra statement generated the most robust laughter of the semester. Even a veiled reference to the almighty phallus continues to be a crowd pleaser and a continual source of comic material. Conclusions Laughter is the closest distance between two people--Victor Borge When you are asked to define happiness, a mental image of the meaning appears in your mind: an internal sense of joy, the memory of a specific moment in your life, or perhaps a sensory image of a beautiful landscape. As a child my definition of happiness aligned with
  9. 9. Ethics of Philanthropy IUPUI—Fall 07—Dr. Gunderman Giving and Happiness: Laughter—Final Draft Amy Stark --Page 9--6/11/2008 Charles M. Schultz, who wrote, Happiness is a Warm Puppy. This definition of happiness, however, alienates cat lovers. We are in the midst of a technological paradigm shift that will soon provide a public space for grassroots interconnectedness unparalleled in our species history. Rudyard Kipling’s famous phrase, “East is East and West is West and never the twain shall meet” is no longer true. The Internet is in the process of breaking geographic barriers. At the speed of light, mass global-communication technologies can deliver: ideas, literature, art, history, religion, music, wisdom, joy, hope, laughter and virtually everything else not made of matter! Laughter is a point of commonality for our species, and may prove very useful in our attempt to spread evolutionary philanthropic gifts around the world. Laughter inspires kinetic moments of joy in both the giver and receiver, and it has the potential to improve our chances to evolve as a species, so that our handoff will improve the chances global human happiness.
  10. 10. Ethics of Philanthropy IUPUI—Fall 07—Dr. Gunderman Giving and Happiness: Laughter—Final Draft Amy Stark --Page 10--6/11/2008 Bibliography Buckley, F.H. 2005. The Morality of Laughter, A serious look at the meaning of laughter. The University of Michigan Press. Ann Arbor, MI. Cass, Amy A. Ed. 2002. The Perfect Gift, The Philanthropic Imagination in Poetry and Prose. Indiana University Press. Bloomington, IN. Critchley, Simon. 2002. On Humour, Thinking in Action. Routledge. New York, NY. Cutler, Howard C. and the Dalai Lama, HH. 1998. The Art of Happiness, A Handbook for Living. Penguin Group, Inc. New York, NY. Godin, Seth. 2003. Purple Cow, Transform your business by being remarkable. Penguin Books. New York, NY. Great Short Works of Leo Tolstoy. 2004. Perennial Classics. HarperCollins Publishers, Inc. New York, NY. McMahon, Darrin M. 2006. Happiness, A History. Grove Press. New York, NY. Orwell, George. 1933. Down and Out in Paris and London. Harcourt, Inc. Orlando, FL. Schultz, Charles M. 1962. Happiness is a Warm Puppy. Scholastic Book Services, Inc. Pittsburg. PA. Stall, Sam and Harry, Lou. 2003. Dirty Words of Wisdom. Quirk Books. Philadelphia, PA.
  11. 11. Ethics of Philanthropy IUPUI—Fall 07—Dr. Gunderman Giving and Happiness: Laughter—Final Draft Amy Stark --Page 11--6/11/2008 Appendix i OSI Model The Open Systems Interconnection model. Specific image retrieved Nov. 2007 from <http://www.cs.indiana.edu/classes/a338/images/osi.gif>. Some Popular mnemonics to retain the 7 layers of the Open Systems Interconnection model: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Please Do Not Take Sales People's Advice Angus Prefers Sausages To Nibbling Dried Pork A Pathetic Silly Trick Never Does Please People Don't Need This Stuff Presented Anyway Programmers Do Not Throw Sausage Pizza Away Apply Proper Sense To Network Data Path People Don't Need To Study Protocol Analysis Please Do Not Touch Steve's Pet Alligator Phil Donahue Never Televises Sick People Anymore Please Dear, Not Tonight, Soft Penis Already All People Studying This Need Drastic Psychotherapy People Design Networks To Send Packets Accurately Australian Post Sucks They Never Deliver Parcels Philosophers Deign Not To Solipstically Ponder Anachronisms Please Don't Network These Stupid People Again Any Person Standing Totally Nude Doesn't Perspire Selected Mnemonics retrieved Nov. 2007 from < http://www.osi7layer.com/>.
