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Future Forests V3


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  • Hi AJP

    Many thanks for this excellent PPT on the DME. We have a significant no. of students resitting after (unexpectedly) poor results in the Jan DME, so this is a godsend for them at a time when they are exceptionally pressed with other exams.

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Future Forests V3

  1. 1. Future Forests: Can we see the wood for the trees? This is the issue that you are going to be considering.
  2. 2. Structure of the lessons <ul><li>Each lesson we will be looking at different resources from your booklets. </li></ul><ul><li>The DME exam is split into three sections: </li></ul><ul><li>‘ The Background:’ this gives background information about the subject </li></ul><ul><li>‘ The options:’ this section runs you through the options for development of the forests. </li></ul><ul><li>‘ The decision:’ you will be presented with a real life scenario about a forest. In the exam, you will have to choose a future for the forest. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Important points to remember <ul><li>You should be able to get all of your information from the resources booklet for your answers. </li></ul><ul><li>We will provide you with a few extra ‘juicy bits’ to show off your knowledge, but always start with the booklet information first </li></ul><ul><li>This exam tests your understanding of sustainability - you need to consider this all the time! </li></ul>
  4. 4. Lesson one: What is the background to the issue? <ul><li>In this lesson you will cover: </li></ul><ul><li>Where are the worlds’ forests? </li></ul><ul><li>What affects their location? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the environmental conditions for each of the forest types? </li></ul><ul><li>How are forests being used as a resource? </li></ul>
  5. 5. Where are the world’s forests? <ul><li>There are 5 different types of forests that you will look at in the introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Can you match up the description with the pictures? </li></ul><ul><li>Coniferous forests </li></ul><ul><li>Broadleaved forest </li></ul><ul><li>Temperate forest </li></ul><ul><li>Tropical and monsoon forest </li></ul><ul><li>Mangrove wetlands </li></ul>
  6. 6. Resource 1 - glossary <ul><li>Distribution – spread/location of forest </li></ul><ul><li>Coniferous forest – cone bearing/needle leaved trees </li></ul><ul><li>Broadleaved forest – found in cooler climates with high rainfall </li></ul><ul><li>Tropical rainforest – found near the equator in hot/wet climates </li></ul><ul><li>Temperate rainforest – found in mid-latitude areas with high rainfall </li></ul><ul><li>Mangrove wetlands – found in salty water near coasts with tropical climates </li></ul><ul><li>Monsoon – seasonal wind bringing heavy rainfall </li></ul>
  7. 8. Coniferous forests <ul><li>Coniferous forests live in areas with very cold climates </li></ul><ul><li>They are found towards the artic circle and in some alpine environments </li></ul><ul><li>The conical shape of the trees encourages snow to fall off the branches rather than settling and weighing them down </li></ul><ul><li>Conifers are mainly evergreen trees and have spiky needles to maintain moisture and energy </li></ul><ul><li>Conifers can be grown, or farmed to provide wood for timber. </li></ul><ul><li>Pine needles when they decompose make the forest soils acidic </li></ul><ul><li>Conifers can grow on slopes with poor drainage </li></ul>
  8. 9. Broadleaved Forests <ul><li>The leaves of different broadleaf trees come in all varieties of shapes and sizes, but tend to be flat, broad shapes quite unlike the needles of conifers. </li></ul><ul><li>Most broadleaf trees in Britain are deciduous. This means that they lose all their leaves in the autumn, remaining bare through the cold winter months until the spring, when they grow new foliage. </li></ul><ul><li>Some broadleaf trees however, are evergreen, rather than deciduous. Holly is an example. The seeds of broadleaf trees are produced within a great variety of different structures, from acorns to berries. </li></ul>
  9. 10. Tropical Rainforests <ul><li>Tropical rainforests contain broadleaved trees. They are deciduous, but because of the year-long growing season, the forest looks green all year around. </li></ul><ul><li>They have a special structure to them </li></ul>
  10. 11. Temperate Rainforest <ul><li>The temperate rainforest is different to the tropical rainforest because it has seasonal variation . </li></ul><ul><li>The summers can be quite warm, but the temperatures drop significantly to near freezing </li></ul><ul><li>Although this rainforest has layers of tall, medium and low growing vegetation, the cool winters limit the numbers and size of trees that live there </li></ul>There are fragile, shorter trees, and the forest floor is covered in ferns, mosses, and lichens grow on the tree trunks and roots.
