Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Professional Career Development for IC Engineers


Published on

Published in: Career, Technology, Business
  • Be the first to comment

Professional Career Development for IC Engineers

  1. 1. Shaping One’s Career by Leading Paradigm Shifts (for Information Age) Presented by: Al Kwok ( 郭灿辉 ) President, CASPA Pearl River Delta Chapter Individual Member, VSI Alliance Career Forum (Sep/10/2005)
  2. 2. Essence of this Presentation <ul><li>Career development </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vision, skill sets, efforts (leap of faith and perseverance) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Passion (the love of one’s life) is the engine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Money is not everything – follow one’s bliss! </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Optimism is the most important attitude </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Don’t submit to FEAR! </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Paradigm shift </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Emerging force/idea replacing the existing one </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The beginning of a significant trend (a new “wave”) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Opportunity to make a difference ( values to mankind ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Need to get in front of the “wave” – leading the change </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Leap of faith – no risk, no gain! </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Information Age (led by many paradigm shifts) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The inevitable milestone – if mankind has a future! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Our immediate future – how we can flourish?! </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Abstract – Conceptual Framework <ul><li>“Change is the only CONSTANT of our universe.” </li></ul><ul><li>Changes (according to evolutional trends) present: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Opportunities to those able to adapt </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fortunes to those able to anticipate </li></ul></ul><ul><li>One must embrace changes and learn to flourish with it. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Changes  Innovations” (an endless cycle of renewal) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The most important skill set to manage change (be innovative) – “Learn how to learn effectively”! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Develop the following capabilities all-in-one: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>to spot (be observant and open-minded ) the emerging real trend, </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>to learn (study and understand its significance ) quickly, </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>to adapt ( take action ) swiftly, and </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>to lead the change ( shape the future ) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Outline <ul><li>Career Development (from a personal angle) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Evolution of IC Industry (as background information) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Speaker’s Career Development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Speaker’s Community Services (a vital aspect) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Paradigm Shifts Encountered </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Career Development Path </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Paradigm Shifts and Major Trends </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Impact of CMOS Technology and Underlying Message </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Emerging Paradigm Shifts and Major Trends </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Information Age </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Characteristics and Opportunities </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Closing Remark and Advice </li></ul>
  5. 5. Career Development
  6. 6. Evolution of IC Industry <ul><li>A pattern of rapid cause-effect developments: </li></ul><ul><li>1970’s – Memories (tech. drivers) were the Kings! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Second sources for std. products as a business model (AMD) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Support infrastructure/service businesses for IC industry: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Focused on design activities by outsourcing non-core functions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Manufacturing equipment; EDA tools; mask making; probe-cards & test fixtures; packaging, test and burn-in; reliability tests… </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>1980’s – CMOS redefined the electronic world! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>CMOS as the standard process technology pioneered by IDT </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Enabled Higher Integration & Power Reduction </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Made scaling (Moore’s Law) a reality </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PC as the killer application </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rapid growth of microprocessor and PC chip-set market. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>IC design house and foundry business models </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Application Specific Standard Products (ASSPs) for differentiation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New design methodologies for ASIC </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Gate Array, standard cell-based design… </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Evolution of IC Industry – cont. <ul><li>1990’s – Foundries enabled Product Diversity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>User-friendliness was the differentiator </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>On-chip programmability as key features – a seed for SOC ! </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Embedded applications enabled IP licensing business </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ARM, Rambus, Artisan, MIPS, Mosys, Virage Logic… </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consumer electronics ( 3C convergence ) as killer applications </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The internet boom and dot-com bubble in late 1990’s </li></ul></ul><ul><li>2000’s – The networking and multimedia era! