Materials For Technical Use (Ii) Metal


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Materials For Technical Use (Ii) Metal

  1. 1. Materials for Technical Use (II): Metal Department of Technology I.E.S. El Molinillo Guillena © Antonio Jesús Romero
  2. 2. Metal Properties <ul><li>Metal is a good conductor of heat and electricity </li></ul><ul><li>High mechanical endurance </li></ul><ul><li>High fusion temperature </li></ul><ul><li>Metal is a heavy material </li></ul>Cast Iron Steel Copper Tin Zinc Aluminum Magnesium Titanium Tensile Strength 18 kg 70kg 18kg 5kg 3kg 10Kg 18kg 70kg Mass(per m 3 ) 7600kg 7800kg 8800kg 7300kg 7400kg 2700kg 1700kg 4500kg Fusion temperature 1100ºC 1500ºC 1083ºC 231ºC 419ºC 660ºC 650ºC 1800ºC
  3. 3. <ul><li>It´s a tough material </li></ul><ul><li>Some of them have magnetic properties </li></ul><ul><li>It´s an easily recyclable material </li></ul><ul><li>It´s a ductile, malleable material </li></ul>Metal Properties
  4. 4. Classification of Metals World Metal Production <ul><li>Metals are classified in two groups: </li></ul><ul><li>Ferrous Metals : iron and its alloys. </li></ul><ul><li>Non-Ferrous Metals : metals that do not contain iron . </li></ul><ul><li>This is because iron is the most used metal in the world </li></ul>
  5. 5. Ferrous Metals <ul><li>Iron is an abundant metal. </li></ul><ul><li>Iron is fragile and brittle. </li></ul><ul><li>Iron rusts easily. </li></ul><ul><li>Iron has very good magnetic properties. </li></ul>Pure iron Due to his low endurance, pure iron is not used. So it´s mixed with a little amount of carbon obtaining ferrous alloys. How changes carbon the iron properties? A bigger amount of carbon in the ferrous alloy increases the hardness but decreases the tenacity, so the alloy becomes more fragile.
  6. 6. <ul><li>Soft Iron ( C<0,1%) </li></ul>It´s like pure iron. At first it was very used because it was easy to obtain. At present time it´s used to make electromagnet nucleus thanks to its very good magnetic property. <ul><li>Soft, due to its low iron content. </li></ul><ul><li>Silvery colour. </li></ul><ul><li>Electric and electronic applications. </li></ul>Ferrous Metals: Ferrous Alloys
  7. 7. <ul><li>Steel ( 0,1%<C<2% ) </li></ul><ul><li>It´s the most used ferrous alloy thanks to its good properties. </li></ul><ul><li>Ductile and malleable. </li></ul><ul><li>High mechanical endurance. </li></ul><ul><li>The amount of carbon increases hardness and fragility. </li></ul>Steel mixed with other metal increases endurance (vanadium) and becomes stainless (chrome and nickel). Ferrous Metals: Ferrous Alloys
  8. 8. <ul><li>Cast Iron ( 2%<C<5% ) </li></ul><ul><li>Harder and more fragile than steel. </li></ul><ul><li>It has low ductility but it´s a malleable alloy with magnesium. </li></ul><ul><li>It melts more easily than steel. </li></ul>It´s used to make complicated parts by sand casting and to make hard tools like rasps. Ferrous Metals: Ferrous Alloys
  9. 9. Non-Ferrous Metals: Pure Metals <ul><li>Copper </li></ul><ul><li>Tin </li></ul><ul><li>Red colour </li></ul><ul><li>Excellent thermal and electric conductor </li></ul><ul><li>Corrosion resistant </li></ul><ul><li>Good welding </li></ul><ul><li>Very ductile and malleable </li></ul><ul><li>Bluish white shiny colour </li></ul><ul><li>Soft </li></ul><ul><li>Corrosion resistant </li></ul><ul><li>Low melting point </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Zinc </li></ul><ul><li>Aluminum </li></ul><ul><li>White colour </li></ul><ul><li>Very corrosion resistant </li></ul><ul><li>White shiny colour </li></ul><ul><li>Light and good endurance </li></ul><ul><li>No toxic </li></ul><ul><li>Cheap </li></ul><ul><li>Stainless </li></ul>Non-Ferrous Metals: Pure Metals
  11. 11. <ul><li>Magnesium </li></ul><ul><li>Titanium </li></ul><ul><li>Very light </li></ul><ul><li>Expensive </li></ul><ul><li>Violent reaction with oxygen </li></ul><ul><li>Very expensive </li></ul><ul><li>Endurance like steel but quite lighter. </li></ul><ul><li>Biocompatible </li></ul>Non-Ferrous Metals: Pure Metals
