TOTAL WATERSHED MANAGEMENT OF MADGYAL VILLAGE In Collabration with IIT B- CTARA. PRESENTED BY Gayatri Gurav Vikrant Meshram Purva Kulkarni Shridhar Kumbhar Snehal Kurade Ajit Mali UNDER THE GUIADANCE OF Prof. S. S. Kumbhar Total Watershed Management 2
TOTAL WATERSHEDMANAGEMENT Total Watershed Management 3
CONTENTS BACKGROUND INTRODUCTION NEED OBJECTIVES AND SCOPE COMPONENTS OF DESIGN METHODOLOGY RECOMMENDATION AND FUTURE WORK Total Watershed Management 4
• Sangli is a district of Maharashtra State in west central India.• The district is situated in the river basins of Warna and Krishna rivers.• Other small rivers such as Morna, Yerla, Manganga, Agrani, Nani and Bor also flow through it.• Total population of Sangli district is 28,20,575 out of which1,435,972 are Males and 1,384,603 are Females. Total Watershed Management 6
• Density of population-329 people per sq.km• The district is 25.51% Urban and 74.41% Rural• There are 10 Talukas in the District• They are-Miraj, Tasgaon, Kavathe- Mahankal, Jat, Kanapur, Atapadi, Walwa, Kadegaon, Palus, Shirala• Co-ordinates-16º51´36´´N• 74º34´12´´E• Its Altitude is 610 MSL Total Watershed Management 7
Map of Sangli District Total Watershed Management 10
• Literacy rate - 82.62% Male – 90.40% Female – 74.66%• Sex Ratio -1000:964• Avg rainfall of district is 425mm• Maximum temperature in summer 38ºC.• Minimum temperature in winter 12ºC.• Sangli experiences semiarid climate and has three distinct seasons. Total Watershed Management 11
LANDUSE AND PATTERN Geographical area: 861000 hect. Cultivable area: 595600 hect Forest area: 47314 hect Land under non agricultural use:46000 hect. Permanent pastures: 19094 hect. Cultivable waste land: 14600 hect. Land under miscellaneous trees crops and grooves: 15348 hect. Total Watershed Management 12
Barren and uncultivable land: 38800 hect. Current fallows: 42985 hect. Other fallows: 37219 hect. Total Watershed Management 13
MAJOR SOILS Shallow black/red soil: 389.4 hect. Deep black soils : 142.7 hect. Medium black soils: 63.4 hect. Total Watershed Management 14
What is WATERSHED MANAGEMENT: A watershed, also called a "drainage basin”, is an area in which all water flowing into it goes to a common outlet, such as the same river or reservoir. Total Watershed Management 16
catchments catchments catchmentscatchments flow direction catchments rivera tributary drainage line Total Watershed Management 17
an imaginary line dividing the flow directions is passing through these points drainage map of the area Total Watershed Management 18
the divide line of a drainage areathis line bounds the watershed area of the shown drainage line Total Watershed Management 19
Features of watershedmanagement: Size and shape of watershed Watershed boundary Topography of watershed land Soil type Amount and intensity of rainfall Vegetative cover Water resource and their capabilities. Total Watershed Management 20
Objectives of watershedmanagement Conservation of soil and water. To manage and utilize the runoff water for useful purpose. To protect, conserve and improve the land of watershed for more efficient and sustained production To increase infiltration of rainwater. Total Watershed Management 21
To protect and enhance the water resource originating in the watershed. To check soil erosion and to reduce the effect of sediment yield on the watershed. To improve and increase the production of timbers, fodder and wild life resource. To enhance the ground water recharge, wherever applicable Total Watershed Management 22
Control measures:- Engineering measures ( Structural practices) 1. Contour bunding 2. Terracing 3. Construction of earthen embankment 4. Construction of check dams 5. Construction of farm ponds 6. Construction of diversion 7. Gully controlling structure Total Watershed Management 23
CASE STUDY: Village Wankute is located high in Sahyadri mountain range of Maharashtra. It was dry and nearly barren place in 1990 and water was supplied with the help of tankers. Problem was, the rainfall was limited. With the help of one NGO, they implemented various techniques of WSM like construction of bunds, checkdams,vegetation,plantation. Total Watershed Management 24
Now, water table has increased, no need of tankers. Overall employment increased. All types of crops can be cultivated. No shortage of potable water and no waterborne diseases. Built new community hall,2 schools, public health center etc. WSM have contributed to overall development of village very well. Total Watershed Management 25
NEED OF WATERSHEDMANAGEMENT IN MADGYAL The precipitation intensity and characteristic vary drastically in Sangli district. In the parts of Krishna river basin and vicinity the rainfall statistics are comparatively good and enough to recharge major catchment. On the contrary, the eastern region is more drought prone and is consistently under water scarce condition. Total Watershed Management 27
MADGYAL Madgyal is a village in Jath Taluka, district Sangli. Coordinates are Latitude 17°02’56.94” N Longitude 75° 13’8.14” E It is 21.8 km away from taluka main town Jath. Area of Madgyal village is 2256 hectares. Total population of Madgyal village is 5555;male:2571,female:2264. Average annual rainfall :382.18mm(2002-2012) Total Watershed Management 28