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>SOC design methodology based on SIP reuse (</=0.13um) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>China market as the driving force for growth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Application Development platforms for complete turnkey solutions as the means for design wins </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Comment: Always “ The Survival of the Fittest!! ” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Both market needs & business models evolve over time! </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Speaker’s Career Development <ul><li>79-83 AMD Tech./Proj. Engr. -> Team leader </li></ul><ul><ul><li>SRAM product engineer (individual contributor) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Z8000 family product engng. team leader (4 persons) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>83-88 IDT* Tech./Proj. Sr. Engr. -> Eng. Mgr. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>High-speed CMOS technology (the “A” Team) – IPO in 1984 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4 generations of CMOS technology development – world leader </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Top-notch yield improvement troubleshooter -- the best of the best! </li></ul></ul><ul><li>88-89 VTI Proj./Tech. Eng. Mgr. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Partnership with Hitachi (the best Japanese co. in CMOS) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Japan visits twice to understand Japanese advantages first-hand </li></ul></ul><ul><li>89-95 QSI* Operations Mgr. -> Director </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Start-up from scratch to build an operation of 60+ ( IPO in 1996 ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Brought up fabless design house bus. model using SII & Yamaha </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Spent 50% of the first 2 years at licensees in Japan . </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vendor management, P&L responsibility, team building … </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Speaker’s Career Development <ul><li>95 Individual consultant </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Worked in Taiwan and Mainland China – business networking </li></ul></ul><ul><li>96-98 PMC^ Bus. Dev. & Opn. VP </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Initiated IP program and managed IP portfolio for PMOS Flash </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Brought up IP licensing business model earning >US$7M rev. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contract negotiation and overall license project management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ODM business development as an extension of licensing </li></ul></ul><ul><li>98-02 NMI* Bus. Dev. & Opn. VP </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Initiated IP portfolio development program leading to 53+ issued and ~83 pending US patents (at IPO in 2004 ) and securing NMI’s sole leadership position in NSE/CAM </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Built up the operation and backend engineering team </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oversaw ISO 9000 certification program for cont. improvement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Established customer base and sale channels in China </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Speaker’s Community Services <ul><li>75->78 USCPFA Core member </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Promoted US-China people-to-people friendship </li></ul></ul><ul><li>77->78 CSA Vice Chairman </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Represented Hong Kong students at Chinese Student Assoc. (UT Austin) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>86->88 AAMA Active member </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Business networking among Asian American entrepreneurs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>96->02 JEDEC Company representative </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Professional and business networking for setting industry standards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chaired JEDEC’s CAM standard task force from 1999->2000 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>97->02 CASPA Board Director & CFO </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Promoted advancements in semi fields for Chinese Americans </li></ul></ul><ul><li>99->04 VSIA Individual member </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Helped setting standards on Semiconductor IP reuse </li></ul></ul><ul><li>02->05 CASPA President, PRD Chapter </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Promoting business networking </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Benefits from Community Services <ul><li>Community services without self-serving interests is a true path to self-enrichment: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Good opportunities to develop and polish our interpersonal skill sets (beyond the work setting) for career advancement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Useful business connections are developed through community services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>People with the like ideal group together </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Friends who are devoted to common good are more reliable </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The more we give, the more we gain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Being a big giver, we end up the biggest winner! </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Self-worthiness and self-appreciation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>&quot;No person was ever honored for what he received. Honor has been the reward for what he gave.&quot; - Calvin Coolidge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>People were immortalized for their contributions to mankind instead of their wealth accumulation </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. CASPA: A Community Service Platform Shanghai Taipei Silicon Valley, HQ Singapore Austin Phoenix HQ, local chapters Corporate Sponsors Alliances Oregon HongKong Beijing Dallas CASPA Global Business Network
