Biotech and hunger

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Biotech and hunger

  1. 1. BIOTECHNOLOGY & HUNGER
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION <ul><li>World hunger & food insecurity is a recurring problem in most parts of developing world . </li></ul><ul><li>Despite the success of the green revolution , the battle to ensure food security for hundreds of millions miserably poor people is far from won. </li></ul><ul><li>Mushrooming populations , changing demographics and inadequate poverty intervention programs have eroded many of the gains of the GREEN REVOLUTION. </li></ul>
  3. 3. GM FOODS <ul><li>Better technological advancement is needed to meet the modern era requirements. </li></ul><ul><li>Among various approaches , GM CROPS demands particular attention. </li></ul><ul><li>Genetically modified (GM) foods are foods derived from genetically modified organisms </li></ul><ul><li>The general public may not welcome the creation of super plants as a viable option in solving global hunger. </li></ul>
  4. 4. CURRENT SITUATION
  5. 5. <ul><li>800 Million chronically malnourished human beings in the world. </li></ul><ul><li>200 Million are in Africa. </li></ul><ul><li>65% of African women of child bearing age are anaemic </li></ul><ul><li>40 Million children's are severely under weight for their age. </li></ul><ul><li>50 Million are vitamin-A deficient </li></ul>
  6. 8. <ul><li>African economy totally depended on the agriculture </li></ul><ul><li>Agriculture in Africa infected by various problems such as…. </li></ul><ul><li>1. Viruses </li></ul><ul><li>2. Insects </li></ul><ul><li>3. Weeds </li></ul><ul><li>4. Drought </li></ul><ul><li>5. Stiff competition </li></ul>
  7. 10. Technically Speaking... <ul><li>Food biotechnology employs the tools of modern genetics to enhance beneficial traits of plants, animals, and microorganisms for food production. It involves adding or extracting select genes to achieve desired traits. </li></ul>
  8. 11. <ul><li>Food biotechnology is the evolution of traditional agricultural techniques such as crossbreeding and fermentation. </li></ul><ul><li>It is an extension of the type of food development that has provided nectarines, tangerines and similar advancements. </li></ul>
  9. 12. Food Biotechnology: From Farm to Fork <ul><li>Farming & the environment </li></ul><ul><li>Food quality & processing </li></ul><ul><li>Health & nutrition </li></ul><ul><li>Developing nations </li></ul>
  10. 13. Farming & the Environment <ul><li>Reduces the use of pesticides </li></ul><ul><li>Decreases soil erosion </li></ul><ul><li>Helps protect water </li></ul><ul><li>Conserves land & fossil fuels </li></ul>
  11. 14. Farmers <ul><li>Increases crop yields </li></ul><ul><li>Reduces farmer production costs </li></ul><ul><li>Decreases farmer exposure to pesticides </li></ul><ul><li>Improves farming efficiency </li></ul>
  12. 15. Preventable plant diseases
  13. 16. Farming & Animal Biotechnology <ul><li>Animal feed: biotechnology vs. traditional variety </li></ul><ul><li>Animal products: milk, meat & eggs </li></ul><ul><li>May improve feed supplies </li></ul>
  14. 17. Food Quality & Processing <ul><li>Many processed foods use biotech crops </li></ul><ul><li>Improved fat profile in oils - more stable for frying </li></ul><ul><li>Delayed ripening = fresher produce </li></ul>
  15. 18. Consumers benefit from food biotechnology <ul><li>Better environment </li></ul><ul><li>Better food processing & quality </li></ul><ul><li>Improved nutritional profile </li></ul>
  16. 19. Developing Nations: Biotechnology’s Impact on Food Security
  17. 20. Combating Hunger <ul><li>Biotechnology will allow more food to be produced on less land </li></ul><ul><li>Economic benefits will allow food biotechnology to contribute to combating global hunger </li></ul>
  18. 21. Feeding the world will be one of the most important challenges governments And policy makers
  19. 22. Consumers Support Food Biotechnology <ul><li>Nearly two-thirds believe food biotechnology will benefit their family in the next five years. </li></ul><ul><li>More than half would choose products modified to taste better or fresher. </li></ul><ul><li>Nearly three-quarters of consumers would likely buy produce protected against insect damage. </li></ul><ul><li>Source: IFIC/Cogent, April 2003 </li></ul>
  20. 23. Food Biotechnology Is Safe <ul><li>Food biotechnology is one of the most extensively reviewed agricultural advancements to date. </li></ul><ul><li>Studies to date show no evidence of harmful effects. </li></ul>
  21. 24. U.S. Labeling Policy for Food Biotechnology <ul><li>FDA safety standards are consistent for all foods. </li></ul><ul><li>A label disclosure would be required if . . . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Allergens were present in the food </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Levels of naturally occurring toxins had increased. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nutrient composition or profile had been changed from its traditional counterpart </li></ul></ul>
