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Life Under Sess:
Welcome To e 21st Century




  An Inoducon To Medical Ecology
Total biomass of the earth = 1,840 x 109 tonnes

Total biomass of all animals = 0.2 x 109 tonnes
                         ...
Ecosystem Services*




* from: Living In The Environment Thompson Brooks/Cole Pubs. 2004
A 6th Mass Extinction?
Some Good News Regarding Extinction:
     Smallpox - eliminated
               (probably)


     Polio - nearly gone



  ...
The Bad News Is We May Be Next!


   Billions          % Urban




                      1973
                      1973
*
               Some Bad News:

        Since 1973 over 50 new
infectious disease entities have emerged
         onto the...
More Bad News:
Most vector-borne diseases are on the rise
About 25% of all drugs currently on
the market come from natural sources
Chopping Down The Tree Of Life




                      27,000 species/yr
                       1950-present
How many new drugs have been lost
 due to extinction of species of plants and
animals that we had no idea even existed?
Why we should care
A 21st Century Dilemma:
Microbial Drug Resistance*



 *See: http://www.fda.gov/cvm/antimicrobial/022200slides/White/tsld0...
Top Ten Drug-resistant Microbes
Microbe                      Disease                    Resistance
Enterobacteriaceae     ...
Microbe                    Disease                 Resistance

Plasmodium falciparum      malaria                 chloroqu...
Malaria
300 million infections/year
3 million deaths/year, mostly in Africa

Drugs - Most strains of Plasmodium falciparum...
The Linkages Between
Environmental Degradation
 And Infectious Diseases
Fragmentation of Ecosystems
Fragmentation of Ecosystems


        Agriculture
         Agriculture
         Settlement
   ...
Sources Of Pollution
            Non-point Sources:
                 1. Agricultural*
                 2. Residential
    ...
Q: Who allows this?

A: The EPA:
Agricultural runoff is exempt from
The Clean Water Act




See: http://www.epa.gov/region...
Cryptosporidium parvum




Reservoir host
Access to safe drinking water is everyone’s right
Yet……………..
Many Tropical Infectious Diseases Are
  Transmitted At The Agricultural
             Interface
             Malaria
      ...
Geohelminths (hookworm, ascaris, trichuris)
Eliminate feces as an environmental contaminant and you effectively
control th...
In 2050 Population Stabilizes At 9.3 billion*




              *
Population Growth and Poverty
Problem:

How to feed the next 2.8 billion people
without incurring more environmental
damage due to traditional agricultu...
Land Use And Agriculture
     Rondonia, Brazil
                           1975
                           1975




  1986
...
Conclusion of Science article
Don’t just sit there,
do something!
A Possible Solution:
The Vertical Farm
Vibrant,
 successful cities
 are not only
 possible but
 necessary for the
 health of society
 and our planet.
 Urban Ecol...
Advantages Of Vertical Farming
•   Year-round crop production
•   No weather related crop failures due to droughts, floods
...
Advantages Of Vertical Farming
Adds energy back to the grid via methane generation

           What A Difference A Day Mak...
Advantages Of Vertical Farming
  Returns farm land to nature,
  restoring ecosystem services
A Vertical Farm*




      * not exactly what I had in mind
Vertical New York City




                Photo: NASA
Virtual Vertical Farm*




*www.verticalfarm.com
Medical Ecology
 Class of 2003*
  Kristin Anderson
  Nicola Areshenko
     Alan Brown
  Jennifer Buskey
  Amanda Colligan
...
How It Could Work
Sustainability through re-cycling
Bioremediation
 Re-gain “lost” water
Energy Considerations
 Capture all energy in black water
Methane Digester
 No new technology needed
Original Design by Andrew Kranis, Columbia University School of Architecture 2003
A lunar colony
Schematic for advanced life-support system
Or a colony on Mars
Components for a Mars colony
The Dawn Of
A New Beginning
     (perhaps)
So, What’s For Dinner?
Anything you want
Any Time You Want It
Any Where In The World
Or In The Universe
Vf Life Under Stress
Vf Life Under Stress
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Vf Life Under Stress

