Trends and Best Practices in Faculty Development for Online Teaching


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  • I pioneered the first movement of course from FTF to online in FCE at MSU, more than 1 in 4 college students will take at least 1 online course, 17% growth As one with a background in social psychology, I couldn’t agree more that pedagogy and content knowledge are STILL the most important components to quality online education TPACK helps us to get at the tensions in a systematic way
  • Much of my own research resides up in the tech and pedagogical knowledge interaction. E.g. – how are social processes (belonginess, social presence, immediacy of instructor) affected by technological structures such as synchronous and asynchronous communication
  • Really Moodle seems to do the forums best, but that’s an issue for another day
  • Although writing some requirements into bylaws and making online education a part of the faculty tenure portfolio is still an important step to think about What tech to use and not how to think about integrating it into individual teaching activities
  • Because their explorations of technology are tied to their attempts to solve educational problems, teachers learn “how to learn” about technology and “how to think” about technology. Hence, teachers go beyond thinking of themselves as being passive users of technological tools and begin thinking of themselves as being designers of technology; i.e. they learn to use existing hardware and software in creative, novel, and situation specific ways to accomplish their teaching goals. Spurred not only research, but a training on how to match technology (synchronous v.. Asynchronous communication) with certain learning tasks
  • Really struggling with the issue of spending a lot of time with a few faculty and then that knowledge doesn’t get passed on to others in department… peer learning is important and helps to get at the unique issues of technology and content knowledge Best thing we can do is introduce faculty to other like-minded instructors and resources around the world FOD at MSU…
  • Use of an anatomy simulation software in undergrad human anatomy course… what are affordances and constraints Afford – quickly cover many learning objectives, see 3d relationships of anatomical structures Constraints – learning transfer to an actual cadaver was poor
  • Measures the key results areas that are important to our organization
  • Trends and Best Practices in Faculty Development for Online Teaching

    1. 1. Trends and Best Practices in Faculty Development for Online Teaching <ul><li>Andy Saltarelli </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
    2. 2. Overview <ul><li>The Why: Exponential growth has naturally raised questions of the value and legitimacy of online education (Allen & Seaman, 2010) </li></ul><ul><li>The Tensions: Pedagogy and content expertise versus (?) technological competencies (Kim & Bonk, 2006) </li></ul><ul><li>All three: Pedagogy, content knowledge, and technological knowledge (TPACK, Koehler, Mishra, 2006) </li></ul><ul><li>The Solution: Creating a community of learners </li></ul>
    3. 3. TPACK
    4. 4. TPACK <ul><li>Affordances and constraints associated with technological structures </li></ul><ul><li>E.g., asynchronous discussion forums (Roseth, Saltarelli, & Glass, under review) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can you “port” FTF procedures into online ed? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Think time” – marginal achievement boost </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Motivation – plummeted, with 30% attrition </li></ul></ul>
    5. 5. Faculty Development Tensions <ul><li>Technology competencies are somewhat necessary but not sufficient -- does not ensure their appropriate use real pedagogical situations </li></ul><ul><li>Academic autonomy enjoyed by university faculty make strict requirement of tech skills problematic </li></ul><ul><li>What to do, not how to think - instructional software/hardware skills are often taught in the absence of authentic pedagogical issues that faculty individually face </li></ul>
    6. 6. Faculty Development Solutions <ul><li>Authentic pedagogy – encourage faculty to learn “how to think about technology ” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Trainings must in involve authentic, situated pedagogical problems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Invite proposals and authentic problems from faculty </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>E.g., Constructive Controversy (Deutsch, 1973; Johnson & Johnson, 2009) procedures in online ed? (Task-technology fit, Goodhue, 1998) </li></ul></ul></ul>
    7. 7. Faculty Development Examples <ul><li>Foster a community of faculty learners </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ATS services and IDs should only be one part of the learning community – facilitators </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Establishes discourse on the technology-content interaction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can connect faculty to national and international leaders, resources, and best practices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>E.g., “Champions” initiative </li></ul></ul></ul>
    8. 8. Faculty Development Examples <ul><li>Engage in design-based research (DBR) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Partner with faculty to empirically test technology implementation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>E.g., Anatomy simulation study (Saltarelli, Saltarelli, & Roseth, under review) </li></ul></ul></ul>
    9. 9. Faculty Development Examples <ul><li>Probe and measure, often </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Student Opinion Survey specific to online education </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Online teaching competencies written into college by-laws </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Faculty development survey </li></ul></ul>
    10. 10. References <ul><li>Allen, I., & Seaman, J. (2010). Learning on demand: Online education in the United States, 2009 . Newburyport, MA: The Sloan Consortium. </li></ul><ul><li>Deutsch, M. (1973). The resolution of conflict . New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. </li></ul><ul><li>Johnson, D W, & Johnson, R T. (2009). Energizing learning: The instructional power of conflict. Educational Researcher , 38 (1), 37. </li></ul><ul><li>Kim, K. J., & Bonk, C. J. (2006). The future of online teaching and learning in higher education. Educause Quarterly , 29 , 22–30.   </li></ul><ul><li>Mishra, P., & Koehler, M. J. (2006). Technological pedagogical content knowledge: A framework for teacher knowledge. Teachers College Record , 108 (6), 1017–1054.   </li></ul><ul><li>Mishra, P., Koehler, M. J., & Zhao, Y. (2007). Faculty development by design: Integrating technology in higher education . Charlotte, NC: Information Age Publishing . </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>