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Motivational interviewing scaffolded offender's journey - a.j.bencosme


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Motivational Interviewing is a well known counseling vehicle. It frequently connected to the stages of change. Nevertheless, its scope and impact becomes expanded if connected to the subjective experience of the person receiving counsel as portrayed through the hero's journey. The case illustrated here is that of using MI to help offenders rehabilitate and reenter society.

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Motivational interviewing scaffolded offender's journey - a.j.bencosme

  1. 1. Arturo J. Bencosme, PhD 1
  2. 2. Arturo J. Bencosme, PhD 2
  3. 3. It has been found that a condemnation script often underlies recidivism “I characterize the narrative of persistent offenders as a condemnation script. The condemned person is the narrator (although he or she reserves plenty of blame for society as well). Active offenders… largely saw their life scripts as having been written for them a long time ago” Maruna, S. (2002), Making Good: How Ex-Convicts Reform and Rebuild their Lives Arturo J. Bencosme, PhD 3
  4. 4. Opposite to a condemnation script is the redemption script. “… most consistent characteristics of reformed ex-offender self-narratives include a tendency to find some meaning in one’s experiences of crime and imprisonment, a desire to give something back (especially to the next generation of young people in trouble), and a sense of hope and control over one’s future.” Maruna, S., et al (2006) Why God Is Often Found Behind Bars: Prison Conversions and the Crisis of Self-Narrative RESEARCH IN HUMAN DEVELOPMENT, 3(2&3), 161–184 Arturo J. Bencosme, PhD 4
  5. 5. Beyond redemption, which highlights repairing the harm done, a more powerful script for the future would be about heroic self-transformation, unleashing the offender’s potential and in which the role of a hero is undertaken as a human being in service to mankind. Thus the name: “Mythogenic Transformational Script”. Arturo J. Bencosme, PhD 5
  6. 6. Motivational Interviewing can be defined as:  A collaborative conversation style for strengthening a person’s own motivation and commitment to change.  A person-centered counseling style for addressing the common problem of ambivalence about change.  A collaborative, goal-oriented style of communication with particular attention to the language of change. It is designed to strengthen personal motivation for and commitment to a specific goal by eliciting and exploring the person’s own reasons for change within an atmosphere of acceptance and compassion. Miller, W. R., & Rollnick, S., (2013) Motivational Interviewing – Helping People Change. Arturo J. Bencosme, PhD 6
  7. 7. Traditionally, the aim of motivational interviewing’s four processes has been on guiding the offender through the five conventional stages of change. Arturo J. Bencosme, PhD 7
  8. 8. When the aim of Motivational Interviewing goes beyond the conventional stages of change into a narrative of the Journey of Change, a starting point for constructing a personal script for the future becomes available. This could help fill the current lack of rites of reentry. “Like the commission of a crime, the reintegration of the former outcast back into society represents a challenge to the moral order, a delicate transition fraught with danger and possibility. However, unlike punishment, reintegration is not a process characterized by well-orchestrated and familiar rituals. This lack might explain the failings of prisoner reentry in contemporary society. “ Maruna, S. (2011) Reentry as a Rite of Passage Punishment & Society 13(1) 3-28 Arturo J. Bencosme, PhD 8
  9. 9. Arturo J. Bencosme, PhD 9
  10. 10. Healing, transformation & reentry is a process that can take years to complete by the offender. Or it might occur through a relatively short period of time. What is important is that at its center is the purposeful transformation of the offender. This being an inner transformation, involves a shift in self-perception and in the worldview been held within which encompasses the offender’s participation in society. Naturally, that will only happen as a result of the offender’s choice and commitment. Arturo J. Bencosme, PhD 10
