Trivandrum Master Plan Inputs - Final


Published on

Final version of crowd-sources inputs on the draft Trivandrum Master Plan assembled by a diverse team of industry experts in June 2013.

Published in: Design, Technology, Real Estate
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Trivandrum Master Plan Inputs - Final

  1. 1. This  document  compiles  key  inputs  from  a  number  of  authors  and  reviewers  in  response  to   the  draft  Trivandrum  Master  Plan  document  prepared  by  the  Department  of  Town  Planning   and  made  available  for  review  in  May  2013   J u n e   2 0 1 3         Trivandrum  Master  Plan  Draft   Recommendations and Amendments  
  2. 2. Introduction     The  draft  Master  Plan  for  Trivandrum  is  a  very  comprehensive  and  commendable   effort  that  is  the  fruit  of  a  very  long  and  intensive  effort  led  by  the  Town  Planning   Department.  It’s  indeed  impressive  that  a  task  that  has  been  too  daunting  for  last  25   days  has  been  completed  in  such  short  order  and  with  the  active  engagement  of  so   many  stakeholders.     Key  aspects  such  as  the  proposal  to  have  development  centric  zoning  and  density   guidelines,   the   comprehensiveness   of   the   data   gathered   in   sectors   like   transportation  and  urban  infrastructure,  and  the  attention  paid  to  the  new  drivers   of   Trivandrum’s   economy   such   as   the   technology,   private   services,   education,   medical  services,  tourism  and  logistics  industries.     The   draft   Master   Plan   is   a   truly   forward   looking   document   and   serves   as   a   solid   grounding   to   plan   the   development   of   the   State   Capital   in   the   years   to   come.   However,   a   number   of   areas   exist   where   improvements/amendments   will   enable   the  final  Master  Plan  to  be  the  basis  for  the  transformation  of  Trivandrum  into  a   true  global  city  in  the  next  decade.     Areas  of  Improvement     Rather  than  evaluate  the  draft  point-­‐by-­‐point  and  page-­‐by-­‐page,  it  is  most  practical   and   most   constructive   to   suggest   broad   stroke   improvements   in   key   areas   which   will   result   in   truly   transformative   and   large-­‐scale   impact   on   Trivandrum.   Accordingly,  inputs  are  suggested  in  five  key  areas  within  the  overall  master  plan   draft.     Scope  of  Master  Plan   Land  Use  and  Density   Urban  Transit  and  Infrastructure   Socio-­‐Economic  Development   Strategy  and  Organizations     Within  each  focus  areas,  specific  inputs  are  enumerated  in  brief  together  with  the   underlying  reasons  for  recommending  those  changes.     Section  1  -­‐  Scope  of  Master  Plan     • The  current  draft  confines  its  recommendations  and  plans  to  the  Trivandrum   Corporation   area   in   most   part.   Even   after   its   recent   expansion,   the   Corporation   forms   but   one   part   of   the   larger   Trivandrum   Metropolitan   Region  which  encompasses  a  significant  portion  of  the  Trivandrum  District   • Key  developments  such  as  Technocity  –  which  will  see  the  development  of   over   2   Crore   sq.ft.   of   commercial   space,   employee   over   100,000   IT  
  3. 3. professionals,  involve  an  investment  in  excess  of  Rs  10,000  Crores  and  make   very   significant   contributions   to   the   economy   of   the   district   and   State   –   is   located   outside   the   current   geographical   scope   of   the   master   plan   as   are   areas  such  as  Nedumangad  which  host  strategic  institutions  such  as  the  IISER   and  IIST  as  well  as  the  Balaramapuram-­‐Neyyatinkara  axis  which  is  a  nearly   continuous,  high  density  stretch  of  urbanization  which  extends  South  from   the  Corporation  area  till  the  border  with  Tamil  Nadu   • Therefore,   it   is   recommended   that   the   scope   of   the   master   plan   be   extended  till  Attingal  in  the  North,  Nedumangad  and  the  foothills  of  the   Western  Ghats  in  the  East  and  till  Neyyatinkara/Parassala  in  the  South,   and  encompassing  all  the  areas,  already  urbanized  or  otherwise,  between  the   border  of  the  Corporation  and  these  peripheral  urban  centers   • However,  this  does  not  mean  abandoning  the  current  draft,  rather  it  means   integrating   the   master   plan   with   the   individual   development   plans   (most   of   which   already   exist)   of   the   outlying   towns   and   then   creating   adequate   infrastructural,   zoning   and   planning   linkages   across   the   Trivandrum  Metropolitan  Area.  This    need  not  be  a  sequential  process  and   the  integration  of  the  peripheral  towns  can  be  done  while  the  core  master   plan  is  being  finalized  and  even  as  its  initial  stages  are  being  rolled  out   • As  mentioned  above,  a  formal  Trivandrum  Metropolitan  Area  (TMA)  has   to  be  established  by  due  process  by  the  State  Government.  The  master  plan   must   act   as   both   define   this   area   and   set   the   direction   for   development   within  it.   • Tentatively  the  TMA  will  encompass  400-­‐500  out  of  the  approximately   2000  in  the  district  and  about  2.0-­‐2.5  Million  of  the  3.3  Million  people   in  the  district   • Eventually  this  will  be  extended  along  the  NH-­‐66  and  the  M.C.Road  to  the   district  border,  also  bringing  smaller  but  important  cities  like  Varkala  under   its   scope.   Perhaps   it   may   be   best   to   create   the   TMA   with   all   these   areas   within   its   scope   and   to   roll   out   the   master   plan   to   the   outer   areas   in   2-­‐3   phases  over  the  next  3-­‐5  years.   • More   than   just   extending   the   geographic   scope   of   the   master   plan,   it   is   essential  to  extend  its  strategic  scope  as  well.  This  means  that  the  master   plan  should  also  include  the  mechanisms  and  organizations  needed  to  ensure   its   proper   and   timely   implementation.   This   will   be   dealt   with   in   later   sections.     Section  2  -­‐  Land  Use  and  Density     • The   current   draft   recommends   density   based   on   a   concentric   model,   extending   outwards   from   the   CBD.   The   operative   logic   is   to   maintain   the   current   density   of   the   CBD,   to   encourage   density   in   the   Outer   City   and   to   discourage  development  in  the  periphery  of  the  Corporation.   • As   mentioned   in   the   previous   section,   the   Trivandrum   Corporation   area   is   not   the   appropriate   basis   for   a   30-­‐year   master   plan   as   urbanization   has  
  4. 4. already   far   outgrown   it.   Therefore,   it   is   counter-­‐intuitive   to   restrict   density  within  the  Corporation  area  because  its  peripheral  areas  are  well   within  the  bounds  of  the  larger  Metropolitan  area  described  in  Section  1.     • Rather   it   makes   sense   to   restrict   density   below   that   specified   in   the   KMBR   only   where   there   are   established   green   areas   or   other   ecologically   sensitive   zones   such   as   water   bodies,   water-­‐sheds   and   wet   lands,  or  if  there  is  active  agricultural  activities  at  the  present  time.  However,   commercial  agriculture  at  any  significant  scale  is  an  impractical  activity   within   a   densely   developed   urban   area   and   is   best   practiced   on   the   peripheries  of  the  metro  area,  not  within  the  Corporation  area   • In  terms  of  providing  increased  density  –  over  and  above  KMBR,  it  is  best   that   this   be   focused   in   relation   to   transportation   availability   and   economic  activity.   • Increasing   density   in   a   purely   concentric   fashion   will   ignore   the   practical   issues,  such  as  the  paucity  of  wide  roads  even  within  many  parts  of  the  core   urban   area   that   are   necessary   to   support   high   density   or   the   fact   that   focusing  density  around  economic  hub  encourages  the  Work-­‐Live-­‐Play   lifestyle   paradigm   which   helps   to   minimize   commuting   (and   the   consequent  vehicular  use  and  pollution)  by  co-­‐locating  all  the  aspects  of  life.   • It  is  recommended  that  density  incentives  be  provided  to  areas  located   along   primary   transportation   axes   such   as   the   NH-­‐66   (Attingal   to   Vizhinjam),   old   NH-­‐66   (between   Kazhakkoottam   and   Kaliyikkavila),   M.C.   Road  and  other  4/6  lane  roads  within  the  metro  regions,  as  well  as  along  the   proposed   route   of   the   mass   transit   system   (not   just   the   current   alignment   but  along  the  entire  network  as  proposed  in  Section  3).  The  latter  promotes   Transit-­‐Oriented  Development  (TOD)  and  will  help  improve  the  viability   and  effectiveness  of  the  MRTS  network.  These  density  incentives  may  be  up   to   1.5-­‐2   times   the   FAR   prescribed   in   KMBR   for   each   use   but   must   be   accompanied  by  stringent  parking  requirements.   • Similar   density   incentives   may   be   granted   to   developments   in   the   vicinity   of   (a   2   Km   radius)   of   key   economic   hubs   such   as   Technopark   (Phases  I  –  3),  Technocity,  Vizhinjam  port  project  and  the  educational  cluster   around  the  IIST,  IISER  and  VSSC  in  the  eastern  quadrant  of  the  city.   • In   all   areas   of   the   metro   area,   density   incentives   may   be   selectively   granted  to  mixed-­‐use  projects  that  encourage  compact  urban  development   rather  than  single  use  development  that  encourages  urban  sprawl,  which  is   undesirable  from  many  perspectives.   • The  proposal  to  encourage  certain  uses  within  each  zone  is  very  pragmatic   but   mixed   use   has   to   be   encouraged   in   every   zone   as   mentioned   above,   except  perhaps  in  very  specific  use  areas  such  as  within  the  logistics  zone   surrounding  the  deep-­‐water  port  or  within  the  medical  services  area.   • It  is  important  to  identify  low-­‐density  areas  within  the  metro  area  to  create  a   potential  land  bank  for  future  development.  Specific  attention  should  be   paid   to   large   swathes   of   Government-­‐owned   land   that   include   disused/under-­‐used   plantations   in   the   north   and   east   of   the   metro   area.  
