The Labour Party from Hardie to Milliband

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A presentation to support edexcel unit 1 A/S Government and Politics. Showing the development of the Labour Party and ending with an exam question

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The Labour Party from Hardie to Milliband

  1. 1. The changing face of Labour from Hardie to Milliband
  2. 2. To understand the origins and beliefs of “old Labour”
  3. 3.  In 3 words describe  Social Democracy  Or  Democratic Socialism
  4. 4.     The Labour Party was founded at the start of the 20th Century. It has tended towards socialism, it was never a purely socialist party. It is not correct to describe the Labour Party as socialist, it is based on the ideas of democratic socialism The key areas of principle are      Equality Collectivism and universalism Control of capitalism Social Justice Class and society
  5. 5.  Create a timeline highlighting the changing fortunes of the Labour Party from its origins to the present day. Keir Hardie becomes first working-class MP to be elected in 1892 Labour lose to Margaret Thatcher’s Conservatives in 1979 general election
  6. 6. Labour form two minority Governments 1918 1939 Atlee wins 1945 Election Tony Blair and New Labour win 1997 Election Bevan founds the NHS Keir Hardie becomes first working-class MP to be elected in 1892 Tony Blair elected Labour Party Leader 1994. New Labour is born Labour lose to Margaret Thatcher’s Conservatives in 1979 general election Labour lose to David Cameron and Nick Clegg in 2010 general election
  7. 7.  Due tomorrow  Complete the table with at least 3 examples for each section.  Plenary  Listen to Billy Bragg – how do you know he is an Old (Traditional) Labour supporter?
  8. 8. Ideas and principles Equality: People are essentially of equal worth and there should be unjustified privileges in society. People are entitled to equal rights Collectivism and Universalism: People prefer to achieved their goal collectively man is a social animal and balances his own need against the needs of the community. The collective provision on welfare should apply equally and universally Control of Capitalism: Capitalism can be tolerated but only if the exploitation of workers and consumers can be controlled. Private enterprise should serve the interests of the community Social Justice: A belief and aspiration that all should have equal opportunities, should have access to a decent standard of living and improve their lives on their own merit Class and Society: Labour Party tradition argues that there is a fundamental division in society between classes, mainly the middle and working class. These differences need to be reconciled. Examples of ideas and principles reflected in practical policies
  9. 9. Ideas and principles (Old/Traditional Labour) Examples of ideas and principles reflected in practical policies Equality: People are essentially of equal worth and there should be unjustified privileges in society. People are entitled to equal rights • • Collectivism and Universalism: People prefer to achieved their goal collectively man is a social animal and balances his own need against the needs of the community. The collective provision on welfare should apply equally and universally • Control of Capitalism: Capitalism can be tolerated but only if the exploitation of workers and consumers can be controlled. Private enterprise should serve the interests of the community • Social Justice: A belief and aspiration that all should have equal opportunities, should have access to a decent standard of living and improve their lives on their own merit • Class and Society: Labour Party tradition argues that there is a fundamental division in society between classes, mainly the middle and working class. These differences need to be reconciled. • The standard of living of the working class to be subsidised through progressive taxation – the more you earn the more you pay • Strong Trade Unions • Firm economic management to control unemployment • Controls over capitalism to reduce exploitation • The working class to have a greater stake in the economy • • • • • • • Artificial privileges removed Taxation and welfare benefits used to reduce the wealth gap Wealth should not give anyone access to power The welfare state should provided education, health care, social insurance, housing etc for all and this should be funded by taxation Local government is vital as part of collectivism Workers are best protected by Unions rather than laws which protect individuals Key industries should be under public (state) ownership Strong Trade Unions defend the workers Control the power of monopolies Education and welfare should widen personal opportunity The welfare state to guarantee living standards Laws to guarantee equal rights and outlaw discrimination
  10. 10.     Early C20th - Labour Party emerged from Labour Representation Committee (LRC), Independent Labour Party (ILP) & Fabians helped by growth of trade union movement 1906 Labour Party founded 1918-39 Labour Party formed 2 minority governments 1945 Labour won a landslide victory under Clement Attlee
  11. 11.    1945-79 was the era of „consensus politics‟ 1980s the party moved to the left & it seemed out of touch with the electorate 1983-92 Neil Kinnock (leader of Labour Party) modernised party, abandoning unpopular policies, e.g. wide-scale nationalisation, unilateral disarmament, withdrawal from EEC)
  12. 12.    1994-2007 Tony Blair modernised party - „New Labour‟, „Third Way‟, „hand up rather than hand-out‟, public-private partnerships, equality of opportunity not income AND ALSO – minimum wage, NHS, constitutional reform 1997 landslide victory, 43.2% (179 seat majority) 2005 GE victory 35% (66 seat majority)
  13. 13. To understand why Tony Blair introduced New Labour To understand the key principles of New Labour To begin to understand the differences between old and new labour
  14. 14.  The term New Labour refers to the change that took place in the Labour Party in the middle of the 1990‟s. It was a more moderate, less left wing party than traditional (old) Labour
  15. 15. In pairs – draw a table like the one below Match the Idea to the definition (grey boxes) Match the practical policies to the ideas You will each need a copy of the table at the end of the lesson Ideas and principles Individualism The Free Market Welfare state Social Justice Communitarianism Ethical Foreign Policy Ideas and principles in practical policies
  16. 16. The old collectivist ideas of Labour were replaced by a greater emphasis on individualism The ability of the individual to realise his or her own aspirations New Labour accepted that free market capitalism was the best form of wealth creator. The state should only take control of enterprises when they cannot be made to act in the public interest New Labour fully supported the welfare state and increased spending. However welfare benefits were used as an incentive. Welfare was targeted rather than universal
