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  1. 1. Chapter 9 – Capacity Planning & Facility Location Operations Management by R. Dan Reid & Nada R. Sanders 2 nd Edition © Wiley 2005 PowerPoint Presentation by R.B. Clough - UNH
  2. 2. Learning Objectives <ul><li>Define capacity planning and location analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Describe relationship between capacity planning and location, and their importance to the organization </li></ul><ul><li>Explain the steps involved in capacity planning and location analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the decision support tools used for capacity planning </li></ul><ul><li>Identify key factors in location analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the decision support tools used for location analysis </li></ul>
  3. 3. Capacity planning <ul><li>Capacity is the maximum output rate of a production or service facility </li></ul><ul><li>Capacity planning is the process of establishing the output rate that may be needed at a facility: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Capacity is usually purchased in “chunks” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Strategic issues: how much and when to spend capital for additional facility & equipment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tactical issues: workforce & inventory levels, & day-to-day use of equipment </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Measuring Capacity Examples <ul><li>There is no one best way to measure capacity </li></ul><ul><li>Output measures like kegs per day are easier to understand </li></ul><ul><li>With multiple products, inputs measures work better </li></ul>
  5. 5. Capacity Information Needed <ul><li>Design capacity: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Maximum output rate under ideal conditions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A bakery can make 30 custom cakes per day when pushed at holiday time </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Effective capacity: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Maximum output rate under normal (realistic) conditions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>On the average this bakery can make 20 custom cakes per day </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Calculating Capacity Utilization <ul><li>Measures how much of the available capacity is actually being used: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Measures effectiveness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use either effective or design capacity in denominator </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Example of Computing Capacity Utilization: In the bakery example the design capacity is 30 custom cakes per day. Currently the bakery is producing 28 cakes per day. What is the bakery’s capacity utilization relative to both design and effective capacity? <ul><li>The current utilization is only slightly below its design capacity and considerably above its effective capacity </li></ul><ul><li>The bakery can only operate at this level for a short period of time </li></ul>
  8. 8. How Much Capacity Is Best? <ul><li>The Best Operating Level is the output than results in the lowest average unit cost </li></ul><ul><li>Economies of Scale: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Where the cost per unit of output drops as volume of output increases </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spread the fixed costs of buildings & equipment over multiple units, allow bulk purchasing & handling of material </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Diseconomies of Scale: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Where the cost per unit rises as volume increases </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Often caused by congestion (overwhelming the process with too much work-in-process) and scheduling complexity </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Best Operating Level and Size <ul><li>Alternative 1: Purchase one large facility, requiring one large </li></ul><ul><li>initial investment </li></ul><ul><li>Alternative 2: Add capacity incrementally in smaller chunks as </li></ul><ul><li>needed </li></ul>
  10. 10. Other Capacity Considerations <ul><li>Focused factories: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Small, specialized facilities with limited objectives </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Plant within a plant (PWP): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Segmenting larger operations into smaller operating units with focused objectives </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Subcontractor networks: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Outsource non-core items to free up capacity for what you do well </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Capacity cushions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Plan to underutilize capacity to provide flexibility </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Making Capacity Planning Decisions <ul><li>The three-step procedure for making capacity planning decisions is as follows: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Step 1: Identify Capacity Requirements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Step 2: Develop Capacity Alternatives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Step 3: Evaluate Capacity Alternatives </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Evaluating Capacity Alternatives <ul><li>Could do nothing , or expand large now , or expand small now with option to add later </li></ul><ul><li>Use Decision Trees analysis tool: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A modeling tool for evaluating sequential decisions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify the alternatives at each point in time ( decision points ), estimate probable consequences of each decision ( chance events ) & the ultimate outcomes ( e.g.: profit or loss) </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Example Using Decision Trees: A restaurant owner has determined that she needs to expand her facility. The alternatives are to expand large now and risk smaller demand, or expand on a smaller scale now knowing that she might need to expand again in three years. Which alternative would be most attractive? <ul><li>The likelihood of demand being high is .70 </li></ul><ul><li>The likelihood of demand being low is .30 </li></ul><ul><li>Large expansion yields profits of $300K(high dem.) or $50k(low dem.) </li></ul><ul><li>Small expansion yields profits of $80K if demand is low </li></ul><ul><li>Small expansion followed by high demand and later expansion yield a profit of $200K at that point. No expansion at that point yields profit of $150K </li></ul>
  14. 14. Evaluating the Decision Tree <ul><li>At decision point 2, choose to expand to maximize profits ($200,000 > $150,000) </li></ul><ul><li>Calculate expected value of small expansion: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>EV small = 0.30($80,000) + 0.70($200,000) = $164,000 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Calculate expected value of large expansion: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>EV large = 0.30($50,000) + 0.70($300,000) = $225,000 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>At decision point 1, compare alternatives & choose the large expansion to maximize the expected profit: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>$225,000 > $164,000 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Choose large expansion despite the fact that there is a 30% chance it’s the worst decision: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Take the calculated risk! </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Facility Location <ul><li>Three most important factors in real estate: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Location </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Location </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Location </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Facility location is the process of identifying the best geographic location for a service or production facility </li></ul>