  11. 12. Mangrove forest <ul><li>These are very special forests, found on the edge of tropical forests, where they meet the sea. The mangrove trees are specially adapted to live in saline (salty) conditions as their roots spring out of the water. </li></ul><ul><li>  They protect the coastline and prevent erosion by collecting sediment from the rivers and streams and slow down the water </li></ul><ul><li>Mangrove forests look like they are on stilts- these are their specialised aerial roots which hold the trunk and leaves above the water line. </li></ul>
  12. 13. Resource 2 - glossary <ul><li>Renewable resource – can be replaced at the same rate as it is used </li></ul><ul><li>Sustainable – does not cause harm to people, the environment or the economy </li></ul><ul><li>Thatch – covering a roof with dry vegetation </li></ul><ul><li>Animal fodder – food specifically to feed animals </li></ul><ul><li>Gums, resins, oils – used in products such as varnish or glue. </li></ul>
  13. 14. R2 <ul><li>Table of forests as a resource and examples of the use of that resource. </li></ul>
  14. 15. Extra info for uses of forests <ul><li>Western medicine only recently discovered the pharmaceutical qualities of rainforest plants: Curare , the deadly poison used on Indian dart tips, is used world wide in operating theatres as a muscle relaxant. Vinca rosea has turned the chances of surviving childhood leukaemia from one-in-five to four-in-five. </li></ul><ul><li>Food and spices : ginger, allspice, cinnamon, coconut, vanilla, turmeric and paprika all come from the tropical rainforest. And, of course chocolate!! </li></ul><ul><li>Thatching: from fibre and cane from rainforests. </li></ul>
  15. 16. Introduce sustainability of forest uses… <ul><li>Wood is a renewable resource but little is being done to make it sustainable </li></ul><ul><li>What do we mean by sustainability? </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Sustainable development is development that meets the needs of the current generation without harming the potential for the future generations to meet their own needs’ </li></ul><ul><li>Forests are an incredibly important resource, and unless they are managed sustainably, will disappear. </li></ul>
  16. 17. <ul><li>This is the sustainability triangle </li></ul><ul><li>Can you give any examples of how forests could be used sustainably? </li></ul>Economic Social Environmental
  17. 18. Mock questions 1 and 2 <ul><li>These are 6 mark questions </li></ul><ul><li>That means that they are levelled, i.e. L1 = 1-2 marks </li></ul><ul><li>L2 = 3-4 marks </li></ul><ul><li>L3 = 5-6 marks </li></ul><ul><li>You need to make sure that you include enough detail in your answers, from the booklet and explained using your geographical knowledge. </li></ul>
  18. 19. LESSON THREE
  19. 20. Resource 2 - tasks <ul><li>Sort the uses of forests in a list of high value to low value. </li></ul><ul><li>Which of these products do you think is the most important to humans? </li></ul><ul><li>Is it necessary to cut down forests to provide all of these products? Explain your answer. </li></ul>Alexandra High School Geography Department
  20. 21. In what ways is my everlasting pen sustainable? <ul><li>It won’t run out </li></ul><ul><li>It won’t harm the environment </li></ul><ul><li>It will stay at a good quality </li></ul><ul><li>It will benefit me </li></ul><ul><li>It will benefit future generations </li></ul><ul><li>It is a FUNKY PEN! </li></ul>
  21. 22. Resource 3 and 4
  22. 23. Resource 3 <ul><li>This resource considers the implications of rainforest clearance at different scales. </li></ul><ul><li>What do you think this cartoon shows? </li></ul>
  23. 24. Resource 3 - tasks <ul><li>Read carefully the bubble ‘What can happen without forest’ and complete the table. </li></ul>More moisture present elsewhere in water cycle What can happen without forest Possible effects on the world. 40% less rainfall Higher daytime temperature The balance between oxygen and carbon dioxide
  24. 25. Resource 4 - glossary <ul><li>CO2 – chemical symbol for carbon dioxide </li></ul><ul><li>Evapotranspiration – the total of evaporation and transpiration </li></ul><ul><li>Transpiration – evaporation of water from vegetation </li></ul><ul><li>Condensation – transfer from gas to liquid </li></ul><ul><li>Water vapour – name for water as a gas </li></ul>
