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  1. 1. Clauses Clause are groups of words that have subjects and finite verbs. Usually clauses are introduced by such relationship words as who, that, so that, where, but, however. Clauses can stand by themselves, or they can be dependent on other structures. Clauses fall into two categories: Independent and dependent
  2. 2. Independent Clause • Can stand by itself as a whole complete sentence. Example: hold tight! I have too much problems. You are my friend • An independent clause can be joined to another independent clause by punctuation, coordinating conjuctions, or sentence connectors. Example: Mrs. Powers spends lavishly; she has an independent income; unfortunately she has no taste.
  3. 3. Dependent clause • Like phrases, dependent clause function as nouns and as a modifiers. A dependent clause can be sometime recognized by its introductory relationship word. • Example: While you were sleeping in a bed, I put your hand in warm water. When I hear your voice, my heart begins to melt.
  4. 4. What is the difference between the two Clauses? • • • • *Independent clause* Contains at least a subject and a verb. Complete thought Simple sentence It makes sense
  5. 5. *Dependent clause* Contains at least a subject and a verb. NOT complete thought NOT simple sentence It does NOT make sense
  6. 6. How do we know when we have dependent clause? • When our sentences have SUBORDINATE CONJUNCTIONS • After, although, as, because, before, if, since, • Though, unless, until, when, whenever, where, • Wherever, while. Those are what we called SUBORDINATE CONJUNCTIONS.