Lec13.a06.water2

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about water pollution

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  • The treehole mosquito ( Aedes triseriatus ) transmits the virus that causes La Crosse encephalitis.
  • The map shows the percentage of diseases caused by unsafe water. India and Africa have abysmal showing, while US and Europe provide far safer water to it's citizens.
  • -$13 billion to immunize all world ’ s Children against 6 major diseases (US spends $31 billion/year on beer)
  • Lec13.a06.water2

    1. 1. Water Quantity and Quality
    2. 2. What is Water Pollution? any physical (temperature, oxygen), chemical (mercury), or biological (disease, sewage) change to water that adversely effects its use by living things
    3. 3. Cuyahoga River, Ohio November 1952 Some river! Chocolate-brown, oily, bubbling with subsurface gases, it oozes rather than flows. "Anyone who falls into the Cuyahoga does not drown," Cleveland's citizens joke grimly. "He decays.” Time Magazine, August 1969
    4. 4. Groundwater Pollution
    5. 5. Types of Water Pollution <ul><li>Biological </li></ul><ul><li>Chemical </li></ul><ul><li>Physical </li></ul>Measured in: Percent (%) Parts per thousand (‰) Parts per million (ppm) Parts per billion (ppb)
    6. 6. Biological Water Pollution <ul><li>Infectious Disease (Pathogens) </li></ul><ul><li>Oxygen-Demanding Waste </li></ul>Direct (microbes in water): Typhoid, cholera, dysentery, hepatitis… Entamoeba histolytica
    7. 7. Biological Water Pollution <ul><li>Infectious Disease (Pathogens) </li></ul><ul><li>Oxygen-Demanding Waste </li></ul>Indirect (Water breeding carriers): malaria, yellow fever, west nile virus… Treehole mosquito (carried La Crosse ensephalitis)
    8. 8. Water Borne Disease
    9. 9. U.S. Water Borne Disease
    10. 10. Coliform Test Detection: <ul><li>Solutions: </li></ul><ul><li>Sewage treatment </li></ul><ul><li>Immunization </li></ul>
    11. 11. Biological Water Pollution <ul><li>Infectious Disease (Pathogens) </li></ul><ul><li>Oxygen-Demanding Waste </li></ul>
    12. 12. Dissolved Oxygen Added by: turbulent water and photosynthesis Removed by: Increased temperature (exsolution) and respiration/decomposition Good: > 6 ppm (mosquitoes can survive in 1 ppm) (also measured in % of maximum - Good = 60-80%)
    13. 13. Dissolved Carbon Dioxide Added by: respiration/decomposition & weathered rock Removed by: Increased temperature (exsolution) and photosynthesis Good: 1-10 ppm (usually about 1 ppm)
    14. 14. Oxygen Sag
    15. 15. Measuring DO and other chemical properties
    16. 16. Chemical Water Pollution <ul><li>Nutrients (Fertilizers) </li></ul><ul><li>Toxic Inorganic Materials </li></ul><ul><li>Persistent Organic Pollutants (POP’s) </li></ul>Nitrogen, phosphorous
    17. 17. Eutrophication Dissolved inorganic nitrogen in Baltic Sea & Blue Baby Syndrome
    18. 18. Nitrates <ul><li>Typically: 0.1-4 ppm </li></ul><ul><li>Unpolluted usually below 1 ppm </li></ul><ul><li>Sewage pollution increase up to 20 ppm </li></ul>
    19. 19. Chemical Water Pollution <ul><li>Nutrients (Fertilizers) </li></ul><ul><li>Toxic Inorganic Materials </li></ul><ul><li>Persistent Organic Pollutants (POP’s) </li></ul><ul><li>Heavy metals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>mercury,lead, tin… </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Super Toxic Elements </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Arsenic, selenium… </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Acids, salts, chlorine </li></ul><ul><li>Radioactive Isotopes </li></ul>
    20. 20. Arsenic in U.S. Waters
    21. 21. Some We Will Measure <ul><li>Copper </li></ul><ul><li>natural, fungicides, insecticides, copper pipes </li></ul><ul><li>can be lethal to some at 0.1 ppb, algae – 1-10 ppb, fish 500ppb </li></ul><ul><li>water standard 0.3 ppm </li></ul><ul><li>Acidity (pH) </li></ul><ul><li>6.5-8.2 normal (rainwater is usually a little acidic) </li></ul><ul><li>>9 – harmful to fish (inc. salmon) </li></ul><ul><li><5.5 releases metals in seds, bacteria die and organics don ’ t decay </li></ul><ul><li><5 insects die and fish eggs don ’ t hatch </li></ul><ul><li><4 lethal to adult salmon </li></ul>