  13. 13. CASPA Connections in China <ul><li>CASPA members contributing to China’s IC industry developments </li></ul><ul><li>Name CASPA Aff. Role in China </li></ul><ul><li>Dr. Tony Liu Ex-Pres. President of ASMC </li></ul><ul><li>Dr. T. L.Hwang Ex-Pres. Partner of Acorn Campus SH </li></ul><ul><li>Dr. Ning Chang Ex-Pres. GM at IP Core </li></ul><ul><li>Dr. Sheldon Wu Ex-Pres. Former Chief Rep. of TSMC </li></ul><ul><li>Mr. Lung Chu Ex-Pres. President of Cadence Asia Pacific </li></ul><ul><li>Mr. Mark Ding Ex-BOD President of SEMI China </li></ul><ul><li>Dr. Ning Hsieh Ex-BOD VP of SMIC </li></ul><ul><li>Dr. Pang Fang Ex-BOD Former President of HH-NEC </li></ul><ul><li>Dr. Peter Yin Ex-BOD President of Huayuan </li></ul><ul><li>Mr. Tyrone Huang Ex-BOD President of Ultrachip China </li></ul><ul><li>Mr. Li Zheng Ex-BOD GM of Hong Ri Intl. </li></ul><ul><li>Mr. Steve Chen Life member GM of Credence China </li></ul><ul><li>Mr. Al Chang Life member VP of AlChip (SH) </li></ul><ul><li>Mr. Chuck Cheng Life member CEO & Founder of Appotech </li></ul><ul><li>Dr. Steve Liu Life member President of HH-NEC </li></ul><ul><li>Mr. Yiming Zhu Life member President of GigaDevice </li></ul><ul><li>Numerous Members Sr. management at SMIC & TSMC </li></ul>
  14. 14. Career Development Path <ul><li>Contributor (as an individual) – 1 to 5 yrs. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Result-oriented ; integrity ; focus on the basic – solid data ; open-minded ; team player; listening; communication… </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Facilitator (as a team leader) – >3 yrs. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Win-win proposition & big picture ; resolve difference and unite interest; build trust ; fair-minded; team building… </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Deal-maker (as a business executive) -- >10 yrs. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Empathy ; earn respect ; turning disadvantages into advantages </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Path-finder (as an industry/corp. leader) -- >15 yrs. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Clear vision in the midst of chaos ; ability to mobilize, lead and achieve desirable results </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Rainmaker (as a global leader) -- >20 yrs. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Creating a self-flourishing ecosystem for a budding paradigm or a new standard (lasting values to mankind!) </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Career Development Path (2) Main (IP trading) Main (IP trading) Main (MOU) Some (connection) CASPA PRD (ecosystem) Some (CAM Std.) Main (IP mgmt.) Some (M&A) Some (res. Mgmt.) Some NMI (bus. dev.) Some (P-flash) Main (IP B.M.) Main (licensees) Some (tech. dev.) Some PMC (bus. dev.) Some (QSOP) Some (fabless) Main (vendors) Main (res. mgmt.) Some (tech. tranf.) QSI (operations) Some (strat. partr.) Main (proj. mgmt.) Some VTI (88-89) Some (CMOS) Some (CMOS) Main (proj. mgmt.) Main (yield guru) IDT (83-88) Some (team leadr.) Main AMD (79-83) Rainmaker (ecosystem) Path-finder Deal-maker Facilitator Contributor
  16. 16. Paradigm Shifts – Propelling Career Developments
  17. 17. Paradigm Shifts Encountered <ul><li>AMD (1979) Second-source business model </li></ul><ul><li>IDT (1983) CMOS emerging as the dominant IC process technology </li></ul><ul><li>VTI (1988) Japanese surpassing US in IC manufacturing </li></ul><ul><li>(as a discipline) </li></ul><ul><li>QSI (1989) Dawn of Fabless design business model </li></ul><ul><li>(know-how transfer from IDM to foundry) </li></ul><ul><li>1995 Emerging Taiwan IC industry </li></ul><ul><li>PMC (1996) SoC & embedded programmability </li></ul><ul><li>IP management as core competence IP licensing business model </li></ul><ul><li>NMI (1999) NSE/CAM as the critical component for QoS in routers </li></ul><ul><li>NSE look-up table for IP network traffic management </li></ul><ul><li>(internet boom) </li></ul><ul><li>2002 Maturing China market ( China joined WTO ) </li></ul>
  18. 18. Ride on “CMOS” Paradigm Shift <ul><li>New paradigm: CMOS displacing other IC technologies </li></ul><ul><li>Took the risk in 1983 to join IDT, the only start-up launching the CMOS revolution with 100% commitment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>CMOS was unproven with lots of issues </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Latch-up, larger PMOS transistor area…. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No major companies committed to CMOS 100% </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Contributed to IDT’s leadership in CMOS technology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Became the in-house yield improvement expert </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Learnt from the best about CMOS process technology </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Invented new yield analysis techniques and methodology </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Close collaboration with R&D and fab production </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Took initiative to build teamwork and core team </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sped up improvements in cost reduction </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Made CMOS technology profitable and shaped the world’s future </li></ul>
  19. 19. The CMOS Low Power Advantage Picture was taken on September 7, 1983 by A. Kwok (IDT) for a Fortune Magazine article about IDT (Integrated Device Technology) and CMOS technology published on the Oct. 17, 1983 issue (P.85) written by Gene Bylinsky. IDT went IPO in mid 1984 on CMOS. Source: “(Silicon Valley) High Tech – Window to The Future” (Gene Bylinsky)