  25. 26. Resource 4 - tasks <ul><li>The blue arrows represent changes to the water cycle </li></ul><ul><li>The red arrows represent changes in CO2 and O2 in the atmosphere </li></ul>Alexandra High School Geography Department
  26. 27. Resource 4 <ul><li>Can you explain two impacts of deforestation? </li></ul><ul><li>Explain how it affects the water cycle </li></ul><ul><li>Why can the world’s forests be describes as ‘green lungs’? </li></ul><ul><li>What effects could deforestation have on people? </li></ul>
  27. 28. Alexandra High School Geography Department
  28. 29. What does this logo mean to you? <ul><li>Where is it found? </li></ul><ul><li>What does it mean? </li></ul>
  29. 30. This lesson <ul><li>We will look at two more resources: </li></ul><ul><li>Resource 5 and 6 </li></ul><ul><li>These two resources look at increasing the sustainability of using forests. </li></ul><ul><li>They do not specify the types of forests </li></ul><ul><li>You will need to consider how the suggested ways are sustainable in terms of: </li></ul><ul><li>1. social 2. economic and 3. environmental sustainability </li></ul>
  30. 31. Resource 5 - glossary <ul><li>World Commission on Forests and Sustainable Development – independent group set up to combat destruction of world’s forests </li></ul><ul><li>Sustainable management – To use a resource without harming the economy, environment or people </li></ul><ul><li>Subsidy- money given to support initiatives, usually the money is from the government. </li></ul><ul><li>Forest communities – groups of people that live in the forest </li></ul>
  31. 32. World Commission on Forests and Sustainable Development <ul><li>Some of the final report recommendations </li></ul>
  32. 33. 1. To stop the destruction of the Earth’s forests <ul><li>What does this mean? </li></ul><ul><li>This is to completely stop deforesting the forests of the world. </li></ul><ul><li>How sustainable is this? </li></ul><ul><li>Make sure that you think about the different categories (it might NOT be sustainable in each of the categories). </li></ul>
  33. 34. 2. To use the rich forest resources to improve the lives of native forest communities <ul><li>There are three examples of this </li></ul><ul><li>The Liana project, Brazilian TRF (PPT) </li></ul><ul><li>Clear cutting for farming in the Amazon region of Peru (Key Geog p121) </li></ul><ul><li>Sustainable logging project in the Philippines (Key Geog p121) </li></ul>
  34. 35. 3. To involve local people in decisions about the forests <ul><li>E.g. FARM Africa has found that involving the local community in forest management is the best approach to ensuring sustainable use. </li></ul>
  35. 36. 4. To apply sustainable management so forests are not lost forever <ul><li>Sustainable forest management is the management of forests according to the principles of sustainable development </li></ul><ul><li>In simpler terms, the concept can be described as the attainment of balance - between society's increasing demands for forest products and benefits, and the preservation of forest health and diversity. </li></ul><ul><li>This balance is critical to the survival of forests, and to the prosperity of forest-dependent communities. In Britain, the encouragement of sustainable forest management has led to the promotion of ‘multiple use’ management. </li></ul><ul><li>This means that varied forests are developed containing stands of different species, ages and structures. </li></ul>
  36. 37. 5. To stop subsidising forest products <ul><li>In the past, some forest products have been subsidised. This means that the governments of countries selling the timber have been given more money than the timber is worth to help them to keep exploiting the forests. </li></ul><ul><li>Why is this so bad? </li></ul>
  37. 38. 6. To monitor the rate of forest clearance <ul><li>This is as it sounds, this proposal means to monitor how quickly forests are being cleared, and then to step in when the rate of clearance becomes unsustainable </li></ul><ul><li>How would this rate be unsustainable? </li></ul><ul><li>When you are removing trees faster than new ones are growing. </li></ul>