  5. 5. Zoning  restrictions  in  these  areas  should  limit  small-­‐scale  development  and   encourage  large-­‐scale  developments  in  the  Public  Private  Partnership  (PPP)   model.   • The   predictions   for   population   growth   may   be   revisited   to   include   the   proposed  development  activities  within  the  metro  region  such  as  Technocity.   Vizhinjam  and  educational  institutions.  The  current  study  predicts  only  an   increase  of  46,000  persons  over  20  years  within  the  region  whereas  the   Technocity   project   by   itself   is   envisaged   to   employ   more   than   100,000   employees.       Section  3  -­‐  Urban  Transit  and  Infrastructure     • The   research   done   on   the   transportation   patterns   and   demand   within   the   city   is   very   comprehensive   and   should   serve   as   the   basis   for   a   truly   transformative   and,   not   just   incremental,   development   of   the   metro   area’s   transportation  infrastructure   • Most  elements  of  the  inner  and  first  intermediate  ring  roads  mentioned  in   the  study  have  already  been  taken  up  under  the  soon-­‐to-­‐be-­‐completed  TCRIP   project   • The  first  and  second  intermediate  ring  roads,  as  well  as  the  outer  ring  road,   lie   within   the   bounds   of   the   Trivandrum   Corporation   and   hence   are   misnomers  within  the  context  of  the  metro  area.   • Hence  the  roads  may  be  re-­‐designated  as  follows:   o Inner  ring  road  as  Core  CBD  orbital   o First  intermediate  ring  road  as  CBD  ring  road   o Second  intermediate  ring  road  as  First  intermediate  ring  road   o Outer  ring  road  as  Second  intermediate  ring  road   • All  currently  developed  stretches  of  the  above  roads  are  to  be  developed  as   4/6  lane  stretches  (as  per  appropriate  traffic  estimates  till  2033),  with   wide  medians,  sidewalks,  utility  ducts  and  drainage,  well-­‐designed  and   signaled  junctions,  bus  bays,  landscaping  and  lighting.  These  roads  may   be  collectively  developed  as  TCRIP  Phase  II  with  assistance  from  KFRB  and   JNNURM  Phase  II.   • The  following  roads  to  be  laid  out:   o First   Outer   Ring   Road:   Kaniyapuram-­‐Pothencode-­‐Vembayam-­‐ Karakulam-­‐Vilappilsala-­‐Balaramapuram-­‐Vizhinjam   o Second   Outer   Ring   Road:   Attingal   –   Nedumangad   -­‐   Kattakada   – Neyyatinkara  -­‐  Poovar   • These   roads   may   be   developed   as   6-­‐lane   roads   with   wide   medians,   sidewalks,   utility   ducts   and   drainage,   well-­‐designed   and   signaled   junctions,  bus  bays,  landscaping  and  lighting.     • Grade   separators   may   be   planned   at   all   key   intersections  and  power,   water   and   sewer   lines   should   be   developed   co-­‐axially   and   simultaneously   with   these   roads.   These   roads   may   be   taken   up   with  
  6. 6. assistance   from   NHAI,   as   outer   ring   roads   are   eligible   for   support   under   NHDP  Phase  VII  (Trivandrum  was  chosen  along  with  Vizag  for  pilot  studies).   • It  may  be  noted  that  the  former  “NH  47  Bypass”  is  now  the  NH-­‐66  and  that   the   former   alignment   of   the   NH-­‐47   through   the   city   has   ceased   to   be   a   national  highway.   • Many   intersections   such   as   Ulloor,   Vellayambalam,   Sreekaryam,   Pattom,   Pettah,   Chackai,   Kazhakkoottam,   Peroorkada,   Karamana,   Vazhuthacaud,   Jagathy   and   so   on   have   exceed   their   current   capacities   even   after   the   introduction   of   signals   and   significant   junction   improvements.   The   large-­‐ scale  introduction  of  grade  separators  has  to  be  an  integral  part  of  the  master   plan   • All   intersections   where   traffic   volumes   have   already   exceeded   the   threshold   for   signaled   intersections   or   will   exceed   the   thresholds   by   2033  should  be  taken  up  for  immediate  development  of  grade  separators.   Key   intersections   include   Ulloor,   Medical   College,   Pattom,   Vellayambalam,   Vazhuthacaud,   Pettah,   Kazhakkoottam,   Attakulangara,   Peroorkada,   Anamugham   (over   NH-­‐66),   Chackai,   Eanchakkal,   Thiruvallam   and   so   on.   Since  many  of  these  will  lie  on  the  alignment  of  the  currently  planned  MRTS   route  as  well  as  on  future  routes,  these  need  to  be  planned  right  now  and   their   execution   incorporated   into   the   development   of   the   ring   roads   mentioned  above.  These  can  also  be  made  part  of  TCRIP  Phase  II.   • The  scientific  origin-­‐destination  studies  referred  to  in  the  master  plan  clearly   indicate   that   there   are   multiple   key   movement   axes   in   the   metro   area   running   not   just   north-­‐south   but   also   east-­‐west   and   radially   out   to   surrounding  satellite  cities  such  as  Nedumangad  and  Attingal.   • Thus  a  single  mass  transit  route  will  not  suffice  for  a  metro  area  the  size  of   Trivandrum  with  well  over  700,000  daily  trips.   • The  master  plan  must  incorporate  a  comprehensive  mass  transit  network   that  serves  the  entire  metro  area.   • This   will   be   based   around   a   multi-­‐route   mass   transit   system   (viz   the   monorail)  but  also  incorporate  other  modes  of  transport  such  as  commuter   rail,  water  transport  and  buses.   • The  monorail  system  must  be  quickly  expanded  with  at  least  the  following   two  additional  routes  (indicative  diagram  at  the  end  of  the  document):   o Route   2:   Kazhakkoottam   –   Aakulam   –   Airport   (Chackai)   –   Pettah   –   Palayam   –   Vellayambalam   –   Peroorkada   –   Nedumangad   (It   could   terminate  at  Peroorkada  in  Phase  I).   o Route  3:  Vizhinjam  –  Kovalam  –  Eanchakkal  –  Airport  –  Kochuveli  –   Veli   –   Aakulam   –   KIMS   -­‐   Medical   College   –   Pattom   –   Kowdiar   –   Peroorkada   –   Civil   Station   –   Manathala   –   Vembayam   (Upto   to   Peroorkada  in  Phase  I).   • An  alternate  set  of  alignments  could  be:   o Route   2:   Kazhakkoottam   –   Vizhinjam   along   the   NH-­‐66   alignment   (first  phase  could  be  up  to  the  International  Airport)  
  7. 7. o Route   3:   Thiruvallom   –   Manacaud   –   East   Fort   –   Thampanoor   –   Thycaud   –   Vazhuthacaud   –   Vellayambalam   –   Peroorkada   –   Nedumangad   o Route   4:   Airport   –   Palayam   –   Vazhuthacaud   –   Poojapura   –   Peyad   (Upto  Poojapura  in  Phase  I)   • Since  connecting  stations  between  the  currently  planned  route  (Technocity   –  Killipalam  with  extension  to  Neyyatinkara)  and  the  above  ones  have  to  be   planned  in  advance,  it  makes  eminent  sense  to  complete  this  planning  right   now  itself.  Such  stations  would  include  Kazhakkoottam,  Pattom  and  Palayam.   • Bus   Rapid   Transit   System   (BRTS)  can  be  considered  as  an  alternative  to   LRTS  for  connecting  activity  nodes.  It  needs  about  the  same  RoW  width  as   LRTS  and  is  usually  less  expensive  and  more  flexible.   • The  multi-­‐modal  mobility  hub  located  in  Aakulam,  between  the  NH-­‐66  and   the  Kochuveli  Rail  Terminal  is  a  visionary  idea  and  can  incorporate  road,  rail,   air,  water  and  mass  transit  (Route  2  as  proposed  above)  modes  of  transit.  It   may  also  be  a  great  location  for  transit-­‐oriented  development.   • Commuter  rail  services  (using  MEMUs  and  double  decker  trains)  need  to  be   greatly  expanded  on  the  Nagercoil-­‐Kollam  rail  corridor.  The  addition  of  two   new   lines   will   be   necessary   to   decongest   and   expand   the   capacity   of   the   currently  over-­‐congested  mainline  railway  system.     • The  proposed   new   rail   line  via  Nedumangad  –  Thenmala  to  link  with  the   Kollam  –  Shencottah  line  is  another  possible  commuter  axis.   • Nemon   Railway   Station   has   to   be   developed   as   an   operations/logistics   center   with   the   immediate   acquisition   of   land   to   permit   shifting   of   the   majority   of   train   operations   (maintenance   and   shunting)   activities   from   Trivandrum  Central  as  well  as  container  train  operations  as  proposed  in  the   May  2013  master  plan  for  the  Vizhinjam  project.   • The  area  between  Chackai  and  Eanchakkal,  on  the  west  bank  of  the  Parvathy   Puthanar  has  to  be  specifically  zoned  for  uses  related  to  the  International   Airport.   • An  integrated  water  supply  system  to  cover  the  entire  metro  area  has  to  be   established.   This   needs   to   be   immediately   rolled   out   to   cover   the   newly   added  areas  of  the  corporation  but  also  to  the  outlying  areas  of  the  metro   areas,   with   new   systems   in   areas   currently   not   covered   and   by   linking   together  existing  stand-­‐alone  systems.  The  current  300  MLD  capacity  of  the   city’s   water   system   has   to   be   progressively   increased   to   500-­‐600   MLD   within  the  next  5  years.  This  will  involve  setting  up  additional  processing   capacity  and  also  tapping  new  water  sources  such  as  the  Neyyar  and  Peppara   dams.   • In  addition  to  these  major  reservoirs,  the  possibility  of  extending  the  water   supply  scheme  (related  to  the  Vizhinjam  port  project)  implemented  using  the   Vellayani   Lake   should   be   considered   while   taking   steps   to   maximize   its   storage  capacity  in  an  eco-­‐friendly  manner.  Minor  and  micro  water  supply   projects   using   water   from   the   Karamana,   Killi,   Neyyar   and   Vamanapuram  
