Global Hubs & Switched off
Know what a Global Hub is
Understand why some places
become Global Hubs
• Global hubs are switched-on places possessing qualities
that make other places want to connect with them.
• Mostly created by either natural resources (e.g. on the
coastline) or human resources (e.g. labour force)
• In some cases, these are the obvious world cities, e.g.
London and Tokyo.
• In other cases, they may possess a particular attribute
that others wish to connect with, rather than displaying a
full range of connections, e.g. Bangalore and call centres.
• Many of the global hubs host the major TNCs.
• They tend to be places of increasingly diverse culture as
flows of people, finance, trade and ideas converge on
• Global hubs are the ‘winners’ who benefit most from
What makes a Global Hub
• Factors that create a global hub,
combination of both Natural and Human
• Multiplier effect
• Stick your
Cumulative Causation / Positive
• Arrange the cards into a logical sequence
Global hubs in Recently Industrialised Countries
(RICs)- disparities have increased, why?
Sao Paulo, Brazil Johannesburg, South Africa
Problem that the wealthy jump on the TNC
band wagon whilst the poor remain in
poverty and fail to improve their living
conditions. Lack of trickle down effect.
Switched off nations?
• These low income countries (Sudan,
Chad) have a very shallow level of
integration with the rest of the world.
• TNC’s unlikely to return to sell their
products, so not completing the circuit.
• Integration may exist in;
– Food aid given to subsistence farmers
– Farmers who grow agricultural produce for
TNC’s – e.g. Kenya's flower growers. Video
Why do some places remain ‘switched off’?
• Combination of physical and human resource
Nature of poverty in switched off
1. Growing gap between rich and poor as
even in NIC’s, the rich are pulling further
ahead of the field.
2. Oxfam claim that the 85 richest people
are as wealthy as poorest half of the
• Make two fact sheets;
1. ‘Winners - Switched
on’ China’s Pearl River
Delta (p3-4 Geofile)
2. ‘Losers - Switched off’
The Gambia (handout
Watch ‘Toughest place
to be a fisherman’
• Watch ‘toughest place to be
a fisherman’. How switched
off is this place?