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    1. 1. Welcome<br />
    2. 2. Introduction toms office 2007<br />Create By<br /> Tank Ajay<br />
    3. 3. Learning Objectives<br />Learn the computer needs both HW & SW to work<br />Learn many different HW components inside and outside the computer<br />
    4. 4. Hardware Needs Software to Work<br /><ul><li>Hardware: physical portion of a computer
    5. 5. Software: instructions used to manipulate hardware</li></li></ul><li>Hardware Needs Software to Work<br />All hardware operations are based on binary values(base 2)<br />Binary number system consists of two digits: 0 and 1<br />Bits and Bytes<br />
    6. 6. PC Hardware Components<br /><ul><li>Input/output(I/O) external to case
    7. 7. Processing and storage devices are internal</li></li></ul><li>Hardware for Input and Output<br />Chief input devices:<br /><ul><li>Keyboard
    8. 8. Mouse
    9. 9. Scanner</li></ul>Chief output devices:<br /><ul><li>Monitor
    10. 10. Printer</li></li></ul><li>Hardware Inside the Case<br />Storage and processing occurs in the case<br />Internal devices:<br />Motherboard, CPU, memory, etc.<br />Hard drive and CD drive<br />Power supply<br />Expansion card installed on motherboard<br />Cables: data and power communication<br />
    11. 11. The Motherboard<br />Main board or system board<br />Contains CPU, Memory, etc.<br />Grouping categories<br />Processing, temporary storage<br />Communication, power<br />All communicate with CPU<br />Peripherals link via cable<br />
    12. 12. CPU and Chipset<br />CPU: performs data processing<br />Chipset: microchips controlling data flow<br />Manufacturers of CPUs and chipsets<br />Intel Corporation AMD, VIA, SIS, and Cyrix<br />
    13. 13. Storage Devices<br />Primary storage(Temporary)<br />RAM used by the processor<br />Secondary storage(Permanent)<br />Hard dive, CD, Floppy disk<br />Analogy to primary-secondary memory relationship<br />Book stacks in a library are like permanent storage<br />Books can be moved to a desk(temporary storage)<br />
    14. 14. Primary Storage<br />RAM(Random Access Memory)<br />Temporary storage on motherboard<br />Three types of RAM(memory modules):<br />DIMM(Dual Inline Memory Module)<br />RIMM(RambusInline Memory Module)<br />SIMM(Single Inline Memory Module)<br />RAM is volatile(data dose not persist)<br />ROM(Read-Only-Memory) is nonvolatile<br />
    15. 15. Secondary Storage<br />Hard drive<br />Disk that rotate at high speed<br />Integrate Drive Electronics(IDE)<br />ATA(AT Attachment) standard<br />Specifies motherboard hard drive interface<br />Types: Serial ATA or parallel ATA(Enhanced IDE)<br />Parallel ATA accommodates up to four IDE devices<br />ROM(Read-Only-Memory) is nonvolatile<br />
    16. 16. Secondary Storage (continued)<br />Serial ATA standard<br />Allows for more than four drive in system<br />IDE devices: Hard drive, Zip drive, CD drive<br />Floppy drive<br />3.5 inch disk holding 1.44MB of data<br />Floppy drive connector is distinct from IDE connector<br />CD-ROM(compact disc, read-only memory) drive<br />Standard equipment for reading software distributions<br />
    17. 17. Motherboard Components Used For Communication Among Devices<br />Traces: circuits or paths that move that move data and power<br />Data bus is bus that carries data<br />Data path sizes:8, 16, 32, 64 or 128 bits wide<br />Main bus(system bus, memory bus)<br />Communicates with CPU, Memory and Chipset<br />System clock pulse carried by line on motherboard<br />
    18. 18. Motherboard Components Used For Communication Among Devices(continued)<br />Clock speed is measured in hertz(cycles/second)<br />One megahertz(MHz): one million cycles per second<br />One gigahertz(GHz): one billion cycles per second<br />Common ratings for motherboard buses<br />1066 MHz, 800 MHz, 533MHz or 400MHz<br />Range of CPU speed: 166 MHz to 4 GHz<br />Buses for expansion slots: PCI, AGP, ISA<br />
    19. 19. Interface (Expansion) Cards<br />Circuit cards, Adapter boards, Expansion card<br />Card connect the CPU to an external device:<br />Video: provides a port for the monitor<br />Sound : provides a port for speaker and microphones<br />Network : provides a port for a network cable<br />Modem : provides a port for phone lines<br />Determine a card’s function by identifying its port<br />
    20. 20. The Electrical System<br />Power supply<br />Most important electrical component<br />Convert AC voltage extremal source to DC voltage<br />Reduces voltage from 110-120 volts to 12 volts or less<br />Runs a fan to cool the inside of the computer case<br />Temperatures>1850 F can cause component failure<br />Motherboard has 1 or 2 connections to power supply<br />
    21. 21. Instructions Stored on the Motherboard and Other Boards<br />BIOS(Basic Input/output system)<br />Data and instructions stored on ROM chips<br />ROM BIOS chips are a type of firmware<br />Three purposes of ROM BIOS:<br />System BIOS: used to manage simple devices<br />Startup BIOS: used to start the computer<br />CMOS setup: used to change motherboard settings<br />COMS RAM: includes data, time port configurations<br />Flash ROM: ROM chips the can overwritten<br />
    22. 22. Advanced Configuration and Power Interface<br />Also known as ACPI<br />Standards specifying a power saving feature<br />Enables a system to power up by a keyboard<br />Supported by most systems, such as Windows XP<br />Advanced Power Management(APM)<br />Older BIOS power management standard<br />
    23. 23. Plug and Play<br />Also known as PnP<br />Standard simplifying installation of hardware devices<br />PnP BIOS begins process of configuring devices<br />PnP-compliant operating system completes configuration<br />ESCD(Extended System Configuration Data) Plug and Play BIOS<br />Enhanced version of PnP and Stores manual configuration steps<br />
    24. 24. Summary<br />A computer comprises hardware and software<br />Main functions: Input, Output, Processing, Storage<br />Data is stored in a binary format(1 or 0, on or off)<br />Input/output device: keyboard, mouse, printer, monitor<br />Motherboard(system board): contains the CPU, access to other circuit board and peripherals<br />
    25. 25. Summary(continued)<br />Primary storage(RAM) is volatile(Temporary)<br />Secondary storage is nonvolatile(permanent)<br />Parallel and serial ATA standards: Enable Secondary<br />Storage devices to interface with the motherboard<br />Computer bus: system of communication pathways and protocols <br />ROM BIOS helps start PCs , manage simple devices, and change some motherboard settings<br />
    26. 26. Thank You<br />