  12. 12. Ethics of Philanthropy IUPUI—Fall 07—Dr. Gunderman Giving and Happiness: Laughter—Final Draft Amy Stark --Page 12--6/11/2008 Appendix ii The Philosopher’s Drinking Song By Eric Idle Immanuel Kant was a real pissant who was very rarely stable. Heidegger, Heidegger was a boozy beggar who could think you under the table. David Hume could out consume Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, And Wittgenstein was a beery swine who was just as sloshed as Schlegel. There's nothing Nietzsche couldn't teach ya 'bout the raisin' of the wrist. Socrates himself was permanently pissed. John Stuart Mill, of his own free will, after half a pint of shandy was particularly ill. Plato, they say, could stick it away, 'alf a crate of whiskey every day! Aristotle, Aristotle was a bugger for the bottle, and Hobbes was fond of his Dram. And Rene Descartes was a drunken fart: "I drink, therefore I am." Yes, Socrates himself is particularly missed; A lovely little thinker, but a bugger when he's pissed. Lyrics retrieved Nov. 2007 from: <http://www.cs.rice.edu/~ssiyer/minstrels/poems/615.html>. Enjoy a re-mixed You Tube entry of this song entitled, Bruces’s Philosophers Song at <http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xQycQ8DABvc>. (Retrieved Nov. 2007).
  13. 13. Ethics of Philanthropy IUPUI—Fall 07—Dr. Gunderman Giving and Happiness: Laughter—Final Draft Amy Stark --Page 13--6/11/2008 Appendix iii Pithy quote selection: Quote the original author when possible, it adds a sense of authority. Learning to Give Quotes. Retrieved Nov. 2007 from <http://learningtogive.org/search/quotes/>. Humor is just another defense against the universe. Brooks, Mel Comedian and filmmaker (1926- ) -More quotes about [Humor] Happiness is good health and a bad memory. Bergman, Ingrid Swedish actress (1915-1982) -More quotes about [Humor] [Happiness] [Women] Happiness is having a large, loving, caring family in another city. Burns, George Actor (1896–1996) -More quotes about [Humor] [Family] [Happiness] Mark Twain, American Satirist (1835-1910) Specific quotes retrieved Nov. 2007 from <http://www.twainquotes.com/>. An honest man in politics shines more there than he would elsewhere. The political and commercial morals of the United States are not merely food for laughter, they are an entire banquet. Both marriage and death ought to be welcome: the one promises happiness, doubtless the other assures it. Ambrose Bierce, American Satirist (1842-1914).: Quote from The Devil’s Dictionary retrieved Nov. 2007 from <http://www.gutenberg.org/dirs/etext97/dvldc10.txt>. SENATE, n. A body of elderly gentlemen charged with high duties and misdemeanors. Will Rogers, American Humorist 1879-1935 Specific quotes retrieved Nov. 2007 from <http://www.cmgww.com/historic/rogers/quotes2.htm>. I don't make jokes. I just watch the government and report the facts. I belong to no organized party. I am a Democrat. The income tax has made more liars out of the American people than golf has.
  14. 14. Ethics of Philanthropy IUPUI—Fall 07—Dr. Gunderman Giving and Happiness: Laughter—Final Draft Amy Stark --Page 14--6/11/2008 Endnotes 1 Alexander Pope (1688 - 1744) Source: Essay on Man. Epistle iii. Line 303. Retrieved Nov. 2007 from < http://www.gutenberg.org/files/2428/2428-h/2428-h.htm>. 2 Plato and a Platypus Official Web site. Retrieved Nov. 2007 from <http://www.platoandaplatypus.com/>. 3 The Simpsons as philosophy. BBC Online. Specific Web page retrieved Nov. 2007 from <http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/magazine/4995624.stm>. 4 Laughter Yoga Web page retrieved Nov. 2007<http://www.laughteryoga.org/>. 5 F. H. Buckley. 2005. The Morality of Laughter. Page 4 (See Bibliography) 6 Pew Internet and American Life Project. Specific Web page retrieved Nov. 2007 from <http://www.pewinternet.org/PPF/r/150/report_display.asp>. 7 Bob Hope official Web site. Quotes retrieved Nov. 2007 from < www.BobHope.com>. 8 Ibid 9 Authentic Happiness Web page published by the University of Pennsylvania. Specific Web page retrieved Nov. 2007 from <http://www.authentichappiness.sas.upenn.edu/>. 10 Christopher Peterson and Martin E. P. Seligman, Character Strengths and Virtues: A Handbook and Classification. March 2004. Quote retrieved Nov. 2007 from <http://www.apa.org/monitor/julaug04/positive.html>. 11 12 This example is a personal self-deprecating humorous moment. David Smith. March 2006. Bard's secret sex text message. The Observer. Quote retrieved Nov. 2007 from <http://observer.guardian.co.uk/uk_news/story/0,,1739819,00.html>.

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