  8. 8. rivers   can   also   be   considered   together   with   a   comprehensive   scheme   to   restore  and  protect  their  banks.   • The  sewage  network  has  to  be  extended  to  the  entire  Corporation  area   and  then  progressively  out  to  the  rest  of  the  metro  area.  It  will  be  very   pragmatic   to   integrate   the   laying   of   sewage   collection   lines   with   the   construction  of  the  roads  and  mass  transit  as  proposed  above.   • Since  the  area  between  Aakulam  and  Technocity  is  witnessing  the  greatest   volume   of   new   commercial   and   residential   development   as   well   as   the   highest  density  of  uses,  this  zone  may  be  prioritized  for  laying  new  lines.   Most  of  the  large  new  buildings  in  the  area  currently  have  their  own  STPs,   but  a  centralized  system  is  both  more  efficient  and  cost-­‐effective.     • Considering  even  a  water  return  volume  of  50%,  the  city  will  need  at  least   250  MLD  of  sewage  processing  capacity  in  a  few  years,  with  the  current   STP  at  Muttathara  having  a  capacity  of  only  107  MLD.  A  second  STP  of  150   MLD  capacity  (two  phases  of  100  and  50  MLD)  is  therefore  proposed  within   the  Veli-­‐Kazhakkottam  Industrial  Estate.   • Centralized  solid  waste  management  is  a  necessity  considering  economies   of   scale   and   the   practical   difficulties   of   managing   dozens   of   de-­‐centralized   plants.  Plants  that  can  convert  organic  waste  into  fuel/energy  through   non-­‐polluting  anaerobic  processing  should  be  considered.   • One  solution  may  be  to  have  the  plant  located  near  Technocity/Technopark   so   that   the   energy   produced   can   be   used   for   power   and/or   chilling   in   the   sprawling  commercial  facilities  via  a  district  energy/micro-­‐grid  system.   • Possibility   of   industrial   scale   recovery   of   recyclable   materials   like   metals,   plastic  and  glass  should  be  actively  considered.   • In   the   case   of   non-­‐recoverable,   non-­‐organic   materials,   an   engineered   landfill  built  into  a  disused  quarry  or  clay  mine,  is  the  best  proposition.   • Large  scale  multi-­‐level  car  parks  (MLCPs)  should  be  developed  on  the   BOT/BOOT/BOO   basis  along  key  transportation  axes  and  in  activity  hubs,   starting   with   M.G.   Road/old   NH   47   (Kesavadasapuram   to   Karamana),   Thampanoor,  Medical  College,  Secretariat,  Technopark  and  Kochuveli.   • In   the   next   10-­‐15   years,   power   consumption   in   the   metro   area   is   likely   to   reach  the  2500  Kwh/person/year  level  seen  as  a  global  average  (and  already   in  emerging  markets  such  as  China).  This  will  necessitate  about  1000  MW  of   generation   capacity   to   meet   the   needs   of   the   metro   area   and   very   likely   much   more   if   we   take   the   increasing   scale   of   commercial   and   industrial   activities  into  account.  A  gas  turbine  power  plant,  fueled  by  natural  gas  from   an  LNG  import  terminal  built  at  Vizhinjam  will  be  the  ideal  choice  to  meet   this  need.  The  power  plant  can  be  developed  in  two  phases  of  1000  MW  each   and  the  excess  power  exported  to  the  rest  of  Kerala/India.     • Vizhinjam  is  the  best-­‐suited  port  in  India  for  LNG  import  because  of  its   proximity  to  gas  sources  such  as  Australia,  Indonesia,  East  Africa,  the  US  and   Russia,   as   well   as   its   deep   draft.   A   LNG   terminal   at   Vizhinjam   can   be   leveraged   for   a   metro   area   wide   gas   distribution   network   as   well   as  
  9. 9. conversion   of   vehicles   to   cleaner   CNG,   starting   with   government   and   public  transport  vehicles.   • The   availability   of   gas   will   also   promote   the   development   of   micro-­‐grids   which  are  localized,  interconnected  loads  such  as  buildings  within  a  campus   that  share  power  generation  and  chilling  capacity.  This  arrangement  is  very   cost-­‐effective,  efficient  and  resilient  (in  case  of  grid  failure).   • In  addition  to  mandating  and  providing  incentives  for  the  installation  of  eco-­‐ friendly  features  such  as  solar  arrays  and  rain  water  harvesting  systems  on   all  buildings,  the  sustainable  design  and  IGBC  LEED  certification  of  all  large   government  and  commercial  buildings  should  be  made  mandatory.     Section  4  –  Socio-­‐Economic  Development     • Construction   of   a   world-­‐class   convention   and   trade   center   (4000   seat   capacity  in  Phase  I;  expandable  to  10,000  in  Phase  II)  has  to  be  immediately   initiated  in  the  already  allocated  45-­‐acre  parcel  on  the  banks  of  the  Aakulam   Lake.  Considering  it  as  one  of  four  vital  economic  drivers  (the  others  being   the   cruise   terminal   at   Vizhinjam,   airport   expansion   and   medical   tourism   development)  for  the  tourist  industry,  the  government  must  take  an  active   role  in  funding  and  developing  the  facility.  Worldwide,  major  convention   centers  are  either  fully  or  partly  funded  by  the  public  sector,  with  the  cost   being  recovered  through  usage  charges  and  through  a  tax/cess   levied   on   hotels  in  the  city.   • Vizhinjam  is  a  world-­‐class  logistics  gateway  facility  but  if  sufficient  area   cannot  be  found  for  a  world-­‐class  logistics  zone  attached  to  the  port,  much   of  the  benefit  to  the  local  economy  will  be  lost  as  these  activities  will  happen   elsewhere,   most   likely   in   the   neighboring   districts   of   southern   Tamilnadu.   This   will   also   make   the   port   less   attractive   compared   to   others   such   as   Ennore  or  Mundra  that  have  sprawling  backup  facilities.  Such  a  zone  requires   at  least  500  acres  of  land.  It  can  be  a  port-­‐based  SEZ  even  if  it  is  not  directly   at  the  port  but  has  road/rail  connectivity  to  it  because  of  impending  changes   in   the   SEZ   act.   A   strategic   parcel   with   low   population   density   and   favorable   terrain   (preferably   a   large,   disused   Government   or   private   plantation),  with  direct  access  to  the  NH-­‐66  and/or  main  rail  line  may  be   identified  and  set  apart  for  this  project.   • The   concentration   of   aerospace   and   defense   related   industries   and   institutions   in   Trivandrum   (VSSC/ISRO,   Brahmos   Aerospace,   IIST     and   Southern   Air   Command)   make   it   an   ideal   location   to   establish   an   aerospace/defense   manufacturing   facility,   potentially   including   an   SEZ.   Trivandrum  is  best  positioned  after  Bangalore  in  this  industry.  Brahmos   has   been   looking   for   at   least   50   acres   of   land   for   expansion.   A   dedicated   100-­‐150   acre   facility   may   be   established   in   the   North   of   the   metro   area   and/or  close  to  the  logistics  zone  proposed  above.  Such  a  facility  to  attract   high-­‐value   manufacturing   business   from   ISRO,   Brahmos,   HAL   and   other  
  10. 10. public  and  private  agencies,  including  work  for  the  new  civilian  airliner  as   well  as  for  the  incoming  Raphael  and  fifth-­‐generation  fighter  projects.     • A  Knowledge  City  project  has  been  proposed  in  Trivandrum  in  May  2012.  It   will  be  advantageous  to  plan  the  project  as  a  high  density  development  in   close   conjunction   with   the   existing   knowledge   cluster   around   Technopark   which  includes  not  just  Technopark  and  Technocity  but  also  the  University  of   Kerala,  College  of  Engineering  Trivandrum,  VSSC,  CTCRI  and  so  on.  Proposed   locations  include  Technopark  Phase  III  and  Technocity.   • A  key  economic  development  initiative  would  be  the  creation  of  a  strategic   land  bank  within  the  metro  area  so  that  future  developments  can  be  easily   accommodated   as   they   arise.   Large,   under-­‐used,   thinly   populated   parcels   must   be   identified   and   either   immediately   acquired   (while   land   prices   are   low)  or  selectively  zoned  to  restrict  unplanned  development  and  to  restrict   non-­‐economic  development  uses  (such  as  residential  construction).   • Fire   Fighting   System   to   be   strengthened   and   decentralized.  Additional   fire-­‐stations  of  sufficient  strength  in  equipment  and  staff  to  be  established  in   fast   growing   areas   of   the   city   such   as   Kazhakkoottam,   Vizhinjam   and   Nedumangad.  More  modern  equipment  including  at  least  2-­‐3  hydraulic   platforms   (at   least   one   to   deployed   in   Kazhakkoottam/Technopark   fire   station  due  to  the  density  of  massive  commercial  buildings  and  residential   high-­‐rises  in  the  area),  rescue  tenders  and  high-­‐capacity  recovery  trucks  to   be  procured  immediately  and  fire  hydrants  to  be  re-­‐introduced  in  the  city.  All   major  commercial  and  activity  hubs  to  be  equipped  with  fire  hydrants.   • The  city  police  force  should  be  expanded  by  integrating  the  entire  metro   area   under   a   single   command,  led  by  an  officer  of  the  rank  of  Inspector   General  of  Police.  A  combined  operations   center  should  be  established  to   coordinate  operations  by  the  metro  police  force,  district  police,  CRPF,  BSF,   Army,  Air  Force,  Navy,  Coast  Guard  and  the  CISF,  all  of  which  have  significant   presence  in  the  city.   • Taxi  service  to  be  improved  by  providing  permits  to  various  categories  of   taxi  service,  ranging  from  budget  to  luxury  type  of  quality  vehicles.   • Existing  Public  Parks,  Playgrounds  and  Sports  Fields  to  be  upgraded  and  new   ones  should  be  established  at  different  locations  of  the  proposed  Metro  area.   Modern  sports  and  games  equipment  to  be  installed.   • Existing  ponds  and  irrigation  tanks  to  be  protected  and  developed  as  public   spaces.   • Irrigation   system   of   public   spaces   and   road   landscaping   should   be   automated.   This   would   save   valuable   water   resources   and   reduce   safety   hazards  of  manually  irrigating  the  streetscape  /  public  realm.   • Wetlands  can  be  protected  and  developed  by  creating  a  land  bank  for  such   parcels  into  which  voluntary  contributions  could  result  in  TDR  on  dry  land.          