  20. 20. Ride on “IP-centric” Paradigm Shift <ul><li>New paradigm: IP are crown jewels for knowledge-based companies </li></ul><ul><li>Joined QSI in 1989 as a member of the founding team licensing CMOS technology & products to Japanese fab partners </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Executed IP license business model, transferring engineering know-how to licensee partners and bringing foundry capacity within a year </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Joined PMC in 1996 to start the IP license business </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Took advantages of PMOS flash for embedded NVM in SOC design </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Managed patent portfolio generation for comprehensive IP protection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Secure license agreements with top-tier Japanese firms </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Joined NMI in 1998 to initiate IP portfolio development plan </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Set up a system to ensure continuous innovations & IP generations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Set up top-management patent committee, patent generation and reward programs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Promoted patent programs to all engineering staff </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Building an impressive patent portfolio since 1998 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In-house patent attorney to manage IP creation/development </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Enabling cutting-edge product developments </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Creating significant entry barriers against competition </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ensuring NMI’s leadership and profitability in NSE market </li></ul></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Valuable Patent Portfolio Partial patent list in Dec. 2002
  22. 22. Ride on “Internet” Paradigm Shift <ul><li>New paradigm: Parallel look-up displacing algorithmic hashing </li></ul><ul><li>Identified table look-up as the fundamental bottleneck for IP-based data traffic in the internet boom </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The destination address of each IP packet is checked against a routing look-up table at each router to decide where (to which next router) it should be forwarded. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Joined NMI in 1998 to introduce CAM/NSE as the cost-effective look-up table solution for internet era. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chaired JEDEC committee to standardize CAM/NSE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Promote NSE to replace hashing for new router designs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>NSE (Network Search Engine) became mainstream </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Real-time (zero latency) decision making for packet forwarding </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enabling policy-based routing and time-critical packet processing for QoS, VoIP, etc… </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fundamentally increased router capabilities to handle broad-band data traffic and value-added functions </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Anatomy of a Generic Problem-solving (Intelligent) Process Pattern recognition parallel-search engine is fundamentally superior to algorithmic one Presented in Jan. 2000
  24. 24. CMOS Technology – the ONLY Scalable One, the Best of Human Inventions
  25. 25. CMOS Technology Impact <ul><li>Million Gate Silicon now </li></ul><ul><ul><li>10 million gates by 2000 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Each Silicon Generation provides lower cost (at a higher complexity) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>So we have to move to next generation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>But the design gap is growing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>10 X productivity gain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1000 X silicon gain </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Solution is Design Reuse </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Requires Spec of Deliverables </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Requires standard interfaces </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Requires new design methods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Requires Verifiable VCs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>VSIA founded to help </li></ul><ul><ul><li>And we did! </li></ul></ul>Source: VSI Alliance Lower cost for next generation Si Process
  26. 26. Source: Intel Presentation Could not happen w/o CMOS! Could have ended at “80286”
  27. 27. Source: Intel Presentation This future of semiconductor industry could not happen w/o CMOS!
  28. 28. The Impact of Scaling (Moore’s Law) <ul><li>Comparison based on SRAM: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1983 @ IDT (the innovator of CMOS Technology) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>16Kx4 CMOS SRAM (@2.0um) cost ~US$80 (mil. grade) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Operation voltage @ 5V ( 0.5W ) in ceramic packages </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>10 MHz (tAA = 100nS) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2003 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>32M CMOS SRAM (@0.15um) cost ~US$4 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Operation voltage @ 1.5V ( 0.15W ) in thin plastic packages </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>400 MHz (tAA = 2.5nS) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Improvements: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cost reduction (in price/bit) = 10,000X </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Density (# bits/unit) has increased: 512X </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Unit price has decreased: 20X </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>w/ better technology, performance, quality and reliability as well as lower power too </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. Source: Intel Presentation CMOS power scaling => Feature size scaling Feature size scaling => Price scaling The secret behind scaling: Price can drop because power can be reduced!