  12. 12. <ul><li>Gold </li></ul><ul><li>Lead </li></ul><ul><li>The most malleable and ductile metal </li></ul><ul><li>Very corrosion resistant </li></ul><ul><li>High thermal and electric conductivity </li></ul><ul><li>High economic value </li></ul><ul><li>Grey colour </li></ul><ul><li>Very soft </li></ul><ul><li>Low melting point </li></ul><ul><li>Ductile and malleable </li></ul><ul><li>Very toxic </li></ul>Non-Ferrous Metals: Pure Metals
  13. 13. <ul><li>Brass (Copper+Zinc) </li></ul><ul><li>Bronze (Copper+Tin) </li></ul><ul><li>Yellow colour </li></ul><ul><li>Very ductile and malleable </li></ul><ul><li>Good tensile endurance </li></ul><ul><li>Dark yellow colour </li></ul><ul><li>More endurance than brass </li></ul><ul><li>Very corrosion resistant </li></ul><ul><li>Good sonority </li></ul><ul><li>Very fluid when melting, good for molding. </li></ul>Non-Ferrous Metals: Alloys
  14. 14. <ul><li>Aluminum, Copper & Magnesium </li></ul><ul><li>Magnesium & Aluminum </li></ul><ul><li>Titanium & Aluminum </li></ul><ul><li>Lightness and more endurance than pure aluminum. </li></ul><ul><li>This alloy is more resistant than each metal. </li></ul><ul><li>Cheaper than pure titanium parts. </li></ul>Non-Ferrous Metals: Alloys
  15. 15. Metal Obtaining Most metals are in nature as minerals. Chalcosite: copper rich Pyrite: iron rich Hematite: iron rich Limonite: iron rich Bauxite: aluminum rich Pure gold
  16. 16. Obtaining cast iron and steel Coal Iron ore Limestone Blast furnace Torpedo ladle Ladle Furnace Refining Furnace We can obtain cast iron from the melting of coal,iron ore and limestone at the blast furnace , then we carry it to the refining furnace using torpedo furnace and ladle furnace. In the refining furnace the amount of carbon to obtain steel decreases.
  17. 17. Obtaining of metals by electolysis We use a high voltage electric current over the melted metal. Pure metal is attracted by the negative electrode (remember that metal atoms are positive). We can use this method to obtain metals like copper and aluminum.
  18. 18. Metal Working To drill To cut To fix and to bend To measure and to mark To smooth To split To finish
  19. 19. <ul><li>To measure and to mark </li></ul><ul><li>To fix and to bend </li></ul>Metal Working Compass Square Steel rule Pliers Vise, bar clamp and C-clamp Scriber
  20. 20. <ul><li>To cut </li></ul><ul><li>To drill </li></ul>Metal Working Metal Scissors Hacksaw Drill Drill bits
  21. 21. <ul><li>To smooth </li></ul><ul><li>To split </li></ul>Welding Screwing Riveting Metal Working Rasp Wire wool Metal polisher
  22. 22. <ul><li>To finish </li></ul>Primer Burnished Metal Working
  23. 23. <ul><li>Milling: we can use different mill bits to shape a piece from a block of metal. </li></ul>Metal Working: Machining
  24. 24. <ul><li>Turning: we can obtain metallic parts with cylindrical symmetry. </li></ul>Metal Working: Machining
  25. 25. <ul><li>Computer Numerical Control (CNC): it´s to make metallic pieces automatically and with a very high accuracy. </li></ul>Metal Working: Machining
  26. 26. Molding and Metal Forming <ul><li>Molding: Sand Casting </li></ul>Sand is used to make a mold and fill this with molten metal. It allows you to make complicated parts as the engine block of a car.
  27. 27. <ul><li>Lamination </li></ul>We use rolls that compress the metal to obtain sheets and metal profiles. Molding and Metal Forming
  28. 28. <ul><li>Stamping </li></ul><ul><li>Die-Cutting </li></ul>A metal sheet is compressed by a press to take the form of the mold. It´s cutting pieces of a metal sheet using a press. Molding and Metal Forming
  29. 29. <ul><li>Forge </li></ul>We use the fire and hammer over the anvil to shape the soft steel and get handmade pieces of metal. Anvil Molding and Metal Forming