  38. 39. 7. To make better use of our knowledge about forests <ul><li>Incorporating indigenous and local knowledge about forests </li></ul><ul><li>Using scientific ideas to help the preservation of forests… and the replanting of new ones? </li></ul>
  39. 40. 8. To educate people about the importance of forest communities <ul><li>Why is education people about sustainability important? </li></ul><ul><li>Think about the forest communities that education could benefit… can you name any? </li></ul><ul><li>Many forest communities protect and sustain their forests by using their traditional methods of farming etc. </li></ul>
  40. 41. Importance of recommendations <ul><li>How important do you think these recommendations are? </li></ul><ul><li>Which is the most important? </li></ul><ul><li>Which is the least important? </li></ul><ul><li>WHY? </li></ul><ul><li>Which are the most sustainable? </li></ul><ul><li>This movie shows an example of sustainable forest management. </li></ul><ul><li>Can you write down how this type of forestry in Brazil is sustainable? </li></ul>
  41. 42. LESSON 4
  42. 43. Using a forest sustainably <ul><li>This programme shows an example of using a forest sustainably. </li></ul><ul><li>Watch carefully, and in note down the following key points: </li></ul><ul><li>Where is this? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the project? </li></ul><ul><li>How is it sustainable (economically, socially and environmentally) </li></ul><ul><li>Does it apply the idea of sustainable forest management? (balance?) </li></ul>
  43. 44. Resource 6 <ul><li>This resource shows two differing aspects related to consumers and producers of forest products. </li></ul>
  44. 45. Resource 6 - glossary <ul><li>Forest Stewardship Council – FSC is an international not-for-profit membership-based organization that brings people together to find solutions to the problems created by bad forestry practices and to reward good forest management. </li></ul><ul><li>Stakeholder owned system – a system that provides opportunities for stakeholders to work together. </li></ul><ul><li>Trademark – company logo </li></ul><ul><li>Product label – trademark used on products approved by FSC </li></ul><ul><li>FSC certified wood – wood from forests approved by FSC </li></ul><ul><li>National initiatives – guidelines/projects set up in different countries </li></ul><ul><li>Action Aid – Charity targeting poverty </li></ul><ul><li>Soil erosion – wearing away of the soil </li></ul>
  45. 46. Resource 6 tasks <ul><li>What do you think are the benefits for a company using the FSC trademark? </li></ul><ul><li>Look at the following posters. Who are they aimed at and what messages are they trying to give? </li></ul>
  46. 49. Alexandra High School Geography Department
  47. 50. Alexandra High School Geography Department
  48. 51. Alexandra High School Geography Department
  49. 52. Alexandra High School Geography Department
  50. 53. Who are the FSC? <ul><li>The Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) is an international organization that brings people together to find solutions which promote responsible stewardship of the world’s forests </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>They have a trademark that allows consumers to see that the manufacturer supports the growth of responsible forest products. </li></ul><ul><li>E.g. on reading books, packets of tissues, paper.. What else? </li></ul>
  51. 54. What is their mission? <ul><li>The Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) shall promote environmentally appropriate, socially beneficial, and economically viable management of the world's forests. </li></ul><ul><li>Environmentally appropriate forest management ensures that the harvest of timber and non-timber products maintains the forest's biodiversity, productivity and ecological processes. </li></ul><ul><li>Socially beneficial forest management helps both local people and society at large to enjoy long term benefits and also provides strong incentives to local people to sustain the forest resources and adhere to long-term management plans. </li></ul><ul><li>Economically viable forest management means that forest operations are structured and managed so as to be sufficiently profitable, without generating financial profit at the expense of the forest resources, the ecosystem or affected communities. The tension between the need to generate adequate financial returns and the principles of responsible forest operations can be reduced through efforts to market forest products for their best value. </li></ul>