  16. 16. Location Factors <ul><li>Proximity to suppliers: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduce transportation costs of perishable or bulky raw materials </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Proximity to customers: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>E.g.: high population areas, close to JIT partners </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Proximity to labor: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Local wage rates, attitude toward unions, availability of special skills (e.g.: silicon valley) </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. More Location Factors <ul><li>Community considerations: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Local community’s attitude toward the facility ( e.g .: prisons, utility plants, etc.) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Site considerations: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Local zoning & taxes, access to utilities, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Quality-of-life issues: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Climate, cultural attractions, commuting time, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Other considerations: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Options for future expansion, local competition, etc. </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Should Firm Go Global? <ul><li>Potential advantages: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inside track to foreign markets, avoid trade barriers, gain access to cheaper labor </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Potential disadvantages: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Political risks may increase, loss of control of proprietary technology, local infrastructure (roads & utilities) may be inadequate, high inflation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Other issues: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Language barriers, different laws & regulations, different business cultures </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Location Analysis Methods <ul><li>Analysis should follow 3 step process: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Step 1: Identify dominant location factors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Step 2: Develop location alternatives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Step 3: Evaluate locations alternatives </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Factor rating method </li></ul><ul><li>Load-distance model </li></ul><ul><li>Center of gravity approach </li></ul><ul><li>Break-even analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Transportation method </li></ul>
  20. 20. Factor Rating Example
  21. 21. A Load-Distance Model Example: Matrix Manufacturing is considering where to locate its warehouse in order to service its four Ohio stores located in Cleveland, Cincinnati, Columbus, Dayton. Two sites are being considered; Mansfield and Springfield, Ohio. Use the load-distance model to make the decision. <ul><li>Calculate the rectilinear distance: </li></ul><ul><li>Multiply by the number of loads between each site and the four cities </li></ul>
  22. 22. Calculating the Load-Distance Score for Springfield vs. Mansfield <ul><li>The load-distance score for Mansfield is higher than for Springfield . The warehouse should be located in Springfield. </li></ul>
  23. 23. The Center of Gravity Approach <ul><li>This approach requires that the analyst find the center of gravity of the geographic area being considered </li></ul><ul><li>Computing the Center of Gravity for Matrix Manufacturing </li></ul><ul><li>Is there another possible warehouse location closer to the C.G. that should be considered?? Why? </li></ul>
  24. 24. Break-Even Analysis <ul><li>Break-even analysis can be used for location analysis especially when the costs of each location are known </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Step 1: For each location, determine the fixed and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>variable costs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Step 2: Plot the total costs for each location on one graph </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Step 3: Identify ranges of output for which each location </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>has the lowest total cost </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Step 4: Solve algebraically for the break-even points </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>over the identified ranges </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Remember the break even equations used for calculation total cost of each location and for calculating the breakeven quantity Q. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Total cost = F + cQ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Total revenue = pQ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Break-even is where Total Revenue = Total Cost </li></ul></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  25. 25. Example using Break-even Analysis: Clean-Clothes Cleaners is considering four possible sites for its new operation. They expect to clean 10,000 garments. The table and graph below are used for the analysis. <ul><li>Insert Figure 9-6 Break- even graph for Clean-Clothes Cleaners </li></ul><ul><li>From the graph you can see that the two lowest cost intersections occur between C & B (4667 units) and B & A (9000 units) </li></ul><ul><li>The best alternative up to 4667 units is C, between 4667 and 9000 units the best is B, and above 9000 units the best site is A </li></ul>
  26. 26. The Transportation Method <ul><li>The transportation method of linear programming can be used to solve specific location problems </li></ul><ul><li>It is discussed in detail in the supplement to this text </li></ul><ul><li>It could be used to evaluate the cost impact of adding potential location sites to the network of existing facilities </li></ul><ul><li>It could also be used to evaluate adding multiple new sites or completely redesigning the network </li></ul>
  27. 27. Chapter 9 Highlights <ul><li>Capacity planning is deciding on the maximum output rate of a facility. </li></ul><ul><li>Location analysis is deciding on the best location for a facility. </li></ul><ul><li>Capacity planning and location decisions are often made at the same time because they are inter-related. </li></ul><ul><li>The analysis steps for both capacity and location analysis are assessing needs, developing alternatives, and evaluating alternatives. </li></ul>
  28. 28. Chapter 9 Highlights (continued) <ul><li>To choose between capacity planning alternatives managers may use a modeling tool like decision trees </li></ul><ul><li>Key factors in location analysis include proximity to customers, transportation, source of labor, community attitude, and proximity to supplies. </li></ul><ul><li>Location analysis tools include factor ratings, the load-distance model, the center of gravity approach, break-even analysis, and the transportation method. </li></ul>
  29. 29. The End <ul><li>Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted in Section 117 of the 1976 United State Copyright Act without the express written permission of the copyright owner is unlawful. Request for further information should be addressed to the Permissions Department, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. The purchaser may make back-up copies for his/her own use only and not for distribution or resale. The Publisher assumes no responsibility for errors, omissions, or damages, caused by the use of these programs or from the use of the information contained herein. </li></ul>