    22. 22. Some We Will Measure <ul><li>Salinity </li></ul><ul><li>Saltwater 3.5% </li></ul><ul><li>Freshwater 1-500 ppm </li></ul><ul><li>usually >100 ppm is bad for freshwater organisms </li></ul><ul><li>>250 ppm tastes salty (max for drinking water) </li></ul><ul><li>Total Dissolved Solids </li></ul><ul><li>(Ca,Mg,Hco3, NH4, NO3, PO4, SO4, Na, Cl, Na, K) </li></ul><ul><li>from dissolved rock, fertilizer, urban runoff, irrigation, acid rainfall </li></ul><ul><li>“ watchdog ” – high numbers or rapid changes may indicate problem </li></ul><ul><li>typically 50-250 ppm </li></ul><ul><li>Drinking water must be below 500 ppm </li></ul>
    23. 23. Chemical Water Pollution <ul><li>Nutrients (Fertilizers) </li></ul><ul><li>Toxic Inorganic Materials </li></ul><ul><li>Persistent Organic Pollutants (POP’s) </li></ul>
    24. 24. Artificial Chemicals
    25. 25. The Dirty Dozen
    26. 26. Physical Water Pollution <ul><li>Sediment </li></ul><ul><li>Thermal Pollution </li></ul><ul><li>Solid Waste </li></ul>Chattahoochee River, GA Yellow River, China
    27. 27. Measured in: <ul><li>NTU ( Nephelometric Turbidity Units) </li></ul><ul><li>Normal levels: 1-50 NTU </li></ul><ul><li>Drinking Water: 0.5-1 NTU </li></ul><ul><li>Visible: >5 NTU </li></ul><ul><li>Higher during storms </li></ul>
    28. 28. Physical Water Pollution <ul><li>Sediment </li></ul><ul><li>Thermal Pollution </li></ul><ul><li>Solid Waste </li></ul><ul><li>Causes: </li></ul><ul><li>industry </li></ul><ul><li>dams </li></ul><ul><li>removal of vegetation </li></ul>Optimum – Fish 5-20°C (salmon <12°C)
    29. 29. Physical Water Pollution <ul><li>Sediment </li></ul><ul><li>Thermal Pollution </li></ul><ul><li>Solid Waste </li></ul>
    30. 30. Pollution Sources: Point Source <ul><li>Sewage pipes </li></ul><ul><li>Leaky gas tanks </li></ul><ul><li>Industrial sites </li></ul><ul><li>Injection wells </li></ul>
    31. 31. Pollution Sources: Nonpoint Source <ul><li>Agriculture (soil, fertilizer,pesticides) </li></ul><ul><li>Urban runoff (from pavement) </li></ul><ul><li>Construction sites </li></ul><ul><li>Air Pollution </li></ul>
    32. 32. Controlling Water Quality What can we do?
    33. 33. Solutions <ul><li>Legislation </li></ul><ul><li>Source Reduction </li></ul><ul><li>Improved Land Use Practices </li></ul><ul><li>Remediation </li></ul><ul><li>Sewage Treatment </li></ul>
    34. 34. Clean Water Act 1972 <ul><li>Established water quality standards </li></ul><ul><li>System for ID’ing point sources </li></ul><ul><li>Pretreatment for industry </li></ul><ul><li>Federal funding for sewage treatment </li></ul><ul><li>Provided for enforcement </li></ul><ul><li>Worked well for point sources </li></ul><ul><li>Nonpoint sources still a problem </li></ul>
    35. 35. Solutions <ul><li>Legislation </li></ul><ul><li>Source Reduction </li></ul><ul><li>Improved Land Use Practices </li></ul><ul><li>Remediation </li></ul><ul><li>Sewage Treatment </li></ul><ul><li>Remove lead from gasoline </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce road salting </li></ul><ul><li>Decrease erosion </li></ul><ul><li>Banning phosphates in detergents </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce fertilizer use, etc. </li></ul>
    36. 36. Solutions <ul><li>Legislation </li></ul><ul><li>Source Reduction </li></ul><ul><li>Improved Land Use Practices </li></ul><ul><li>Remediation </li></ul><ul><li>Sewage Treatment </li></ul><ul><li>Stormwater treatment </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce clearcutting </li></ul><ul><li>Preserve wetlands </li></ul><ul><li>Better construction practices </li></ul>
    37. 37. Solutions <ul><li>Legislation </li></ul><ul><li>Source Reduction </li></ul><ul><li>Improved Land Use Practices </li></ul><ul><li>Remediation </li></ul><ul><li>Sewage Treatment </li></ul>
    38. 38. Solutions <ul><li>Legislation </li></ul><ul><li>Source Reduction </li></ul><ul><li>Improved Land Use Practices </li></ul><ul><li>Remediation </li></ul><ul><li>Sewage Treatment </li></ul>Water hyacinths absorb arsenic
    39. 39. Solutions <ul><li>Legislation </li></ul><ul><li>Source Reduction </li></ul><ul><li>Improved Land Use Practices </li></ul><ul><li>Remediation </li></ul><ul><li>Sewage Treatment </li></ul>West Point Treatment Plant, Seattle
    40. 41. Sewage in King County

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