  30. 30. Observations <ul><li>The pace of advancement in Semiconductor Industry is UNPARALLEL in human history! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Unparallel cost reduction with unparallel quality and performance improvements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It enables all improvements on “material” quality-of-life. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Semiconductor devices are EVERYWHERE! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Proliferation by standardization and ease of use </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Semiconductor devices are the building blocks of all systems. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Semiconductor is the ENABLING PLATFORM for the Information Age: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All Information Technology hardware are built on Semiconductor devices. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It provides the foundation for other high-tech endeavors too: software, 3C, e-commerce, etc. </li></ul></ul>
  31. 31. The Key to Scaling - CMOS <ul><li>IC Process Technology Development from 1970 -> 2000 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bipolar (PNP to NPN) – current driven gain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Higher performance means higher power </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Scaling means current crowding – melting the junctions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MOS (P-MOS to N-MOS) – voltage driven gain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>DC power and Vt drop were BIG problems </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>NMOS went into electromigration in “286” (~100MHz) -- 1984 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CMOS came as the SAVIOR! (to carry IC industry forward) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Otherwise, Moore’s Law is a lie!! </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Beauty of CMOS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No DC currents – only switching currents ( no energy wasted ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No Vt drops – full Vcc range (excellent signal quality) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reduce power by scaling down Vcc (power supply)! </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increase performance by reducing power! That is scaling! </li></ul></ul>
  32. 32. Impact of CMOS on Mankind!! <ul><li>Information Age (knowledge based society) is built on 3 pillars: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1) Content (knowledge) collection and sharing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2) Enabling network infrastructure – information highways, storages & traffic management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3) Enabling hardware platform that is mass-affordable </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hardware platform means electronic devices… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a vast network of electronic devices covering access (personal access devices), edge and core levels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enable information-sharing from anybody anywhere anytime over a global network of connectivity (e.g., internet) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Made mass-affordable based on scalable CMOS technology </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Therefore, without scalability of CMOS technology, there is no Information Age – human civilization stops dead on its development track! </li></ul>
  33. 33. Global Trends & Associated Paradigm Shifts
  34. 34. Megatrends for Business <ul><li>Globalization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Global maximization of resources & time/cost-effectiveness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A new business paradigm to think beyond all boundaries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>National, geographical, time zone, ethnic, religion, etc. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ Get the best from all around the world! “ </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Outsourcing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Conserve management bandwidth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Focus primarily on CORE COMPETENCE with the leanest possible in-house supporting infrastructure by outsourcing non-core functions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tap others’ expertise to extend our capabilities for quick results </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maximize overall time/cost-effectiveness </li></ul></ul><ul><li>China - the hottest opportunity in the next 10 years! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The biggest manufacturing base for consumer electronics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The largest customer base for IC design houses!! </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How to participate favorably with little risk exposure? </li></ul></ul>
  35. 35. The 2 Paradigms on Global Competitiveness
  36. 36. Global Competitiveness <ul><li>Paradigm #1: Ranking of value creating activities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Intellectual property (IP) creation is top of the list of value-added activities for knowledge-based society . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>IP creation (innovation) is based on new applications and new standards . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Savvy IC design houses focus its primary resources on IP creations in their core competence areas and outsource less value-added activities like manufacturing & back-end designs. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Paradigm #2: Value/demand chain management </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Customers decide market success of any application. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Customers demand complete system-level turnkey solutions . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Earlier time-to-mass-production requires closer collaboration along the demand/supply chain . </li></ul></ul>
  37. 37. The Value Hierarchy (B.M.) Values/Profit Margins Applications (Mkt. & Standards) System Integration (Archit., …) Engineering (Design, ODM,..) Manufacturing (Process, OEM) Intellectual Property (IP) Outsourcing Trend Consumer recognition Core competency 50% 40% 30% Brand Innovation
  38. 38. The Value Hierarchy – Rule #1 <ul><li>A corporation defines its profit-making potential by the activities upon which it focuses its key resources. </li></ul><ul><ul><li><30% PM (profit margin) for contract manufacturing (OEM) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li><50% PM for ODM with little IP leadership </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>>50% PM for an IP leader setting a de facto standard </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The two curves along Core Competency axis (based on Innovation ) and Customer Recognition axis (based on Brand ) form the wall of the bowl holding the potential profit </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lowering of either curve will let the potential profit escape </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In order to achieve high profit (like “Wintel”), a corporation must focus its resources mainly on strengthening its core competence with differentiating IP generation and promoting customer recognition as the leading brand . </li></ul></ul>