Literacy rate of madgyal is 60.82% Sex ratio is 881 females per 1000 males. Major occupation is sheep rearing and minor occupation is agriculture and other agro based side business. Total water requirement of madgyal is 1,11,100 lit/day. Total Watershed Management 29
Perrinial River flowing in the vicinity of madgyal is krishna (100km). Lakes in Jat Taluka are Birnal lake , Tilahalli lake Lakes are not perennial hence posing a problem. Total Watershed Management 31
This minimum requirement of water is hard to be satisfied all year long. Water scarcity arises in the month of January and lasts up to may. These five months tend to be critical water shortage period . Total Watershed Management 32
The existing water supply scheme is driven by lake water and is not perennial There is no such existing rain water harvesting scheme present in the village. The water available due to rains is not conserved . The dual effect of less rain and no conservation has led to scarce Total Watershed Management 33
Hence there is an extreme need of feasible and sustainable methods of watershed to this village. Through watershed the available rain water can be usefully led to recharge resources or directly store and use it during the water scarcity. Total Watershed Management 34
OBJECTIVES AND SCOPE OFWORK To analyze water resources available in selected area. To know the socio-economic condition of people. To know the water demand and supply. Suggestion of watershed management techniques. Data preparation with the help of GIS. Total Watershed Management 35
COMPONENTS OF DESIGN Total Watershed Management 36
INTRODUCTION What is GIS? GIS package developed by CSRE, IIT Bombay. Software with modules of Map editing, Raster analysis, Terrain Modeling, Watershed delineation. Total Watershed Management 38
GIS analysis. GIS analysis is a procedure for looking at geographical patterns in our data and the releationships between its features .A GIS is a system of hardware, software and procedures to facilitate the management, manipulation, analysis, modelling, representation and display of georeferenced data to solve complex problems regarding planning and management of resources. All GIS software has been designed to handle spatial data, characterized by information on, connections with different features and details of non-spatial characteristics. Total Watershed Management 39
SCOPE OF ‘GIS’ Total area of water flowing towards an outlet point (Pour point). Water flows in the direction of the terrain steepest downhill slope. Streamlines are orthogonal to the contour lines. Drainage line are found along the highest points of the terrain. Total Watershed Management 42
A. Data collection 1. Physiographical data: e.g. location, elevation, geology, drainage patterns, slope. 2. Land use and cover types: e.g. forest, cultivated, water areas. 3. Climate and hydrology: e.g. Precipitation, temperature, stream flow, evaporation. 4. Socio economic data: e.g. farming type, production income education. 5. Institutional and culturable data: e.g. farmers organization, tradition, religions. 6. Management needs: e.g. environmental impacts, treatment need, infrastructure needs.
B. Feasibilities, Alternatives & recommendations Some of the techniques can be used in watershed management as given below: 1. Contour bunding 2. Broad beds and furrows 3. Artificial recharge 4. Check dames 5. Terracing 6. Grassland development 7. Tree plantation 8. Lift irrigation schemes 9. Stopping ground water flow 10. Storage of rain water 11. Connecting to other water body etc.
1. Contour bunding• Function: To intercept the run off flowing down the slope by an embankment.
2. Broad beds and furrows• Function: To control erosion and to conserve soil moisture in the soil during rainy days.
3. Artificial recharge Function : To increase ground water level so that it can be used in scared condition. To augment the ground water recharge. Percolation canal
Recommendation• Analysis of primary data and its correlation withthe ground water data collected.•Attractthe resources and funds to tackle priorityactions to improve watershed and lake health.•Inform stakeholders and guide actions well intothe future
•Securing required resources.•Engaging stakeholder groups and the public on the Terms of Reference and obtaining their input into the Plan.•Identifying existing data, defining data gaps, data collection and analysis.•Community Consultation to identify the priority issues impacting water quality and associated mitigation measures.
Future Scope•Solution to expensive bulk water transfer•Improve predictability.•Providing drinking water for rural people.•Incremental increase in water availability.
• Implementation, good practices, success/ failure reasons and then related it with ground water data obtained.• Saving in time for availing domestic water
WORK DONE TO DATE•TRAINING WORKSHOP AT IIT B•DATA COLLECTION•VISIT TO JATH,MADGYAL•WATER SAMPLE TESTING•WORKSHOP FOR TRAINING IN QGIS.•INITIALISATION OF SOCIO-ECONOMICSURVEY.