Mr. R. K. NIVENDRAN, M.E.,
Dept. of Aeronautical Engineering,
Udaya School of Engineering
M.E- CAD/CAM ENGINEERING
UDAYA SCHOOL OF ENGINEERING
DESIGN AND STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS OF
PELTON WHEEL TURBINE BLADE
The Pelton wheel extracts energy from the impulse of moving water, as
opposed to water's dead weight like the traditional overshot water
wheel. Many earlier variations of impulse turbines existed, but they
were less efficient than Pelton's design.
Water leaving those wheels typically still had high speed, carrying
away much of the dynamic energy brought to the wheels. Pelton's
paddle geometry was designed so that when the rim ran at half the
speed of the water jet, the water left the wheel with very little speed;
thus his design extracted almost all of the water's impulse energy
which made for a very efficient turbine.
TYPES OF TURBINE
Turbines are also divided by their principle of operation and can be either impulse
turbines or reaction turbines.
The reaction turbine's rotating part is completely immersed in water and is enclosed in a
pressure casing. The runner and casing are deliberately crafted so that they reduce the
clearance between them. The runner blades are profiled so that pressure differences across
them impose lift forces that cause the runner to rotate, similar to those on aircraft wings.
An impulse turbine runner works in the air in the contest, powered by a water jet (or jets).
And before and after making contact with the runner wheels, the water stays at ambient
pressure. In this case, the pressurised low-velocity water is converted into a high-speed jet
by a nozzle.
PELTON WHEEL TURBINE
The Pelton wheel extracts energy from the impulse of moving water, as opposed to water's
dead weight like the traditional overshot water wheel. Many variations of impulse turbines
existed prior to Pelton's design, but they were less efficient than Pelton's design. Water
leaving those wheels typically still had high speed, carrying away much of the dynamic
energy brought to the wheels.
If Pelton wheel buckets are held stationary, there will be a huge impulse force produced. But
power extraction will be zero since buckets are not moving. Bucket Speed Same as Jest Speed If
buckets are moving with same speed of jet, water jet won't be able to hit the bucket. This will lead to
zero impulse force. Again power extraction will be zero.
DESIGN STEPS OF A PELTON BUCKET
Considering the basic working state of the turbine; the sprinter holder is
stationary at beginning stage. The water plane departs the gush at a quick
and hits the bucket with high unique speed. In the midst of the normal
running of a Pelton turbine a consistent fly of water at different speed is
kept up for the endless upheaval of the sprinter. In any case it is the
essential stream of water that strikes the holder which has the best impact
on the can profile, this is by goodness of the primary water fly needs to
pulverize the inactivity powers of the sprinter. Truth be told it is the key
water plane fly which passes on the rotational essentialness and torque
required for the turn of the sprinter. This work bargains the improvement of
a Pelton bucket for considering first effect power of water fly.
he main pressure driven turbine of the drive sort in like manner
utilization, is named after an American engineer Laster A Pelton, who
contributed much to its advancement around the year 1880. In this way
this machine is known as Pelton turbine or Pelton wheel. It is a proficient
machine especially suited to high heads. The rotor comprises of an
expansive round plate or wheel on which a number (at times under 15) of
spoon formed basins are divided consistently round is fringe as indicated.
The wheel is driven by planes of water being released at environmental
weight from weight spouts. The spouts are mounted so that each guides
a plane along a digression to the circle through the focuses of the pails.
The main purpose of this thesis work is to prepare a model under some
standard and its parameter which is also depends on standard. The thesis
includes the change in design parameter such as the change in discharge
of water by which the velocity of jet change due to changing of this term
directly affect on the force exerted by the jet on the bucket which is
responsible for the movement or motion of bucket its means the changing in
the speed of runner with respect to the change in the jet velocity. The speed
of runner is change by two methods the first one is to change the discharge
as well as the jet velocity and the second on is the modification in the
runner. Here the modification is done by the changing of density of runner
plate. The density is change by changing of material.
Mr. Uvaraj V Mane, “Design And Structural Analysis Of Pelton Wheel
Turbine Blade” International Journal Of Advance Scientific Research
And Engineering Trends, Volume 5 || Issue 12 || December 2020, et al, A
hydro-mechanical energy conversion system is a Pelton-wheel impulse
turbine that transforms elevated water's gravitational energy into mechanical
operation. Using an electrical generator, this mechanical work is transformed
into electrical energy. In the high head and low water flows, the Pelton turbine
was used to set up a micro-hydroelectric power plant due to its easy design
and ease of development. The turbine parameters must be included in the
design procedure in order to achieve a Pelton hydraulic turbine with optimum
efficiency under different operating conditions.