  11. 11. A offender’s purposeful transformational journey coincides with Joseph Campbell´s monomyth - The Hero´s Journey: A hero is anyone who leaves the world of everyday life to undergo a journey to a special world where challenges and fears are overcome to secure a reward which is then shared with others in the community. Adapted from Campbell, J. (1973), The Hero with a Thousand Faces Arturo J. Bencosme, PhD 11
  12. 12. … “The hero, therefore, is the man or woman who has been able to battle past his personal and local historical limitations to the generally valid, normally human forms”. Campbell, J. (1973), The Hero with a Thousand Faces Arturo J. Bencosme, PhD 12
  13. 13. The Hero’s Journey is a universal pattern, an archetype as conceptualized by Carl G. Jung: A recurring pattern of images, situations, or symbols found in the mythology, religion, art, and dreams of cultures around the world. Carl Jung Arturo J. Bencosme, PhD 13
  14. 14. Joseph Campbell utilized Jung’s idea of the archetype to establish the Hero’s Journey pattern of transformation. The Hero’s Journey archetypical cycle goes through three parts: • Departure/Preparation, • Initiation/Passage/Transformation and, • Return/Celebration. Joseph Campbell Arturo J. Bencosme, PhD 14
  15. 15. Patterning the Offender’s Heroic Journey Script The Hero’s Journey can provide a template for the offenders’ script for the future. Multiple variations to each part of the Hero’s Journey cycle are possible. A usable template for the offender’s heroic journey can be set as follows: The World as Usual The Call to Adventure The Journey • Departure/Preparation ‐ Departure ‐ The Gate Keeper • Initiation/Passage/Transformation ‐ Endurance Trials ‐ Abyss – Supreme Challenge ‐ Claiming the Treasure ‐ Convergence with the True Self • Return/Celebration. ‐ Preparing to Return ‐ Arrival & Celebration The Expanded World as Usual Arturo J. Bencosme, PhD 15
  16. 16. THE WORLD AS USUAL Patterning the Offender’s Heroic Journey Script (Cont.) THE WORLD AS USUAL • This is the mental place where things that are known dwell, including self image, reputation, skills, habits and so forth. • It is also not being aware, not believing in the possibility or not having the intention to change, to self-transform. • Locus of control is likely external, accompanied by a reactive attitude product of a belief of a destiny-defined future. THE CALL TO ADVENTURE • Becoming aware of the potential within: Awakening to the possibility of materializing the true self in spite of any past history. • Visualizing a positive future for self. • Hanna’s precursors to change are present: ₋ Mindsets: sense of necessity, readiness to experience anxiety or difficulty, hope. ₋ Meta-cognitions: Awareness, confronting the problem, effort or will toward change. ₋ Broad, Confiding Social Support Arturo J. Bencosme, PhD 16
  17. 17. Patterning the Offender’s Heroic Journey Script (Cont.) DEPARTURE: • Committing to self-transformation. • Envisaging a positive purpose in life. • Searching for guidance & advice. • Identifying probable challenges to overcome. • The strongest aide would come from self knowledge; the worse opponent emerges from the inner “shadow”. KEY: Know Thyself.` Preparation THE GATE KEEPER: • Clarifying the personal vision & recommitting to materialize it. • Dealing with fears and facing concerns & doubts. • Understanding and acceptance of those concerns. • Identifying keys for the journey ahead. KEY: Only those who dream can create realities. 1ST THRESHOLD: Leaving the world as usual - Entering the extraordinary world of healing & transformation. Arturo J. Bencosme, PhD 17
  18. 18. Patterning the Offender’s Heroic Journey Script (Cont.) ENDURANCE TRIALS: • Knowing that at some level, every obstacle is FOR the best in self. • Resolving to utilize everything to learn, grow & advance toward healing. • Developing pro-social values & attitude. • Going past inner blockades and external difficulties. • Key: “The event is not important, the response to the event is everything.” (From the I Ching) Passage ABYSS – SUPREME CHALLENGE: • Overcoming the Greatest Fear: Death and Rebirth. • Acknowledging that "Our deepest fear is not that we are Inadequate. Our deepest fear is that we are powerful beyond measure. It is our light, not our darkness, that most frightens us.” Williamson, M. (1992) A Return to Love • KEY: You have being preparing yourself for this all along. Arturo J. Bencosme, PhD 18
