E42e Tqm – Path Light To Success


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E42e Tqm – Path Light To Success

  1. 1. Juran’s trilogy <ul><li>Planning </li></ul><ul><li>Control </li></ul><ul><li>Improvement </li></ul><ul><li>Quality planning </li></ul><ul><li>Quality control </li></ul><ul><li>Quality improvement </li></ul>
  2. 2. TQM – Path light to success <ul><li>Just in Time (JIT) / Waste Elimination </li></ul><ul><li>Total Employee Involvement </li></ul><ul><li>Total Quality Control </li></ul>
  3. 3. History of JIT <ul><li>Japanese manufacturing management method developed in the 1970s. </li></ul><ul><li>They looked for a way to gain the most efficient use of limited resources to gain: &quot;optimal cost/quality relationship&quot;. </li></ul><ul><li>Toyota </li></ul>
  4. 4. What Exactly is JIT? <ul><li>JIT seeks to increase an organization’s ability to compete with others and remain competitive over the long run. </li></ul><ul><li>Increasing efficiency within the production process. </li></ul>
  5. 5. What Exactly is JIT? Cont’d….. <ul><li>Efficiency is obtained through the increase of productivity and decrease of cost. </li></ul><ul><li>Reducing wasted materials, time and effort. </li></ul><ul><li>It can help to reduce the costs. </li></ul>
  6. 7. The 5 S stands for <ul><li>Seiri - Proper Arrangement </li></ul><ul><li>Seiton – Orderliness </li></ul><ul><li>Seiso – Cleanliness </li></ul><ul><li>Seiketsu – Cleanup </li></ul><ul><li>Shitsuke - Discipline </li></ul>
  7. 8. The essence of the JIT revolution and Lean Manufacturing <ul><li>Try to reduce the system operational inefficiencies and the resulting waste by identifying the sources of these inefficiencies and working proactively to eliminate them as much as possible. </li></ul><ul><li>In the emerging philosophy, inventories should be carefully controlled and they should not function as the mechanism for accommodating the system inefficiencies Just-In-Time (JIT) </li></ul>
  8. 9. <ul><li>The aforementioned effort should be an ongoing process towards continuous improvement rather than one-time/shot effort. </li></ul>
  9. 10. Targeting the sources of inefficiency <ul><ul><li>input </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>unreliable quality of raw material </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>unreliable delivery times </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>operation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>unreliable processes in terms of </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>required processing times </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>process outcome </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>complex interacting process flows </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>long set-up times </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>unreliable (irresponsive and irresponsible) personnel </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 11. <ul><ul><li>output </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Highly variable production requirements in terms of </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>production volume, and </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>production scope </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 12. JIT enabling factors and practices <ul><li>Emphasis on quality at both the process and the supply side by promoting </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Statistical Process Control (SPC) theory and practice </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Quality certification programs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Deployment of stable automated processes and foolproof practices (like checklists and machines gauges) to guarantee the desired performance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Employee empowerment and knowledge management (quality circles) </li></ul></ul>
  12. 13. <ul><li>“ Tightening” of the supply chain by promoting </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Long-lasting and trustful relationships between the different parties in the supply chain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Timely and reliable information flow across these parties that takes advantage of modern IT technologies, like </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Electronic Data Interchange (EDI), and e-commerce practices </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Real-time communications and global positioning systems </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Promotion of vendor owned and managed inventory practices that </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Establish economies of scale and protection to variability through pooling </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Enhance the demand visibility across the entire supply chain. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 14. JIT enabling factors and practices (cont.) <ul><li>Simplification of the process flows by promoting cellular manufacturing practices </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dedication of separate production cells to product families with similar processing requirements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>U-shaped layouts for facilitating employee sharing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Employee cross-training for more flexible and higher utilization </li></ul></ul>
  14. 15. JIT enabling factors and practices (cont.) <ul><li>Set-up time reduction through </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The adoption of cellular manufacturing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Externalization of set-up times </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Employment of flexible processes and pertinent auxiliary equipment like pertinent fixtures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Part standardization </li></ul></ul>