  17. 17. New Labour shared many of the beliefs and ideas if traditional labour New Labour replace the old Labour belief in the class system with the idea that in a world of free market capitalism and individualism, all have a responsibility to care for the community collectively A belief that the UK has a responsibility for the poorer parts of the world and that aiding the developing world is in the UK‟s best interests
  18. 18. Lower personal taxation, to encourage work and enterprise Home ownership to be encouraged ,Small businesses to ne encouraged Education to be supported and Higher Education expanded to allow all to widen opportunities and become socially mobile No return to nationalisation and some further industries to be privatised Reduction in corporation tax to encourage investment and innovation The Private sector to compete with the Public sector in areas such as education, hospital buildings, prisons, local government and road building Weak Trade Unions to ensure free labour market
  19. 19. Increase spending on health and education Reform of welfare benefits Improved efficiency by allowing the private sector to compete to provide services for the welfare state Provide Education and other welfare benefits and widen opportunities The Welfare state to guarantee living standards Strong laws to guarantee equal rights and avoid discrimination A minimum wage An attack on child poverty A system of tax credits to guarantee minimum living standards
  20. 20. A caring attitude towards the environment and green policies An emphasis on schools, local welfare and strong social services State support for voluntary organisations Increased foreign aid Campaign to reduce third world debt Campaign for more free market policies in world trade Intervening abroad where democracy and human rights are threatened
  21. 21. The old collectivist ideas of Labour were replaced by a greater emphasis on individualism The ability of the individual to realise his or her own aspirations Individualism New Labour accepted that free market capitalism was the best form of wealth creator. The state should only take control of enterprises when they cannot be made to act in the public interest Free Market New Labour fully supported the welfare state and increased spending. However welfare benefits were used as an incentive. Welfare was targeted rather than universal. Welfare State
  22. 22. New Labour shared many of the beliefs and ideas if traditional labour Social Justice New Labour replace the old Labour belief in the class system with the idea that in a world of free market capitalism and individualism, all have a responsibility to care for the community collectively Communitarianism A belief that the UK has a responsibility for the poorer parts of the world and that aiding the developing world is in the UK‟s best interests Ethical Foreign Policy
  23. 23. Lower personal taxation, to encourage work and enterprise Home ownership to be encouraged ,Small businesses to ne encouraged Education to be supported and Higher Education expanded to allow all to widen opportunities and become socially mobile No return to nationalisation and some further industries to be privatised Reduction in corporation tax to encourage investment and innovation The Private sector to compete with the Public sector in areas such as education, hospital buildings, prisons, local government and road building Weak Trade Unions to ensure free labour market
  24. 24. Increase spending on health and education Reform of welfare benefits Improved efficiency by allowing the private sector to compete to provide services for the welfare state Provide Education and other welfare benefits and widen opportunities The Welfare state to guarantee living standards Strong laws to guarantee equal rights and avoid discrimination A minimum wage An attack on child poverty A system of tax credits to guarantee minimum living standards
  25. 25. A caring attitude towards the environment and green policies An emphasis on schools, local welfare and strong social services State support for voluntary organisations Increased foreign aid Campaign to reduce third world debt Campaign for more free market policies in world trade Intervening abroad where democracy and human rights are threatened
  26. 26. Ideas and principles (New Labour) Ideas and principles in practical policies Individualism: The old collectivist ideas of Labour were replaced by a greater emphasis on individualism The ability of the individual to realise his or her own aspirations Lower personal taxation, to encourage work and enterprise Home ownership to be encouraged ,Small businesses to be encouraged Education to be supported and Higher Education expanded to allow all to widen opportunities and become socially mobile The Free Market: New Labour accepted that free market capitalism was the best form of wealth creator. The state should only take control of enterprises when they cannot be made to act in the public interest No return to nationalisation and some further industries to be privatised Reduction in corporation tax to encourage investment and innovation The Private sector to compete with the Public sector in areas such as education, hospital buildings, prisons, local government and road building Weak Trade Unions to ensure free labour market Welfare state: New Labour fully supported the welfare state and increased spending. However welfare benefits were used as an incentive. Welfare was targeted rather than universal. Increase spending on health and education Reform of welfare benefits Improved efficiency by allowing the private sector to compete to provide services for the welfare state Social Justice: New Labour shared many of the beliefs and ideas if traditional labour Provide Education and other welfare benefits and widen opportunities The Welfare state to guarantee living standards Strong laws to guarantee equal rights and avoid discrimination A minimum wage An attack on child poverty A system of tax credits to guarantee minimum living standards Communitarianism: New Labour replace the old Labour belief in the class system with the idea that in a world of free market capitalism and individualism, all have a responsibility to care for the community collectively A caring attitude towards the environment and green policies An emphasis on schools, local welfare and strong social services State support for voluntary organisations Ethical Foreign Policy: A belief that the UK has a responsibility for the poorer parts of the world and that aiding the developing world is in the UK‟s best interests Increased foreign aid Campaign to reduce third world debt Campaign for more free market policies in world trade Intervening abroad where democracy and human rights are threatened
  27. 27. What's the difference? What's the same?