  39. 39. IP for Commanding Mkt. Position <ul><li>IP defines the ownership of any market territory and one’s position along a product/service food chain: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dell and Compaq/HP dominate PC market </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Protected by their IP portfolio (brand, patents, know-how, etc.) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Controlling the Market/Customer Channels </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sitting on the top of the PC food chain </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Striding to outsource their manufacturing & design work </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Taiwan manufacturers as manufacturing partners </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Providing low-cost manufacturing supports (open book for audit!) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Managing the logistics for 48-hour global ship-to-order end-customer delivery </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Financing the WIP and buffer inventories at multiple manufacturing sites world-wide </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Responsible for all RMAs and replacements to consumers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Funding the BRAND (IP) OWNERS ’ businesses, with much lower profit margins (actually <10% gross margin) in return!! </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>At an inferior position along the PC food chain </li></ul></ul></ul>
  40. 40. The Value Hierarchy – Rule #2 <ul><li>IP development is based on applications </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Good IP reflects high MARKET VALUES </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Proper IP portfolio => dominance in a specific appl . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ Wintel” in personal computing; TI in DSP </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>eBay in on-line auction and trading </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>New standards < = new applications => new IP </li></ul><ul><ul><li>New applications <=> new system integr. (SI) reqmts. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New applications => new SI/application know-how </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New applications => new IP & patent applications </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New applications => new landscape for competition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The crowning of new top suppliers </li></ul></ul></ul>
  41. 41. The Value/Demand Chain IC H/W Platform IC S/W Platform (API, drivers, etc.) System Application Platform(s) Generic Reference Design (w/ other chips) Differentiated Application Designs Various Applications/Services Consumer Markets (End Users) IC Design houses System Integrators Service Providers For Consumer Electronics Market System Manuf.
  42. 42. Example – Cellular Phone <ul><li>Rapid market development to maturity depends close collaboration among value/demand-chain </li></ul><ul><ul><li>IC design houses -- component suppliers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Components: Base-band, media processor, CMOS sensor… </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Provide the basic H/W & S/W building blocks </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>System integrators – either in-house or 3 rd parties </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Integrate the components from various sources (suppliers) to build a turnkey solution – incl. H/W, S/W, middleware, appl.…. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Develop the necessary applications (features) for end-users </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>System manufacturers – handset makers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Make the device meet the consumers’ and service providers’ requirements </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Service providers – mobile network operators </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Provide services to any consumer for specific applications </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Provide the overall VALUES to consumers </li></ul></ul></ul>
  43. 43. New Paradigm for IC Suppliers <ul><li>Create a self-nurturing ECOSYSTEM (to be self-growing) – similar to Intel’s and TI’s “ Developer Communities ” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide complete system-level turnkey solutions ASAP for the targeted applications/customers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Accelerate time-to-market and time-to-mass production ( profitability ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Realize ROI within the earliest possible timeframe </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Leverage others’ resources along the demand/value-chain by forming a consortium of (1) IC makers, (2) system integrators, (3) system manufacturers and (4) service providers to collaborate up-front to proactively address all the system integration issues in a well-coordinated manner .  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>System function requirements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>H/W, S/W and middleware interface and application requirements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Manufacturability and testability issues </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Field deployment environment , etc. </li></ul></ul>
  44. 44. A Vision of Information Age
  45. 45. Stages of Human Evolution <ul><li>The decisive capital asset for competitiveness in each stage of human evolution and development: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stage of civilization Decisive capital asset </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stone Age Shelter ( basic survival needs) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Agricultural Age Land (survival for future as a group ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Industrial Age Energy (being the dominant species) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Information Age Knowledge, know-how, IP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(survival beyond ignorance & fear ) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Information Age is based on knowledge-based economy. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Knowledge is power! Useful information is wealth! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The foundation for the knowledge-based economy is Intellectual Assets . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intellectual Property (IP) is “Protected” Intellectual Assets </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Unlike other consumable assets of limited supplies (e.g., land, energy, etc.), knowledge cannot be depleted by usage but enriched through sharing and multiple uses. </li></ul>
