Materials For Technical Use Wood


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Materials For Technical Use Wood

  1. 1. Materials for Technical Use : Wood Technology Department I.E.S. El Molinillo Guillena
  2. 2. Historical Introduction: Wood is a natural material. Wood and stone were the first materials that man used. Wood is used to light a fire, to make Wood weapons, to build houses, etc. Some of these things are used today.
  3. 3. The Tree’s Trunk Sapwood: part of the trunk with life. It´s the Heartwood: the best quality youngest part of the wood. Its colour is light. part. It has a lot of sap. Medullary Rays: they are cracks from the center Wood outwards. Bark: the outer trunk´s part. It is a protector of the trunk.. Medulla: the inner trunk´s part.
  4. 4. Obtaining Wood We can extract wood from a tree that is not too young or too old, it depends on the different species To extract wood we follow these steps: Life rings let us know Wood Cut down the trees tree´s age. The clearest rings belong to spring and Clean the branches and the bark the darkest ones belong to autumn. Transport Cut the wood Dry it Distribution
  5. 5. To Cut Trees. The trees are cut in the winter, because they have less sap. •The tools to cut trees were the axe and the hand saw. •The tools used today are the chainsaw Wood and big machines that cut and raise the trunk quickly.
  6. 6. To Cut Trees. It is necessary to plant trees again to have wood in the future. This prevents deforestation. Wood
  7. 7. Cleaning the trunks First the trees are cut down and then the branches and the bark are cut. Wood Transportation From the beginning the trunks were transported by the rivers´ flow. Today the trunks are transported by big lorries.
  8. 8. To cut the wood The trunks go to the sawmill. Here the worker marks the lines to cut the wood. This woodcutter makes planks, boards, beams, etc. Wood The tools to cut the wood are: traditionally circular saws and today big electrical machines or machines with engines.
  9. 9. Drying the wood After cutting the wood, It´s necesary to dry in order to evaporate the sap and the water. The wood is stacked to allow air to flow. It is faster with hot air. Wood The distribution of wood The cured wood is taken to the factories.
  10. 10. Properties of wood •The wood is hygroscopic. •The wood is a bad conductor of electricity and heat. So the wood is a good insulator. •Most wood has medium density (<1000 Kg/m3),except some like the ebony and other tropical wood. •There is very soft wood like that of poplar trees or balsa and very hard Wood like oak or ebony. •The wood has good mechanical endurance in parallel direction to the fibres and less mechanical resistance in perpendicular direction to the fibres. •Durability: there is wood that is very resistant to fungus and parasites like walnut, mahogany…and there is other wood less durable like pines and eucalyptus.
  11. 11. Types of wood: The most common classification of wood is : •Soft wood: resinous and evergreen trees, they are easy to work with (pine, fir, poplar…) •Hard wood: deciduous trees like oak , walnut, ebony,… Wood Some interesting web links: • Wood´s Web (ES) • Wood´s Kinds (ES) • Wood in Kalipedia (ES) • Wood´s Kinds 2 (EN) • Wood´s Kinds 3 (EN)
  12. 12. Types of wood: Exercise: make a Power Point or an Impress presentation with the different kinds of wood . You must show the main properties and applications of every one. Below you can see an example in Spanish. Wood
  13. 13. Wood Derivatives  Artificial Boards: • Cheaper than natural wood. • Completely flat and smooth. • Bigger size than natural wood. Wood • Will not rot and it´s termite resistant. Plywoods: Made with wood sheets with perpendicular fibers and are stuck together. These boards always have an uneven number of sheets.
  14. 14. Wood Derivatives Chipboards: Made with glued and pressed wood shavings. We can paste plastic or natural wood sheets together to get a Wood best finish quality. Fiber Boards: We can get them from wood fibers pressed together by high pressure and glued by synthetic resin (DM) or natural resin (tablex).
  15. 15. Wood Derivatives  Paper: • Resistant • Enduring • Hygroscopic • Light Wood • Heat insulator • Electric insulator.  Cardboard: •Obtained from a thick sheet of pulp paper. • Light and resistant. • Used in packaging.
  16. 16. Woodworking To measure and to mark To fix To cut Wood To split To drill To smooth To finish
  17. 17. Woodworking Tools:  To measure and to mark • Compass • Flexometer Wood • Square  To fix Vise, bar clamp and C-clamp.
  18. 18. Woodworking : Tools  To cut Hand Tools: Rip saw, backsaw and hacksaw. Wood Power Tools: circular saw, jigsaw and table saw.
  19. 19. Woodworking : Tools  Wood Machining Woodturning Wood Gouges Router/Milling Machine Router bits to mill
  20. 20. Woodworking : Tools  To smooth Rasps: with different sections. Wood Sandpaper Electric sander
  21. 21. Woodworking : Tools  To drill Wood Hand drill Wood auger Drill bits Electric drill
  22. 22. Woodworking: Tools  To split Hammer Nailing Wood Screwing Screws Screwdrivers Powered screwdriver
  23. 23. Woodworking : Tools  To split Gluing Wood Paste
  24. 24. Woodworking : Tools  Finishing Wood Waxing Varnishing © Antonio Jesús Romero & Juan Antonio Tierno 2010 Painting