  52. 55. FSC sustainable forest management <ul><li>What is a ‘stakeholder owned system’? </li></ul><ul><li>FSC has been recognized as an international organization that provides a system for different stakeholders interested in forest issues to work towards responsible forest management. </li></ul><ul><li>Through the FSC system, the forest owners, managers, forest product manufacturers, local communities, non-governmental organizations and other interest groups are given equal access, voice and vote to a mechanism that is: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Democratic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inclusive (this will include empowering groups in forest area) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transparent </li></ul></ul><ul><li>This is a large scale way of promoting sustainable forest use </li></ul>
  53. 56. So what is ‘responsible forest management?’ <ul><li>What do you think the FSC means by ‘responsible forest management’? </li></ul><ul><li>(hint: can you remember what was in their mission statement?) </li></ul>
  54. 57. Midishi Village, Somalia <ul><li>ActionAid </li></ul><ul><li>Do you think that this project is sustainable? </li></ul><ul><li>How? </li></ul>
  55. 58. Resource 7 - glossary <ul><li>Exploit – to use something for your own advantage </li></ul><ul><li>Conserve – to protect something from damage </li></ul><ul><li>Arable – growing crops </li></ul><ul><li>Chemical fertilisers – a substance used to make plants grow well </li></ul><ul><li>Felling – cutting down trees </li></ul><ul><li>Indigenous – naturally existing in a place </li></ul><ul><li>Commercial timber – Buying/selling of timber </li></ul>
  56. 59. Resource 7 tasks <ul><li>Considering the sustainability of each technique: </li></ul><ul><li>Do these management techniques exploit or conserve the forest (or both?!) </li></ul><ul><li>Which forest management technique conserves and protects the forest the best? Why? </li></ul><ul><li>Which forest management technique exploits the forest the most? Why? </li></ul>
  57. 61. Resource 8 <ul><li>This resource highlights some of the reasons why forests in Britain are under threat and introduces some conflicts in their management. </li></ul>
  58. 62. Resource 8 - glossary <ul><li>Green belt – a strip of countryside around towns/cities where building is not allowed </li></ul><ul><li>EU agreements – a formal arrangement, often legally binding </li></ul>
  59. 63. Resource 8 - tasks <ul><li>1. Draw a spider diagram to show the threats to forests in our country. Use the information contained in the writing on page 9, split it up into threats. </li></ul><ul><li>2. How are subsidies and quotas from the EU are threatening our forests? </li></ul>
  60. 64. What does the cartoon mean?
  61. 65. Exploded spider diagram <ul><li>This should show the threats and how they are threats. </li></ul><ul><li>What are the conflicts in the management of forests? </li></ul>
  62. 66. Other local examples <ul><li> </li></ul>
  63. 67. Thetford Forest: a local example <ul><li>In your booklets, you have information about Thetford forest, and how it is managed. </li></ul><ul><li>Read it through carefully, and answer the questions in your resource booklets. </li></ul>
  64. 68. LESSON 5 DME mock paper questions
  65. 69. Feedback from Marking the questions <ul><li>For questions that ask you about sustainability, make sure that you specifically mention the three characteristics of sustainability: </li></ul><ul><li>Social </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental </li></ul><ul><li>Economic </li></ul><ul><li>This will ensure that you are discussing it in detail. </li></ul>
  66. 70. How many marks? <ul><li>Not all the questions will be 6 or 8 or 20 marks. </li></ul><ul><li>There may be some shorter answer questions that are worth only 2 marks each. </li></ul>