  15. 16. JIT enabling factors and practices (cont.) <ul><li>Focus on repetitive manufacturing and promote the establishment of stable production rates through </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Smoothing of the aggregate production requirements by appropriate quota setting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pertinent sequencing of the final assembly to support a desired product mix </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use of buffer capacity (planned overtime) to protect against slippages from the target production rates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Component standardization </li></ul></ul>
  16. 17. Employee Involvement. <ul><li>Kaizen & House Keeping, 5 S Technique </li></ul><ul><li>Small Group Activity / Quality Circles </li></ul><ul><li>Business Process Re-engineering (BPR) </li></ul>
  17. 18. Small Group Activity / Quality Circles <ul><li>QC Circles were born and brought up in the workshop in Japan. </li></ul><ul><li>QC Circle activities are guided by the monthly magazine &quot;QC&quot;. </li></ul><ul><li>This is a group activities. It accommodates everyone including those who are indifferent. It is not a stage for a limited few. </li></ul>
  18. 19. <ul><li>Members are engaged in the activity when they are working. QC Circle activities do not exist outside of ordinary work. </li></ul><ul><li>Specific problems are taken up. It is not a spiritual or abstract activity. </li></ul><ul><li>Starting from immediate and smaller problems, the ability to solve more difficult problems will be gradually acquired. </li></ul>
  19. 20. <ul><li>Members will appreciate the pleasure of solving problems. </li></ul><ul><li>Establishment of a state of control to ensure a stable , controlled operation and to take positive measures to stop recurring problems and anticipate new ones. </li></ul><ul><li>Improvement of work to implement improvement measures if it is within the capability of the workshop to do so. </li></ul>
  20. 21. <ul><li>Operators are involved-It is not a monopoly of supervisors or leaders. </li></ul><ul><li>Participation by all. It is not for a limited number of people, capable people, vociferous people, prominent stars, but for everyone to participate voluntarily. </li></ul><ul><li>Discussion. All the participants can talk freely and frankly. This is an opportunity to listen to others with an open mind. </li></ul>
  21. 22. <ul><li>Sharing problems. Everyone in a group without exception shares a problem according to individual ability. </li></ul><ul><li>Practice. Members study techniques and present ideas. Not only that, theories and ideas must be applied in the workshop. </li></ul><ul><li>Pleasure of accomplishment-By solving a problem, one feels pleasure, confidence and a desire to do more. </li></ul>
  22. 23. <ul><li>Learning problem-solving techniques. It is not a simple spiritual movement. Members study QC techniques and other means to solve problems. In addition they apply these techniques and learn by practice how they work. </li></ul><ul><li>Learning necessary technology and methods of improvement. Members study to further improve their level of knowledge. </li></ul>
  23. 24. <ul><li>Voluntary participation-Members are voluntarily involved, it is not because somebody forced them to do so. </li></ul><ul><li>Members of a QC Circle are all equal-A leader must see to it that members share a job equitably according their ability and cooperate with each other. </li></ul>
  24. 25. <ul><li>QC Circle should not be confined within a narrow workshop-Members should participate in exchange meetings in and outside the company as well as presentation meetings, QC Circle conferences, study meetings, etc. in order to broaden their mental horizons and strengthen their will. </li></ul>
  25. 26. <ul><li>To think and use one's wisdom in one's work. A workshop is not simply a place for mere physical labour. It should be seen as a place where one's creativity can be applied. </li></ul><ul><li>Harmonious relations are created within workshop through QC Circle activities. </li></ul>
  26. 27. <ul><li>A group provides a forum for educating and cultivating individuals in an effort to establish relations with others. </li></ul><ul><li>One can appreciate the pleasure of discovering a new aspect of self and developing one's potential. </li></ul><ul><li>To find pleasure and meaning of life in one's work. </li></ul>
  27. 28. <ul><li>Voluntary and pleasant activities within the framework of the organization. </li></ul><ul><li>Managers' understanding QC Circles can grow only if managers are committed to give guidance and training, support, and to show respect for humanity. Managers should get rid of their traditional distrust of shop workers. </li></ul>
  28. 29. <ul><li>In harmony with nationwide QC Circle activities. </li></ul><ul><li>With a spirit of give-and-take, QC Circles can help each other, transcending corporate boundaries while still developing friendly rivalry. </li></ul><ul><li>QC Circles help each other and are dedicated to each other. </li></ul>
  29. 30. <ul><li>As an integral part of company-wide Quality Control in cooperation with the top management, managers, supervisors and staff. </li></ul><ul><li>QC Circles cultivate and build up personality. </li></ul>
  30. 31. Kaizen <ul><li>The Japanese word &quot; KAIZEN &quot; means improvement. </li></ul><ul><li>Kaizen is a popular word in industry, worldwide, to claim practicing innovative management methods. </li></ul><ul><li>Japan has long been sensitive about waste, as the land and raw materials are scarce. </li></ul><ul><li>Waste can be turned into profit if it is eliminated and everybody is encouraged to participate improvement efforts. </li></ul>