  28. 28.  Looking at your two sets of information draw up a list of similarities and differences.  To what extent are the differences significant?
  29. 29. Similarities • • • • • A fundamental belief in social justice The maintenance of the welfare state A belief in the equality of opportunity A belief in equal rights and no artificial discrimination against anyone In a capitalist society the state needs to regulate private enterprise to ensure they do not act against the public interest Differences • • • • • New Labour – Individualism, Old Labour- collectivism Old – regulation of capitalism and mixed economy of both private and public sectors. New – accepts and encourages free market capitalism Old – The state is key in improving society. New – the state should enable individuals to prosper Old – society seen in terms of class conflict. New – class is insignificant, individual interests are more important than class Old – promotion of economic and social equality. New inequality as natural and tolerable as long as there is equality of opportunity. Are the differences significant?
  30. 30.      A fundamental belief in social justice The maintenance of the welfare state A belief in the equality of opportunity A belief in equal rights and no artificial discrimination against anyone In a capitalist society the state needs to regulate private enterprise to ensure they do not act against the public interest
  31. 31.      New Labour – Individualism, Old Labour- collectivism Old – regulation of capitalism and mixed economy of both private and public sectors. New – accepts and encourages free market capitalism Old – The state is key in improving society. New – the state should enable individuals to prosper Old – society seen in terms of class conflict. New – class is insignificant, individual interests are more important than class Old – promotion of economic and social equality. New inequality as natural and tolerable as long as there is equality of opportunity.
  32. 32.   After the election defeat in 2010 Labour was forced to regroup. Ed Milliband emerged as leader after narrowly defeating his more experienced brother David
  33. 33.   Known as RED Ed by his detractors – because of his perceived more socialist principles. Key policies  Labour would continue to emphasise education as the main driver of social justice and social mobility.  More state intervention into certain key sectors of the economy.  Company taxes, and public investment – a departure from New Labour. Industries concerned – green technology, Information Technology and bio medical research, as examples  A greater stress on Green policies – environmental protection  The Party now favours more active state intervention to promote economic growth.
  34. 34.    New Labour traditionalists – those who support the principles of the “Third Way” developed in the 1990‟s under Blair. Harriet Harman. Ed Balls and David Milliband are important examples. The Left – those who still support traditional Labour policies. The radical redistribution of income, restoration of Trade Union power, state control of some major industries. The Right – sometimes known as “Blue Labour”, support a number of Conservative policies including the Big Society, oppose high levels of immigration, and what more local control over health and education. (This is a very small group)
  35. 35.  To what extent has the Labour Party abandoned its socialist roots? (25 marks, 500 words) Introduction. A brief exposition of the term „socialism‟, explaining that the evaluation will concern democratic socialism rather than fundamentalist socialism. Explain that Labour was always a relatively moderate socialist party. 
  36. 36. Content. 1. Describe those current and recent policies which could be said to be ‘socialist’ in nature. These might include: • support for the welfare state • emphasis on poverty relief • concern with social exclusion • emphasis on the need for equality of opportunity and social mobility 2. Describe areas where there seems to have been an abandonment of socialist values. These include: • the rejection of public ownership and state control of major industries • the emphasis on individualism rather than collectivism • increased tolerance of economic inequalities in society • rejection of demands to restore trade union power • a preference for free markets over ‘managed capitalism’
  37. 37. Conclusion. An overall assessment. Clearly there has been an extensive retreat from socialist values, but some values have been retained. A firm conclusion should be added, either asserting that socialism in no longer a key feature of Labour or suggesting that the party is still fundamentally socialist. Identify the key evidence to support whichever conclusion is reached.

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