  22. 25. Consumers Support Labeling Policy <ul><li>Nearly two-thirds of consumers support the FDA labeling policy </li></ul><ul><li>Source: IFIC/Cogent, April 2003 </li></ul>
  23. 26. Current Products of Food Biotechnology
  24. 28. Combating Hunger & Malnutrition <ul><li>Vitamin A deficiency and iron-deficiency afflict millions worldwide </li></ul><ul><li>Potential solution: “golden rice ” </li></ul>
  25. 29. LONG LASTING TOMATOES <ul><li>Long lasting genetically modified tomatoes come to the 1994 and were the first genetically modified food available to consumers. </li></ul><ul><li>Remain firm and fresh for longer time . </li></ul><ul><li>Tolerate longer transport time period . </li></ul><ul><li>All tomatoes can be harvested simultaneously . </li></ul>
  26. 30. INSECTICIDE SWEET CORN <ul><li>Scientists have genetically modified sweet corn so that it produces a poison which kills harmful insects. </li></ul><ul><li>Save environment </li></ul><ul><li>No need to use the insecticides. </li></ul><ul><li>Both advantages and disadvantages. </li></ul>
  27. 34. GM FOODS
  28. 36. BENEFITS FROM BIOTECHNOLOGY <ul><li>Reduce the insecticides usage </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce the herbicide usage </li></ul><ul><li>Tolerant varieties </li></ul><ul><li>Soil degradation prevention </li></ul><ul><li>Speed up development process </li></ul><ul><li>Improve fertilizer use efficiency </li></ul><ul><li>Disease resistant plants </li></ul>
  29. 37. DEBATE OVER BIOTECHNOLOGY
  30. 38. DANGER TO HEALTH <ul><li>Unexpected allergic reactions in consumption. </li></ul><ul><li>At the 2002 World Food Summit , the FAO came out in support of </li></ul><ul><li>biotechnology products as being as safe for humans consumption as </li></ul><ul><li>their Traditional counterparts. </li></ul><ul><li>The European Commission recently declared that “ the use of more precise technology and greater scrutiny probably make GM foods safer than conventional plants and foods.” </li></ul>
  31. 39. ENVIRONMENTAL DAMAGE
  32. 40. <ul><li>Possible emergence of environmentally hazardous “super weeds” , </li></ul><ul><li>new plants that draw unexpectedly on traits introduced through </li></ul><ul><li>biotechnology. </li></ul><ul><li>Essential matter of gene flow. </li></ul><ul><li>On the other hand play an significant role in environmental pollution </li></ul><ul><li>control. </li></ul><ul><li>Decrease the usage of insecticides </li></ul>
  33. 41. CORPORATE CONTROL Biotechnology is also seen as a production too that , because of economics of scale and purchase costs , benefits only corporate and other large scale producers . A study on the adoption of Bt cotton in south Africa concluded that “both large scale and small scale farmers enjoy financial benefits due to higher yields and despite high seed costs”
  34. 42. ETHICAL OBJECTIONS <ul><li>Some opponents object to biotechnology on moral or ethical grounds , saying that human beings should not interfere with the natural orders by modifying genes or crossing species boundaries . </li></ul><ul><li>Traditional plant and animal improvement such as cross breeding and hybridization are obvious examples and genetic engineering is essential a refinement of such methods . </li></ul><ul><li>The european Commission in 2002 cited 81 separate studies supporting the view that GM foods on the market are as safe to eat as their traditional counterparts. </li></ul>
  35. 44. TO THE USE OF BIOTECHNOLOGY
  36. 45. <ul><li>Fear of lost export sales to Europe and elsewhere. </li></ul><ul><li>Intellectual property rights constraints. </li></ul><ul><li>Health and environmental concerns . </li></ul><ul><li>Inadequate scientific and research capacity in LDCs. </li></ul><ul><li>Absence of government regulatory mechanisms to oversee testing and regulations. </li></ul><ul><li>A general inability to assess biotechnology’s potential and risk. </li></ul>
  37. 48. What Does the Future Hold? <ul><li>Food biotechnology has the potential to: </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce natural toxins in plants </li></ul><ul><li>Provide simpler and faster ways to detect pathogens </li></ul><ul><li>Extend freshness </li></ul><ul><li>Increase farming efficiency </li></ul>
  38. 49. ONLY ONCE SCIENTIST’S & POLICY MAKER ADAPT BIOTECHNOLOGY TO ENHANCE LOCAL PRODUCTION AND TARGET SPECIFIC NEEDS IN LOW DEVELOPED COUNTERIES , CAN IT BEGIN TO HAVE A REAL IMPACT ON HUNGER
  39. 50. FINAL THOUGHT
  40. 51. BIOTECHNOLOGY HAS APPLICATIONS THAT CAN SIGNIFICANTLY SOLVE THE PROBLEM OF WORLD HUNGER . GREEN IS THE COLOR OF AGRICULTURAL BIOTECHNOLOGY , OF FERTILITY, SELF RESPECT AND WELL BEING

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