  31. 32. <ul><li>The Japanese word &quot; KAIZEN &quot; means improvement, improvements without spending much money, involving everyone from managers to workers, and using much common sense. </li></ul><ul><li>The Japanese way encourages small improvements day after day, continuously. </li></ul><ul><li>The key aspect of KAIZEN is that it is an on-going, never-ending improvement process. It's a soft and gradual method opposed to more usual western habits to scrap everything and start with new. </li></ul>
  32. 33. Ways of Kaizen <ul><li>First and most common is to change worker's operations to make his job more productive, less tiring, more efficient or safer. </li></ul><ul><li>To get his buy-in as well as significant improvement, worker is invited to cooperate, to reengineer by himself and with help of team mates or a Kaizen support group. </li></ul>
  33. 34. <ul><li>The second way is to improve equipment, like installing foolproof devices and/or changing the machine layout. </li></ul><ul><li>Third way is to improve procedures. </li></ul><ul><li>All these alternatives can be combined in a broad improvement plan. </li></ul>
  34. 35. How to do it ….. <ul><li>The first stage is reviewing the current work standards to check the current performance and than estimate how and how much performance can still be improved. </li></ul><ul><li>When new leap is done, upgrade the standards. </li></ul>
  35. 36. <ul><li>Kaizen is controlled; It is not acceptable to let anybody change designs, layouts or standards for some pretended &quot;improvement&quot;. </li></ul><ul><li>Most often Kaizen is controlled by improvement groups and everybody, regardless to rank or position, is encouraged to suggest trough suggestion submitting system (TEIAN in Japanese). </li></ul>
  36. 37. <ul><li>Suggestions will be discussed by authoritative committee. </li></ul><ul><li>Suggestions likely to be turned into application are usually rewarded according to the global gain. </li></ul><ul><li>Improvement idea can be a response to a problem exposed by KAIZEN committee or come out spontaneously. </li></ul>
  37. 38. Muda = Waste <ul><li>Japanese word muda made its way into western industry languages. </li></ul><ul><li>Muda means waste , but the word carries a deeper connotation. </li></ul><ul><li>Any non-value activity is muda. </li></ul><ul><li>Searching around to retrieve tools is muda. </li></ul><ul><li>Muda exists in many forms and is to be eliminated </li></ul>
  38. 39. Muda defined.. <ul><li>Overproduction and Inventory, items not immediately needed </li></ul><ul><li>Defective products requesting repair or scraping </li></ul><ul><li>Motion; unnecessary movement and energy used to perform tasks </li></ul><ul><li>Process imposing inefficient and/or unnecessary tasks, fail to synchronize systems </li></ul>
  39. 40. <ul><li>Idling; by excessive set-up or equipment breakdowns </li></ul><ul><li>Transport, poor timing; too frequent or infrequent movement of goods and deliveries. </li></ul>
  40. 41. <ul><li>All categories of muda result in direct loss of money or at least fail to increase efficiency and customer satisfaction. </li></ul><ul><li>Turning loss into profit by muda elimination is one of the easiest ways for a company to improve its operations. </li></ul><ul><li>Elimination of waste, one of the manifold aspects of Kaizen, does not request many efforts. </li></ul>
  41. 42. Gemba = Real Place <ul><li>&quot;Gemba&quot; a word associated with Kaizen </li></ul><ul><li>GEMBA is a Japanese word meaning real place, where the real action takes place. </li></ul><ul><li>In business, GEMBA is where the value-adding activities to satisfy the client are carried out. </li></ul>
  42. 43. <ul><li>Kaizen activities can be carried out endlessly, but only Kaizen on &quot;the real place&quot; is likely to yield some efficient improvement. </li></ul><ul><li>In Production (e.g industrial activity), Gemba is often used as &quot;work place&quot;, shop floor. </li></ul>
  43. 44. <ul><li>The workplace is often not recognized as the means to generate revenue, far more emphasis is on such sectors as financial management, marketing, sales, and product development. </li></ul><ul><li>When defining Kaizen action plan, go to gemba first. </li></ul><ul><li>Get a sense of the reality at gemba, talk with gemba people. </li></ul>
  44. 45. <ul><li>Kaizen isn't a method itself, as all usual analyzing or creativity techniques will still be used. </li></ul><ul><li>It's an incentive and formal system. </li></ul><ul><li>The KAIZEN concept stands for a panel of improvement activities </li></ul>
  45. 46. <ul><li>SMED </li></ul><ul><li>Zero defect </li></ul><ul><li>Fool proof (Poka-Yoke) </li></ul><ul><li>Just in Time (JIT) </li></ul><ul><li>All this means improvement and in some extend is Kaizen. </li></ul>
  46. 47. Total Quality Control
  47. 48. Deeming’s 14-points for Quality awareness program
  48. 49. <ul><li>Management commitments to the aims and purposes of the company </li></ul><ul><li>Learn new philosophy throughout all areas </li></ul><ul><li>Purpose of inspection. It should evaluate process improvements and cost reductions </li></ul><ul><li>End the practice of awarding business on the basis of price alone </li></ul>
  49. 50. <ul><li>Improve constantly and forever the system of production and service </li></ul><ul><li>Institute training </li></ul><ul><li>Teach and institute leadership </li></ul><ul><li>Create trust, climate for innovation </li></ul><ul><li>Optimize all efforts towards the aims and purposes of the company </li></ul>
  50. 51. <ul><li>Eliminate exhortations for the work force </li></ul><ul><li>Eliminate quotas / MBO </li></ul><ul><li>Remove barriers that rob people of pride of workmanship </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage education and self improvement for every one </li></ul><ul><li>Take action to accomplish the transformation </li></ul>