  46. 46. New Paradigm for Information Age <ul><li>“ Win-lose” paradigm before Information Age </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The decisive capital assets have limited supplies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The available inventories have been depleted by consumption. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They cannot be shared without giving up the ownership. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ You have” means “I have not”; then “you gain/win” means “I lose”. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fear about “have not” has been the predominant human motivation factor. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fights for possessions have led to untold human sufferings! </li></ul></ul><ul><li>“ Win-win” paradigm in Information Age and thereafter </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Knowledge has unlimited supplies (through innovations). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It can be shared without giving up ownership . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New experiences created by sharing knowledge enhance the value of knowledge (proven more useful) – following Metcalfe’s Law!? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thus, sharing is a rewarding behavior and will become “mainstream”. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sharing knowledge builds closer trust-bonds and cooperation. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>There is hope for the future for mankind in Information Age! </li></ul><ul><li>Progressing into Information Age for mankind is a TOP PRIORITY! </li></ul>
  47. 47. Knowledge-based Economy <ul><li>Knowledge sharing is the key economic driver. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Win-win” paradigm (sharing) replacing “win-lose” paradigm (not sharing) as the key self-serving motivator </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fear about “have not” is a less justifiable behavior! </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Trading IP (sharing knowledge) will be as common as trading stocks (ownership). </li></ul><ul><li>A comprehensive IP trading business model is urgently needed to facilitate the development of knowledge-based economy. </li></ul>
  48. 48. The Future beyond Information Age <ul><li>Win-win behavior is the norm </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Empathy: mutual respect and trust is commonplace </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ignorance and fear are treated systematically in child education </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fear-induced aggressions and prejudice were eliminated </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Pursuit of knowledge (instead of wealth) is a lifetime occupation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The acquisition of wealth is no longer the driving force in life </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>People work to better themselves and the rest of humanity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Honors given to those who facilitate smoother and quicker progress for mankind on its evolution path </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Economics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Poverty is eliminated – basic quality of life is guaranteed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Well-balanced: conservation instead of consumption driven </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Little waste of energy and resources </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Recycling and respect of nature has become second nature </li></ul></ul></ul>
  49. 49. Closing Thoughts
  50. 50. Closing Remark <ul><li>Think Win-Win- Win </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Win-Win Proposition/Mind-set: (+1) + (+1) => >2 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Win-Lose Proposition/Mindset: (+1) – (+1) => <1 to <-2 (both Lose) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Win-Win-Win Proposition/Mind-set: (+1) + (+1) + (+1) => >10X (at least 1 order better) due to catalytic effect! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The 3 rd “Win” is for the supporting ECOSYSTEM </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Think protecting the ECOSYSTEMS (incl. Nature )! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Conserve power/energy as a goal for our innovations! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Better quality of life with lower energy/power consumption </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Learn from CMOS technology (the most far-reaching innovation)! </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If mankind is too arrogant thinking to conquer (or abuse) NATURE (like global warming), mankind will get “Katrina” in return! Nature does not yield to mankind’s self-indulgence! </li></ul></ul>
  51. 51. Comments/Advice <ul><li>Technical competency is the solid platform to launch one’s future career </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pursue highest possible technical standards in our endeavors – be the expert in our own technical field! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Be patient – it takes ~10 years to be a technical expert! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The safety net that we shall never worry about job security! </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Broaden our experiences by getting into the related areas </li></ul><ul><ul><li>From engineering to operations, then marketing & sales, business development, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Learn and understand all the business processes related to your industry – think business process engineering !! </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The leader requirements for a knowledge-based society </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Technical + business + legal (especially IP) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Know how to develop your company’s intellectual assets </li></ul></ul>
  52. 52. References <ul><li>“ Finite and Infinite Games” by James Carse </li></ul><ul><li>“ Corporate Lifecycles: How and Why Corporations Grow and Die and What to Do About It” by Ichak Adizes </li></ul><ul><li>I-Ching (Chinese sutra about Change) </li></ul><ul><li>Al Kwok private communication: “Personnel development matrix”, July 22, 1992. </li></ul><ul><li>Al Kwok private communication: “Advice on Self-improvement”, September, 1992 </li></ul>
  53. 53. <ul><li>Thank You Very Much </li></ul><ul><li>for </li></ul><ul><li>Your Attention! </li></ul>