  19. 19. Patterning the Offender’s Heroic Journey Script (Cont.) Passage (Cont.) CLAIMING THE TREASURE: • Thriving in discovery & fulfillment. • Experiencing the true self and thus realizing that all rewards that come with the healing and transformation are just its reflections. KEY: Inner rich & abundance is a consciousness, not a material scorecard. CONVERGENCE WITH THE TRUE SELF: • Building a consciousness of Inner Alignment. • Attaining balances between pairs of opposites: Inner - Outer, Material – Spiritual, Temporal-Eternal. • Treading the pathway to at-onement: Acceptance, cooperation, understanding and enthusiasm. KEY: Manifesting the true self. 2nd THRESHOLD: Leaving the extraordinary world of healing & transformation and proceeding to reenter society. Arturo J. Bencosme, PhD 19
  20. 20. Patterning the Offender’s Heroic Journey Script (Cont.) Return PREPARING TO RETURN: • Owning the healing & pursuing further transformation. • Being grateful for the journey undertaken. • Visualizing the reentry steps & challenges to overcome. • Re-Assessing the original journey motives. KEY: Self Acknowledge and Reconnect to Society. ARRIVAL & CELEBRATION: • Enjoying being free from Fear, Letting Love Lead Life. • Being aware of having become a Master of Two Worlds: the ordinary and the extraordinary. • Sharing the learning and contributing to societal wellbeing. KEY: It is time to reciprocate. Arturo J. Bencosme, PhD 20
  21. 21. Patterning the Offender’s Heroic Journey Script (Cont.) Back to the Community - The E x p a n d e d World as Usual THE EXPANDED WORLD AS USUAL • The experience of going through the journey of transformation, healing and re-entry results in an expanded comfort zone. • Having mastered the ordinary and the extraordinary worlds makes the ex-offender a person with an unusual potential for contributing to society. • Such potential empowers the returning citizen to pursue further journeys and thus creating a myth about self, a hero´s myth. Arturo J. Bencosme, PhD 21
  22. 22. Patterning the Offender’s Heroic Journey Script (Cont.) CALL TO ADVENTURE Awakening, Awareness, Envisioning, Readiness. THE WORLD AS USUAL DEPARTURE: Commitment , sense of purpose in life, guidance & advice, aides & opponents, and challenges to overcome THE GATE KEEPER: Dealing with fears & concerns. Re-commitment to the vision. ENDURANCE TRIALS: Utilizing everything to learn, grow & advance. Pro-social values & attitude. ABYSS – SUPREME CHALLENGE: Death & Rebirth. Overcoming the greatest fear: Acknowledging that what most frightens us is our inner light.” ARRIVAL & CELEBRATION: Freedom from Fear, Letting Love Lead Life. Master of Two Worlds. Sharing the learning and contributing to society. PREPARING TO RETURN: Owning the journey. Gratefulness: Giving & receiving. Preparing for reentry. Recovering from inner wounds. CONVERGENCE WITH THE TRUE SELF: Inner Alignment & Balance. At-onement: Acceptance, cooperation, understanding and enthusiasm. CLAIMING THE TREASURE: Thriving in discovery & fulfillment. Experiencing the true self reflecting in the rewards from healing and transformation. 1st THRESHOLD Leaving the world as usual - Entering the extraordinary world of healing & transformation. 2nd THRESHOLD Leaving the extraordinary world & Proceeding to reentry society. Template Summary Arturo J. Bencosme, PhD 22
  23. 23. Patterning the Offender’s Heroic Journey Script (Cont.) Several specific heroic archetypes (Established by Carol S. Pearson) are at play along the hero’s journey. As they become awake, they can bring support as favorable “aides”. The Heroic Archetypes C. S. Pearson, Awakening the Heroes Within (1991) •The Innocent •The Orphan •The Warrior •The Altruist •The Explorer •The Destroyer •The Lover •The Creator •The Ruler •The Magician •The Sage •The Jester THE WORLD AS USUAL Arturo J. Bencosme, PhD 23
