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Grammar book pt2


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Grammar book pt2

  1. 1. Anibal Johnson
  2. 2. Table of ContentsPreterite vs. ImperfectFuture vs. ConditionalPorParaPor vs. ParaCommandsPresent perfectDOPAdverbsSubjunctiveSe impersonalProgressive with Ir, Andar, and Seguir.
  3. 3. Pret. vs. Imp. Preterite Imperfect Used to express a continuous action in the Used to express a “snapshot” action in the past past AR AR é amos aba abamos aste asteis abas ó aron aba aban ER/IR ER/IRí imos é amosiste isteis aste asteisío ieron ó aron
  4. 4. Irregular Verbs and Trigger WordsPreterite ImperfectSer & Ir- fui ayer Ser - era por un rato fuiste yesterday eras for awhile fue era fuimos anteayer éramos siempre fuisteis the day before erais always fueron yesterday eranDar- di Ver- veía tantas veces anoche so many times diste veías last night dio veía dimos veíamos todas las semanas después every week disteis afterwards veíais dieron veían todos los días durante dos siglos Ir- ibaHacer- hice every day for two centuries ibas hiciste iba hizo todo el tiempo íbamos all the time hicimos ibais hicisteis iban hicieron varias veces several times
  5. 5. Future vs. Condition Future Conditional Used when referring to something in the Used when refering to something in the future (will do something) future (would/should/could do something) AR/ER/IR AR/ER/IRía íamos ía íamosía s íais ía s íaisía ían ía ían
  6. 6. Future and Conditional IrregularsDecir  DirHabe  HabrHace  HarPoder  PodrPoner  PondrQuerer  QuerrSaber  SabrSalir  SaldrTener  TendrValer  ValdrVenir  Vendr
  7. 7. PorExpressing movement along, through, around, by or aboutDenoting a time or duration when something occursExpressing the cause (not the purpose) of an actionMeaning perMeaning supporting or in favor ofIntroducing the agent of an action after a passive verbIndicating means of transportationUsed in numerous expressions
  8. 8. ParaMeaning for the purpose of or in order toWith a noun or pronoun as object, meaning for thebenefit of or directed toMeaning to or in the direction of when referring to aspecific placeMeaning by or for when referring to a specific time
  9. 9. Por vs. ParaPor ParaExpressing movement Meaning for the purpose of or in order toalong, through, around, by or about With a noun or pronoun asDenoting a time or duration whensomething occurs object, meaning for the benefit of or directed toExpressing the cause (not the purpose) of anaction Meaning to or in the direction of when referring to a specific placeMeaning perMeaning supporting or in favor of Meaning by or for when referring to a specific timeIntroducing the agent of an action after apassive verbIndicating means of transportationUsed in numerous expressions
  10. 10. Commands Tu Usted Ustedes NosotrosAffirmative Affirmative Affirmative AffirmativePut in usted form Put in usted form. Put in ustedes form. Put in nosotros Change to Change to opposite form. Change to opposite vowel. vowel. opposite vovel.Negative Negative Negative NegativePut in usted form. Put in usted form Put in ustedes form Put in nosotrosChange to with opposite with opposite vowel. form. Change toopposite vowel. vowel. “no” goes “no” goes before the opposite vowel.Add an “s.” “no” before the verb. verb. “no” goes beforegoes before the the verb.verb.
  11. 11. Irregular Commands Tu Usted/Ustedes Nosotros Dar-Demos Estar-estemos Saber-sepamos tener-ten Ser-Seamos venir-ven Dar-dé/den Ir-Vamos decir-di Estar-esté/estén No ir-Vayamos ir-ve Ir-vaya/vayan salir-sal Ser-sea/sean hacer-haz Saber-sepa/sepan ser–sé
  12. 12. Present PerfectThe present perfect is formed by combining the auxiliary verb "has" or"have" with the past participle. Auxilery verb (haber) He Hemos Has Habéis Ha HanYou add –ado to the end of AR verbsYou add –ido to the ending of ER/IR verbs Examples He comido. (I have eaten) Juan ha pagado las cuentas. (Juan has paid the bills.)
  13. 13. Direct Object Pronouns (DOP)The object that directly receives the action of the verb is called the directobject.When a pronoun takes place of the name of the name of the direct object,use the following pronouns… Me (me) Nos (us) Te (you-familiar) Os (you-all familiar) Lo/La (Him, her it, you-formal) Los/Las (Them, you-all-formal) Le lo = se lo Les lo = se lo Le la = se la Les la= se la Le los = se los Les los = se los Le las = se las Les las = se las
  14. 14. AdverbsMost adverbs are formed by adding –mente to the end of the feminine formof a spanish adjective. –mente (spanish) = -ly (english) Feminine form of Adverb adjective Exceptions to the “-mente” rule… alta Altamente Muy  very baja bajamente Nunca  never fea feamente Peor  worse Poco  little Bastante  quite Demasiado  too Mal  badly Mucho  a lot Siempre  always
  15. 15. Subjunctive Conjugate to with the opposite vowel Wish, want Ojala que… Emotion Es posible que… Doubt Es probable que… Denial Es importante que… Impersonal expressions Es necessario que… Negation, non-existance Guess Irregulars Conducir  condusca Decir  diga Comprar Oír  oíga Dar  déCompre Compremos Estar  estéCompres Compreis Ir  vayacompre compren Saber  sepa Ser  sea Hacer haya
  16. 16. Se ImpersonalSe is used to avoid specifying the person who is preforming the action of theverb Se compra todos las hamburguesas.When you are using the se impersonal, you always conjugate the verb as“usted” (third person)Se is able to be used with all verb tenses Se come mucho. Se comería mucho. Se comeré mucho Se comí mucho.
  17. 17. Progressives using Ir, Andar and SeguirIr + present participle = is slowly but surely _______ingYo voy buscando por un trabajo. = I am slowly but surely looking for a job.Andar + present participle = is going around _______ingYo ando dando mi hoja de vida. = I am going around giving my resume.Seguir + present participle = is still ______ingYo sigo buscando por un trabajo. = I am still looking for a job.