  11. 11. Section  5  -­‐  Strategy  and  Organizations     • The  development  master  plan  must  go  beyond  just  describing  what  and   when   development   should   be   done.  The  plan  should  also  lay  out  clearly   how  (strategy)  it  will  come  about  and  who  (organization)  will  implement   it.   • The   plan   as   currently   proposed,   lays   out   many   implementation   methodologies,  including  land  use  zoning  and  development  controls,  which   are  standard  urban  design  intervention  strategies.   • An  interesting  strategy  to  finance  some  of  the  developments  is  to  follow  the   English   New   Town   Tax   approach   that   seeks   to   finance   projects   by   selectively  taxing  their  beneficiaries.  For  example,  levying  a  cess  on  hotels  to   finance  the  convention  center  or  a  fee  for  additional  FAR  along  a  mass  transit   line.   • PPP   is  an  absolute  necessity  for  the  scale  of  development  envisaged  in  the   plan   and   in   sections   1-­‐4   above.   Various   models   of   PPP   development   ranging  from  the  landlord  model,  through  BOT  and  BOOT  to  the  pure  private   services  model  can  be  considered  as  appropriate  for  each  project.   • The   first   key   agency   needed   to   implement   the   plan   is   the   Trivandrum   Metropolitan   Development   Authority   (TMDA)   which   should   have   the   following  powers  over  the  entire  metro  area  which  must  be  formalized:   o Issue   all   building   permits  and  statutory  clearances  using  a  unified   code  for  the  entire  metro  area  as  per  the  guidelines  of  the  master  plan,   KMBR,  National  Building  Code  etc   o Plan,   finance   and   develop   all   public   infrastructure   under   the   master  plan  that  does  not  fall  into  the  mandate  of  existing  agencies   such  as  VISL,  AAI,  KWA,  Indian  Railways  etc   o Plan,  finance  and  develop  economic  development  projects,  where   not  already  under  a  specific  agency.  Even  if  under  a  specific  agency,   like  the  department  of  tourism  (in  the  case  of  the  convention  center),   TMDA  can  still  be  the  financing  and  executing  agency   o Act  as  the  landlord/project  sponsor  for  PPP  development  projects   and  own  the  land  and/or  facilities  and  to  collect  revenues   o Raise   funds  for  development  projects  by  the  issue  of  bonds,  raising   debt  from  development  finance  institutions  (World  Bank,  ADB,  JICA  et   c)  and  from  commercial  lenders  and  by  levying  fees/taxes.   o Periodically  update  the  master  plan  (minor  revisions  once  every  two   years,  major  updates  every  five  years).  and  act  as  it  custodian.   • The  TMDA  must  have  a  specialized  economic  development  wing,  modeled   along   the   lines   of   the   New   York   City   Economic   Development   Corporation   (NYCEDC)   that   creates   strategic   visions   and   plans,   formulates   project   proposals,   raises   funding,   oversee   project   execution   and,   promotes   and   facilitates  private  investment  including  the  promotion  of  new  and  emerging   industries   such   as   biotechnology,   nanotechnology,   aerospace,   defense   and   high  tech  manufacturing.  
  12. 12. • The   TMDA   will   not   replace   existing   LSGs   like   the   Corporation,   Municipalities   or   Panchayats   but   will   only   help   to   coordinate   certain   activities   that   need   to   be   coordinated   across   the   metro   region   and   where   scale  economies  are  possible.   • With   the   massive   volume   of   transportation   infrastructure   development   planned  in  the  next  10  years  and  the  ever-­‐growing  transportation  volumes  in   the   metro   area,   a   dedicated   agency   is   called   for   to   integrate   the   development  and  operation  of  all  modes  of  transportation.  This  will  be   the  Trivandrum  Metropolitan  Transportation  Authority  (TMTA).  It  will   have  the  following  key  roles:   o Take  over  the  planning,   financing   and   development   of   the   mass   transit   system   from   the   Kerala   Monorail   Corporation   Limited.   Alternatively,  it  could  take  over  operations  of  the  mass  transit  lines   once   KMCL   develops   them,   acting   as   an   operator   while   KMCL   continues  to  be  the  facility  owner/landlord.  However,  the  preferred   option  is  to  have  TMTA  manage  the  system  end-­‐to-­‐end.   o Plan   and   execute   the   inter-­‐modal   connectivity   of   the   monorail   with  the  bus  network  and  future  BRTS/LRTS  networks.   o Take  over  and  expand  the  operations  of  the  local  bus  fleet  within   the  metro  area  from  the  KSRTC.  This  is  already  the  case  in  most  major   Indian  cities,  not  to  mention  across  the  world.   o Create  a  comprehensive  multi-­‐modal  transportation  plan  for  the   metro  area  till  2035  and  coordinate  its  execution  with  other  agencies   such   as   AAI,   Indian   Railways,   VISL   etc   The   plan   needs   to   be   periodically   updated   (minor   revisions   once   every   two   years,   major   updates  every  five  years).   o Own   and   operate   key   transportation   facilities  in  the  metro  area   including  bus  terminals,  the  multi-­‐modal  transit  hub  at  Aakulam  and   the  mass  transit  stations.  TMTA  could  also  share  the  development  cost   and  ownership  of  new  rail  facilities  with  IR,  with  the  latter  taking  care   of  operations.  This  will  help  speed  up  railway  development  as  IR  is   cash-­‐strapped  at  present.   o Operations  and  maintenance  of  the  road  infrastructure  in  the  city  in   association  with  the  TMDA  and  the  LSGs,  including  upkeep  of  street   lighting  and  signaling  systems.     Conclusion     The  suggestions  enumerated  in  Sections  1-­‐5  above  are  additions  and  in  some  cases   improvements  to  the  existing  body  of  work  in  the  draft  master  plan,  which  is  a  very   comprehensive  and  up  to  date  document  in  itself.  They  are  intended  to  expand  the   scope  of  the  plan  and  to  make  it  even  better,  a  clear  vision  of  Trivandrum  can  be   become  a  vibrant,  sustainable,  world-­‐class  city,  rivaling  Singapore,  within  the  next   decade.   THANK  YOU  