  24. 24. Patterning the Offender’s Heroic Journey Script (Cont.) Pearson’s archetypes informs inner companions and aides for the script for the journey, promoting attitudes and keys to go past the challenges at each stage. C. S. Pearson, Awakening the Heroes Within (1991) Major Parts in The Hero’s Journey Heroic Archetypes & Their Behavior Departure / Preparation Sense of self-confidence.  Innocent: spontaneity and trust - optimism to take the journey.  Orphan: Informs that everyone matters. Teaches empathy.  Warrior: Sets and achieves goals. Teaches fearlessness.  Altruist: Drives to help others. Teaches compassion. Initiation / Passage / Transformation Transformational momentum.  Seeker: Self-inquiries leading to insights. Brings courage.  Destroyer: Supports in detaching. Brings renewal.  Lover: Creates relationships & enthusiasm. Teaches passion.  Creator: Manifests beauty and innovates. Impels expression. Return / Celebration Awareness of self-renewal and of making a difference in the world.  Ruler: Strives for inner alignment. Teaches purpose.  Magician: Transforms obstacles into opportunities. Teaches wonder.  Sage: Cultivates wisdom, brings freedom. Fosters learning.  Jester: Prompts enjoyment and fun. Brings lightness. Arturo J. Bencosme, PhD 24
  25. 25. Patterning the Offender’s Heroic Journey Script (Cont.) The Heroic Archetypes are observable psychological patterns:  They are measurable: • Heroic Myth Index (HMI) C. S. Pearson, Awakening the Heroes Within (1991) • Pearson-Marr Archetype Index (PMAI) C. S. Pearson, Ph.D. and H. K. Marr Ph.D. (2011) Introduction to Archetypes & PMAI™  And they can serve as the basis for evidence based practices Arturo J. Bencosme, PhD 25
  26. 26. Becoming Mindful of the Hero and the Journey Within Mindfulness is deliberately and non-judgmentally heeding attention either to one's emotions, thoughts and sensations presently occurring or to external objects.  Self-enquiring the journey to be taken allows for self-appropriating and energizing it.  Developing mindfulness sets a stage for self-enquiring the hero and the journey within.  Using motivational interviewing in tandem with mindfulness to scaffold the offender’s heroic journey will likely result in building a successful transformational script for the offender. Arturo J. Bencosme, PhD 26
  27. 27. Becoming Mindful of the Hero and the Journey Within (Cont.) Meditation is a widely practiced contemplative discipline that provides an avenue to mindfulness. Meditation is needed in developing mental qualities. The mind is definitely something that can be transformed, and meditation is a means to transform it. Meditation is the activity of familiarizing your mind with something new. Basically, it means getting used to the object on which you are meditating. H.H. Dalai Lama, (2000) The Meaning of Life Wisdom Publications Arturo J. Bencosme, PhD 27
  28. 28. Becoming Mindful of the Hero and the Journey Within (Cont.) H.H. Dalai Lama describes two types of meditation Meditation is of two types-analytical and stabilizing. First, an object is analyzed, after which the mind is set one-pointedly on the same object in stabilizing meditation. Within analytical meditation, there are also two types: 1. Something, such as impermanence, is taken as the object of the mind and is meditated upon; 2. A mental attitude is cultivated through meditation, as in cultivating love, in which case the mind becomes of the nature of that mental attitude. H.H. Dalai Lama, (2000) The Meaning of Life Wisdom Publications Arturo J. Bencosme, PhD 28
  29. 29. Becoming Mindful of the Hero and the Journey Within (Cont.) Motivational Interviewing and Meditational Practices Can Support Each Other Working Together to Impel Transformation Motivational Interviewing Processes Mindfulness Outcomes Engaging: Connecting, Surfacing Dilemmas, Exploring Values & Goals Developing Calmness Being Self-Aware Observing Non-Judgmentally Focusing: Seeking & Maintaining Direction, Visualizing Goals Heeding Centered Attention Heeding Open Attention Being Contemplative Evoking: Change Talking, Expanding Discrepancy, Developing Self- Efficacy, Readying for Change. Self-Knowing Motivations Participating Developing Oneness Planning: Strengthening Commitment, Developing a Change Plan. Developing Values Observing Future Life Path Principled Actuating Arturo J. Bencosme, PhD 29
