Early civilizations ppt[1]

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Early civilizations ppt[1]

  1. 1. Human Life in the Era of Hunters and Gatherers• Homo sapiens sapiens by 10,000 B.C.E. –Larger brain, tools, weapons• Paleolithic – Hunter Gatherers  Family groups  nomadic – Gender division of labor  Men: hunting, fishing, defense  Women: gathering, making medicine – Spread from Africa
  2. 2. The Spread of Human Populations, c. 10,000 B.C.E.
  3. 3. The Neolithic Revolution – 8000 to 3500 B.C.E.• Plants and animals domesticated• Towns/cities• Social Differentiation – Specialized jobs – Regional trade – Women lose political/economic roles• Causes? Maybe climatic shifts• Alternatives – Hunting-and-gathering persists – Pastoralism – nomadic herding people
  4. 4. The Spread of Agriculture
  5. 5. The First Towns: Seedbeds of CivilizationA. Jericho – Jordan River  Cultivation of wheat, barley  Brick housesB. Çatal Hüyük – Southern Turkey  Large complex  Shrines
  6. 6. Mesopotamia• All civilizations –Cities, food surplus, social structure, religion, government, writing*• First civilization develops in Mesopotamia
  7. 7. Mesopotamia• Sumerians c 4000 B.C.E. –Between the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers –Irrigation for farming• Political and Social Organization –City-States – state religion & god –Kings –Priests –Slaves
  8. 8. Mesopotamia• Culture and Religion –Writing  Cuneiform: stylus on clay tablets –Gilgamesh – first epic story –Astronomy –Numeric system –Ziggurats – central monumental buildings –Wheel, plow
  9. 9. Mesopotamia• The Akkadian Empire (1st empire) –Sargon I• The Babylonian Empire –Hammurabi  Law Code – “eye for an eye”
  10. 10. Egypt–Civilization emerges by 3200 B.C.E.  No city-states! Egypt is centralized–Government  Pharaoh – theocracy (religious government)  Bureaucracy – nonelected government officials–Hieroglyphic alphabet  Pictograms  Papyrus–Religion  polytheistic  Belief in afterlife
  11. 11. Egypt and Mesopotamia Compared• Differences –City-states v. centralized –Greater trade/contact in Mesopotamia –Greater technology Mesopotamia –Women had higher status in Egypt• Similarities –Stratified society –Astronomy and mathematics –Patriarchal societies - Men dominate
  12. 12. India• Indus River valley - modern-day Pakistan• Two major cities – Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro – Indoor plumbing – Grid system – Writing (still a mystery)• Collapsed under invasion and natural disasters
  13. 13. China• Huanghe (Yellow) River valley• Most isolated river valley civilization• Pottery, iron, writing• Shang dynasty• Oracle bones• Mythic history
  14. 14. The Eastern Mediterranean, c. 1100 B.C.E.
  15. 15. The Mediterranean Region• Hebrews –Modern Israel area –Semitic –Yahweh - monotheistic  Torah – holy book  The first Abrahamic faith
  16. 16. The Mediterranean Region• Phoenicians –Middle Eastern coast –City-states –Alphabet –Colonization along the Mediterranean  To Atlantic, Iberia, Britain

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