  13. 13. About  the  Authors     Ajay  Prasad  was  born  and  brought  up  in  Trivandrum,  completing  his  engineering   degree  from  the  College  of  Engineering  Trivandrum.  After  completing  an  MBA  from   the   Indian   Institute   of   Management,   Calcutta,   he   worked   for   several   years   in   the   strategy   consulting,   infrastructure   and   real   estate   development   industries.   Ajay   thereafter  graduated  with  Master  of  Science  in  Real  Estate  Development  from  the   Massachusetts   Institute   of   Technology   in   Cambridge,   USA   where   his   course   work   included  real  estate  development,  finance,  urban  design,  urban  transportation  and   public   private   development   (at   the   Harvard   Kennedy   School   of   Government   and   Harvard  Graduate  School  of  Design).       He   is   currently   a   Managing   Director   at   a   global   private   equity   and   real   estate   development   firm   based   in   Boston,   USA,   working   on   urban   development   and   infrastructure  project  worth  over  $2  Billion.     Ajay   has   been   authoring   a   blog,   Trivandrum   Rising,   about   the   development   of   Trivandrum  city  since  2006  and  has  worked  closely  with  key  stakeholders  on  key   development  initiatives  such  as  Technopark  expansion,  Technocity,  Vizhinjam  and   the  mass  transit  system.  Contact:       Deepak  Benny  is  an  alumnus  of  the  College  of  Engineering,  Trivandrum.  He  was  an   active  participant  in  Institute  of  Engineers,  Trivandrum  Chapter  and  following  his   studies  he  joined  an  Engineering  Consulting  firm  in  Singapore  and  was  involved  in   several   strategic   infrastructure   projects   in   Singapore   including   its   LNG   import   terminal.       After  working  for  two  years  in  Singapore  he  joined  University  of  Glasgow,  UK  for  his   masters  in  Sustainable  Engineering  with  focus  in  Maritime  Structures.  He  mastered   topics   such   as   Environmental   Sustainability,   Project   Financing   and   Maritime   Economics.  He  is  currently  working  with  a  Maritime  Consultancy  firm  also  based  in   Singapore   performing   strategic   consulting   for   various   port   developments   across   Asia  and  Africa.     Jaleel   Malik   Mohamed,   born   and   brought   up   in   Trivandrum   is   a   Master   degree   holder   in   Agricultural   Science   (with   specialization   in   Agricultural   Extension,   Communication  and  Management)  from  Kerala  Agricultural  University.  He  has  also   additional   qualifications   in   Law,   Journalism   and   Public   Relations.   After   serving   Governments  of  India  and  Kerala  for  three  years  and  12  years  respectively,  he  took   leave  in  2004  and  took  up  private  employment  in  India  for  two  years,  working  as   CEO   of   two   companies   and   also   as   a   Consultant   of   the   Agricultural   Finance   Corporation  of  India  (RBI  Subsidiary).       Since  2006,  he  is  based  in  the  Middle  East  and  associated  with  major  Real  Estate  /   City  and  Community  Development  projects  like  Palm  Jumeirah,  Burj  Dubai  (Khalifa),   Dubai  Marina,  Arabian  Ranches,  Emirates  Living,  KAUST  etc.  Past  Employers  in  the  
  14. 14. Middle  East  include  Emaar  Properties,  Dubai  World  /  Nakheel,  KAUST  and  Emcor   Facilities  Services.       He  is  trained  and  experienced  on  Projects  Management  and  Facilities  Management,   especially   related   to   Sports   Fields,   Golf   Courses,   Public   /   Community   Parks,   Landscaping,   Horticulture,   Irrigation,   Pest   management,   Waste   management   and   other   Soft   Services.   Jaleel   currently   works   as   a   Project   Manager   with   EC   Harris   International   (An   Arcadis   group   company),   who   are   the   Project   Management   Consultants  for  the  King  Abdullah  Sports  City  and  the  Kingdom  Tower  (Mile  Tower)   Projects  in  Jeddah,  KSA.     Travis   Patrick   Sheehan   holds   a   Master   of   City   Planning   and   a   Master   of   Architecture  from  the  Massachusetts  Institute  of  Technology,  where  he  focused  on   urban   development,   architecture,   sustainable   design,   city   planning,   resilience   and   micro-­‐grids   among   other   topics.   He   currently   holds   multiple   positions   and   has   founded  his  own  independent  planning  and  design  practice,  Gridling  LLC.  Travis  has   worked  on  city-­‐scale  and  project/campus-­‐scale  planning  and  development  in  New   York,  Boston,  Trivandrum,  China  and  Afghanistan.       Other  Authors  and  Peer  Reviewers     Hari   Gopinathan,   Robin   Alex   Panicker,   Ajith   Vijayan,   Sajith   Vijayan,   Vinod   Kamalraj  and  Abhishek  V.R.  together  bring  nearly  a  hundred  years  of  cumulative   experience  in  diverse  fields  ranging  from  highway  engineering  and  transportation   infrastructure   planning   to   project   management   to   information   technology   architecture  and  management  to  this  study.  All  of  them  were  born  and  brought  up  in   Trivandrum,   although   they   currently   reside   in   various   cities   across   India   and   the   world,   and   are   engaged   in   senior   management   roles   in   a   variety   of   world-­‐class   organizations.                                    
  15. 15.   Appendix  –  Indicative  Route  Map  of  MRTS  Network