  30. 30. Becoming Mindful of the Hero and the Journey Within (Cont.) Meditative practices can be directed to develop mindfulness about the transformational journey which in turn will bring into light its script as follows: 1. The attention is concentrated on the hero and the journey within. 2. An inner image of the hero and the journey within is enlivened through imagination as perceived and is made to become vividly lively. 3. The image is allowed to dissolve and the attention becomes wide, without any attachment. Inspiration and insight arise naturally. 4. Intuition arises spontaneously and intimacy the hero and the journey within develops. Adapted from Zajonc, A. (2009), Meditation as Contemplative Inquiry -When Knowing Becomes Love Lindisfarne Books Arturo J. Bencosme, PhD 30
  31. 31. Becoming Mindful of the Hero and the Journey Within (Cont.) If adopted as a personal life pattern, the Hero’s Journey can serve as an guidance device that allows one to re-frame one’s life path into an epic perspective: seeing where one is currently, where one has come from, where one is headed, what challenges and rewards are involved, and the transcendental meaning of the path. Such a device can be used to understand further the personal becoming, much as we use a navigational device when traveling. Arturo J. Bencosme, PhD 31
  32. 32. Becoming Mindful of the Hero and the Journey Within (Cont.) Actually, the hero’s journey offers a subjective map to move ahead toward greatness along the whole life. In Joseph Campbell’s words: “… A good life is one hero journey after another. Over and over again, you are called into the realm of adventure, you are called to new horizons. Each time, there is the same problem: Do I dare? And then if you do dare, the dangers are there, and the help also, and the fulfillment or the fiasco. There is always the possibility of a fiasco. But there's also the possibility of bliss. “ Excerpt from Campbell, J. (2004) Pathways to Bliss Arturo J. Bencosme, PhD 32
  33. 33. Scaffolding the Offender’s Journey via Motivational Interviewing Depends Heavily on the Quality of Interpersonal Connection The Motivational Interviewer’s state of mind & heart will affect the offender’s state and journey script. Expanding the interviewer’s capability includes:  Being mindful of the own heroic journey.  Being consciously aware of and cultivating an appropriate inner state through contemplative practices.  Becoming consciously aware and entrained with the offender’s journey. Arturo J. Bencosme, PhD 33
  34. 34. Becoming Mindful of the Hero and the Journey Within Observing & coaching the unfolding of the offender’s transformational script allows for motivational interviewing synchronization with the offender’s journey. Emphasis is placed on the hero’s journey’s milestones: • Heeding to the call to adventure • Going past the 1st threshold • Going past the 2nd threshold • Expansion of the world as usual The Motivational Interviewing process will undertake at least a full cycle for attaining each of these milestones (Cont.) Arturo J. Bencosme, PhD 34
  35. 35. Scaffolding the Offender’s Journey via Motivational Interviewing Depends Heavily on the Quality of Interpersonal Connection (Cont.) The fundamental requirement is that the motivational interviewer(s) will come from a place of understanding, appreciation and compassion in order to enter and maintain a productive collaboration with, and guidance to the journeying offender. Arturo J. Bencosme, PhD 35
  36. 36. Directing motivational interviewing to scaffold the offender’s script for the mindful, heroic journey involved in the reentry:  Creates a space of interaction between the interviewer and the offender at a deep psychological level, that of the archetypical world of the hero.  Brings essential existential meaning to both the interviewer and the offender.  Establishes a more significant and far reaching connection with constructing societal wellbeing.  Brings to the offender a portal to becoming the hero in his own life. CONCLUSION Arturo J. Bencosme, PhD 36
  37. 37. The ultimate freedom lies in choosing to be the true being you are, in wisdom, beauty and love, and in that light, inspire others to choose likewise. Arturo J. Bencosme Arturo J. Bencosme, PhD 37
  38. 38. Questions Welcome !!! Arturo J. Bencosme, PhD 38