Bonthu Mallikarjuna Rao, “Design And Structural Analysis Of Pelton
Wheel Turbine Blade” International Journal Of Advance Scientific
Research And Engineering Trends, Volume 6 || Issue 4 || April 2021, et
al, In this project we have checked newly develop design known as hooped
runner or advanced pelton wheel in which there are two hoops which
supports the bucket from back side and giving it to rest on it. The new
design is based on redistribution of the function of different parts of pelton
wheel. In conventional runner the jet of water is directly strike to splitter of
the bucket and transfers the force to it than buckets convert it into
momentum by which the shaft is rotate and giving us power. Whereas in
advanced pelton wheel bucket does not directly transport the force to the
runner but transfer the force via these hoops and these hoops is connected
to shaft and by that producing the power so due to hooped runner bucket act
as simply supported beam comparing to simple pelton wheel so stress
developed in hooped pelton is less due to this construction.
Improper material leads the failure and damage due to excessive forces
at that time need proper material of pelton wheel bucket, grey cast iron
formed corrosion, cracks, generally using steel and alluminium materials we
are choosing the inconel material because of high stiffness, low stresses,
deformation Inconel is a family of austenitic nickel-chromium-based
superalloys. These alloys are oxidation- and corrosion-resistant materials
well suited for service in extreme environments subjected to pressure and
heat. When heated, it forms a thick, stable, passivating oxide layer
protecting the surface from further attack. This material retains strength over
a wide temperature range, attractive for high temperature applications.
Following assumptions or considerations are made in the design
process using design guides and literature:
1. As per general exhaust gas temperature, it is assumed that working fluid
(toluene) is heated to 300 °C and 10 bar pressure by exhaust gases
2. Flow across the nozzle is considered to be adiabatic.
3. As per standard nozzle and tubing dimensions, inlet diameter of nozzle
(d1) is taken as 12 mm
4. Inlet angle of nozzle, α is taken as 0°
5. Maximum flow rate through the turbine, Q is taken as 0.5 Kg/s due to
Net head is taken as 45 m,
Rotational speed is taken as 1200 rpm
Flow rate is taken to be 6 liters per second
The bucket is stationary
The bucket is designed at maximum efficiency.
To Create Parts and Assembly of Pelton Wheel Turbine The sequence
of procedures employed to generate the parts of turbine are as follows:-
1. Set up the geometric parameters for bucket.
1 Volume of bucket 170 mm3
2 Bucket axial width 100 mm
3 Bucket radial length 90 mm
4 Bucket depth 36 mm
5 No. of bucket 20
Volume of bucket
Bucket axial width
Bucket radial length
2. Create the basic geometry such as the bucket axial width and radial width.
3. Create two ellipse of that size and merge it using extrude command extrude it to create
the modeling of bucket.
4. Set up the geometric parameter for flange.
Outside Diameter of Flange
Thickness of Flange
Length of Hub
5. Create the basic geometry using sketch command and revolve it around the central line
6. Setup the geometric parameter for runner plate
Diameter of runner
Diameter of pitch circle of bolt
7. Create the plate using diameter of runner and make hole of 10mm for bolt
using pitch circle diameter of hole.
8. Finally using pattern command for hole. Solid model of runner for pelton
wheel turbine using Solidworks software.
9. Assembly all parts to make assembly of it.
The new design is based on redistribution of the function of different
parts of pelton wheel. In conventional runner the jet of water is directly
strike to splitter of the bucket and transfers the force to it than buckets
convert it into momentum by which the shaft is rotate and giving us
power. The project is directed towards the modeling of both traditional
and advanced bucket pelton wheel in a 3D Cad tool called Solidworks.
The scopes of this proposed project are:
1. To generate 3-dimensional geometry model in Solidworks of the pelton
2. To perform structural analysis on the model to determine the stress,
deformation, shear stress of the component under the static load
3. To compare analysis between four different materials of pelton wheel
. Bilal Abdullah Nasir. ―Design of High Efficiency Pelton Turbine for Micro
Hydro Power Plant‖ IJET, Volume 4, Issue 1, January- February (2013), pp. 171-
. Nikhil Jacob George, SebinSabu, Kevin Raju Joseph, AshwinChandy Alex.
―Static Analysis on Pelton Wheel Bucket‖ IJERT, Vol. 3 Issue 3, March - 2014
. Bryan R. Cobb, Kendra V. Sharp ―Impulse (Turgo and Pelton) turbine
performance characteristics and their impact on pico-hydro installations‖
ELSEVIER, 7 August 2012
. Chukwuneke J. L, Achebe C. H., Nwosu M. C., Sinebe J. E. ―Analysis and
Simulation on Effect of Head and Bucket Splitter Angle on the Power Output of a
Pelton Turbine‖ EAAS, Volume 5, No. 03, Aug. 2014.
. I.U. Atthanayake―Analytical Study On Flow Through a Pelton Turbine Bucket
Using Boundary Layer Theory‖ IJET-IJENS, Volume 9, No. 9.