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Smart city vs. Green city vs. xxx. Which approach for which city?


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Presented at the European Institute of Public Administration (EIPA) Summer School. June 2013

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Smart city vs. Green city vs. xxx. Which approach for which city?

  1. 1. Smart city vs. Green city vs. xxxx which approach for which city Summer School in “EU Economic Integration and Regional Development” EIPA - Barcelona - 26 June 2013
  2. 2. SUMMARY 1.- The global situation according to: ● The Royal Society (People and the Planet) ● OECD (Green growth in cities 2013) ● EU (2020 strategy and 2030 green paper) ● Conclusions for cities 2.- Green city vs. smart city 3.- Future of cities
  3. 3. What is the world situation? “People and the Planet” Report The Royal Society (UK) – April 2012 • 7 billion people reached during 2011 and between 8 and 10 billion by 2050 • Consumption in richest countries is not affordable for a population of 7 billions or more • Developing countries will be building the equivalent of a city of one million people every 5 days form now to 2050.
  4. 4. What is the world situation? “People and the Planet” Report The Royal Society (UK) – April 2012 Recommendations: § Fight absolute poverty 1.3 Billion people <1,25$/day § Reduce material consumption levels § Control fertility rates § Population and environment should be considered jointly § New Urbanisation should reduce material consumption and environmental impact § Develop new socio-economic systems not dependent on continuous growth
  5. 5. What is the role for cities? OECD Green Growth in Cities 2013 An explosive urban growth expected for the coming decades Today, 7 billion people, 50% in cities By the end of the century, 10 billion people, 85% in cities This means +5 billion dwellers to accommodate
  6. 6. What is the role for cities? OECD (Green Growth in Cities 2013) Cities play a disproportionate role in economic and environmental performance of countries 2% of the OECD regions account for 1/3 of the OECD growth In India and China, 5 largest cities account for 5% of the population but contribute 15% of national GDP Cities account for 67% of global energy use and 71% of global energy-related CO2 emissions Urban policies are key for a glogal green growth
  7. 7. What is urban green growth? OECD (Green Growth in Cities 2013) It is fostering economic growth and development through urban activities that reduce environmental impact ● Low air pollution and CO2 emissions ● Low consumption of natural resources (water, energy, undeveloped land) It is an opportunity to: Create jobs Attract firms and investment while Improving local environmental quality and Addressing global environmental challenges (climate change)
  8. 8. Benefits of urban green growth OECD (Green Growth in Cities 2013) For jobs creation, energy-efficiency retrofits of buildings For city attractiveness to firms and talent, increase the efficiency of the transport system For increased production of green goods, foster green technology R+D+i For an increase in the value of urban land, urban redevelopment including infill and eco-districts
  9. 9. Benefits of urban green growth In the Climate Change Economy, It's About Efficiency, Not Just Growth. Emily Badger. The Atlantic Cities.
  10. 10. And what's the point with the EU? European 2020 strategy (2010) 3 interlinked priorities: 1. Smart growth Knowledge and Innovation based economy 2. Sustainable growth a more efficient, greener and competitive economy 3. Inclusive growth High-employment economy delivering social and territorial cohesion
  11. 11. And what's the point with the EU? European 2020 strategy (2010) 5 EU headline targets: 1. 75% employment rate 2. 3% investment in R&D (of EU GDP) 3. 20/20/20 climate/energy targets 4. <10% early school leavers & min. 40% hold a tertiary degree 5. 20 million less people at risk of poverty
  12. 12. And what's the point with the EU? An on-going 2030 consultation for climate and energy policies There are 3 EC Roadmaps for the objective of reducing GreenHouse Gas emissions by 80 to 95% by 2050: ● A competitive low carbon economy ● Energy ● Transport By 2030 emissions should be reduced by 40% in the EU and it should be a 30% share of renewable energy Consultation is on how to ensure these objectives.
  13. 13. II. Green cities and Smart cities Green city vs. Smart city?
  14. 14. Green City vs. Smart City Green City ● A Green city is a city which has made a committment with “Green” ● It means improving Environment Sustainability and Quality of Life ● With a number of indicators – to measure city improvements and – to compare with other cities ● It is the will of the city to reduce its Carbon footprint §
  15. 15. Green City vs. Smart City Green City The fields where a Green City is willing to be better are: ● Energy reduction (buildings retrofit) ● Renewable energies ● Waste reduction and management ● Water consumption reduction ● Mobility improvement (transport, bikes, pedestrians, compact cities) §
  16. 16. Green City vs. Smart City Smart City A “Smart city” is a city that improves city management through the use of technology The EC Smart Cities Stakeholder Platform has working groups on: ● Energy supply networks ● Energy efficiency and buildings ● Transport and mobility ● Finance coordination ● Smart City roadmap
  17. 17. To be a Green City is a strategic goal for a city Smart City is a way to efficiently manage the city
  18. 18. Future of Cities Green Cities, Smart Cities,....... OK, but....... ● What to do with our city? ● Which way must we bring her? ● How to choose the right strategic goals? Not an easy question because........
  19. 19. ….there are so much concepts arising Clusters Green Cities Smart Cities Social Cohesion Leadership Environment Sustainability Collaboration Fight against poverty and social exclusion Talent Competitiveness Macro-regions Technology Knowledge Economy New Government styles Transparency Social Economy Open data Voluntary work Education Citizens Participation Re-industrialization E-government PPP ……….. Innovation Re-localization ………..
  20. 20. ¿How to add all those concepts the right way? § We need classifying them...... § …....give them priorities...... § …...defining our objectives.... § ….understanding the relations between them..... § ……and fitting all of it to our city needs! Let's define a city strategic system!
  21. 21. Generando emprendedores en nuestra ciudad 2.- El sistema, hoy
  22. 22. The city strategic system The system has 3 categories of elements : Goals, tools and complements 1) The main goals, are the same for any town or city: ● Social Cohesion ● Economic Competitiveness ● Environmental Sustainability
  23. 23. The city strategic system 2) The essential tools ● Innovation ● New Government Styles 3) The complements ● They allow us to fit the strategy according to the assets, resources, needs and will of our city
  24. 24. Generando emprendedores en nuestra ciudad 2.- El sistema, hoy
  25. 25. The city strategic system So, Green? Smart? Xxxxx? Every city must design its own future
  26. 26. More on Local Development in my free e-book at read my posts on and follow me on twitter, linkedin and facebook
  27. 27. Bibliographical references § People and the Planet. (The Royal Society, 2012) § Green Growth in Cities (OECD, 2013) § 2020 EU Strategy and 2030 Eu Green Paper § In the Climate Change Economy, it's about efficiency, not just growth. Emily Badger. The Atlantic Cities
  28. 28. Thank you!