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Vf Life Under Stress

  1. 1. Life Under Sess: Welcome To e 21st Century An Inoducon To Medical Ecology
  2. 2. Total biomass of the earth = 1,840 x 109 tonnes Total biomass of all animals = 0.2 x 109 tonnes = 200 x 106 tonnes Total biomass of humans
  3. 3. Ecosystem Services* * from: Living In The Environment Thompson Brooks/Cole Pubs. 2004
  4. 4. A 6th Mass Extinction?
  5. 5. Some Good News Regarding Extinction: Smallpox - eliminated (probably) Polio - nearly gone Yaws - almost eliminated Onchocerciasis - on its way out
  6. 6. The Bad News Is We May Be Next! Billions % Urban 1973 1973
  7. 7. * Some Bad News: Since 1973 over 50 new infectious disease entities have emerged onto the human scene * ProMed reporter-at-large
  8. 8. More Bad News: Most vector-borne diseases are on the rise
  9. 9. About 25% of all drugs currently on the market come from natural sources
  10. 10. Chopping Down The Tree Of Life 27,000 species/yr 1950-present
  11. 11. How many new drugs have been lost due to extinction of species of plants and animals that we had no idea even existed?
  12. 12. Why we should care
  13. 13. A 21st Century Dilemma: Microbial Drug Resistance* *See: http://www.fda.gov/cvm/antimicrobial/022200slides/White/tsld004.htm
  14. 14. Top Ten Drug-resistant Microbes Microbe Disease Resistance Enterobacteriaceae bacteremia, pneumonia aminoglycosides wound infections β-lactams chloramphenicol trimethoprim FQs Enterococcus bacteremia aminoglycosides wound infections β-lactams erythromycin glycopeptides Haemophilus influenzae meningitis, otitis media β-lactams pneumonia tetracycline chloramphenicol trimethaprim Mycobacterium tuberculosis tuberculosis aminoglycosides ethambutol isoniazid rifampin Nisseria gonorrhoea gonorrhea β-lactams tetracylcine FQs
  15. 15. Microbe Disease Resistance Plasmodium falciparum malaria chloroquine Pseudomonas aerogenosa bacteremia, pneumonia aminoglycosides UTIs β-lactams tetracycline TMX Shigella dysenteriae severe dysentery ampicillin chloramphenicol tetracycline TMX Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia, pneumonia chloramphenicol wound infections macrolides trimethoprim FQs β-lactams tetracycline glycopeptides? Streptococcus pneumoniae meningitis, pneumonia aminoglycosides chloramphenicol macrolides penicillin
  16. 16. Malaria 300 million infections/year 3 million deaths/year, mostly in Africa Drugs - Most strains of Plasmodium falciparum are resistant to chloroquine and its derivatives. Best Control Method: Eliminate breeding sites for vector species of mosquitoes. Examples: Ancient Rome - Construct city of Ostia South Eastern USA drained swamps, creating new farmland.
  17. 17. The Linkages Between Environmental Degradation And Infectious Diseases
  18. 18. Fragmentation of Ecosystems Fragmentation of Ecosystems Agriculture Agriculture Settlement Settlement Mining Mining Industrialization Industrialization Civil unrest Civil unrest War War
  19. 19. Sources Of Pollution Non-point Sources: 1. Agricultural* 2. Residential Point Sources: 1. Industrial 2. Residential *Largest world-wide source - soil erosion, pesticides, fertilizers, herbicides, heavy metals, animal and human waste, etc.
  20. 20. Q: Who allows this? A: The EPA: Agricultural runoff is exempt from The Clean Water Act See: http://www.epa.gov/region5/water/cwa.htm
  21. 21. Cryptosporidium parvum Reservoir host
  22. 22. Access to safe drinking water is everyone’s right
  23. 23. Yet……………..
  24. 24. Many Tropical Infectious Diseases Are Transmitted At The Agricultural Interface Malaria Hookworm Ascaris Trichuris Schistosomiasis Filariasis Nipha
  25. 25. Geohelminths (hookworm, ascaris, trichuris) Eliminate feces as an environmental contaminant and you effectively control the spread all parasitic diseases spread by fecal-oral route. Two approaches, two different outcomes: United States : The birth of the outhouse. This single architectural wonder controlled all fecally-transmitted infections: viruses, bacteria, protozoa, and helminths. Southeast Asia and China: Ferment feces before using it as fertilizer on crops: eliminated hookworm.
  26. 26. In 2050 Population Stabilizes At 9.3 billion* *
  27. 27. Population Growth and Poverty
  28. 28. Problem: How to feed the next 2.8 billion people without incurring more environmental damage due to traditional agricultural practices
  29. 29. Land Use And Agriculture Rondonia, Brazil 1975 1975 1986 1986 1992 1992
  30. 30. Conclusion of Science article
  31. 31. Don’t just sit there, do something!
  32. 32. A Possible Solution: The Vertical Farm
  33. 33. Vibrant, successful cities are not only possible but necessary for the health of society and our planet. Urban Ecology plans and designs cities that sustain the people, natural resources, and economy necessary for everyone to thrive. http://www.urbanecology.org/
  34. 34. Advantages Of Vertical Farming • Year-round crop production • No weather related crop failures due to droughts, floods • Eliminates agricultural runoff • Converts black water to potable water • Greatly reduces the incidence of many infectious diseases • Adds energy back to the grid via methane generation • Dramatically reduces fossil fuel use (no tractors, plows, etc.) • Converts abandoned urban properties into food production • Sustainability for urban centers • Creates new employment opportunities • Returns farm land to nature, restoring ecosystem services • Reduces the incidence of armed conflict over natural resources, such as water and land for agriculture
  35. 35. Advantages Of Vertical Farming Adds energy back to the grid via methane generation What A Difference A Day Makes August 14th August 15th
  36. 36. Advantages Of Vertical Farming Returns farm land to nature, restoring ecosystem services
  37. 37. A Vertical Farm* * not exactly what I had in mind
  38. 38. Vertical New York City Photo: NASA
  39. 39. Virtual Vertical Farm* *www.verticalfarm.com
  40. 40. Medical Ecology Class of 2003* Kristin Anderson Nicola Areshenko Alan Brown Jennifer Buskey Amanda Colligan Marisa Dahlman Catherine Dell’Orto Catherine Tuglus *Steven Chen- technical advisor
  41. 41. How It Could Work Sustainability through re-cycling
  42. 42. Bioremediation Re-gain “lost” water
  43. 43. Energy Considerations Capture all energy in black water
  44. 44. Methane Digester No new technology needed
  45. 45. Original Design by Andrew Kranis, Columbia University School of Architecture 2003
  46. 46. A lunar colony
  47. 47. Schematic for advanced life-support system
  48. 48. Or a colony on Mars
  49. 49. Components for a Mars colony
  50. 50. The Dawn Of A New Beginning (perhaps)
  51. 51. So, What’s For Dinner?
  52. 52. Anything you want
  53. 53. Any Time You Want It
  54. 54. Any Where In The World
  55. 55. Or In The Universe

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