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Cruise tourism in trivandrum


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A detailed study on the potential for cruise tourism in Trivandrum and recommendations on how to develop it.

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Cruise tourism in trivandrum

  1. 1. Cruise Tourism in Trivandrum – A Pilot Study on Potential and Prospects Prepared By: Viji Krishnan & Ajay Prasad 1
  2. 2. ContentsSl. No. Topic Page No.1 Introduction 32 Chapter 1: Literature Review 53 Section 1: Evolution 54 Section 2: Concepts 85 Section 3: Global Scenario and Market Review 216 Section 4: Indian Scenario 307 Chapter 2: Kerala Scenario 388 Chapter 4: Expert Survey and Analysis 439 Chapter 5: Conclusion 5210 Section 1: Summary of Key Learnings 5211 Section 2: Strategic Analysis 5612 Section 3: Product Design and Analysis 5913 Section 4: Potential Benefits of Cruise Tourism 6214 Section 5: Development of Cruise Infrastructure 6715 Section 6: Development Plan 7116 Bibliography 7216 Appendix 1 7317 Appendix 2 77 2
  3. 3. IntroductionThe Cruise Tourism industry has become one of the most exciting facets of theglobal Tourism Sector with total revenues of over $ 20 billion and accounting forabout 20 million passengers in 2008. It is expected to reach a figure of $ 50billion by 2015, according to industry sources.The Cruise industry combines the traditional offerings of travel and hospitality inone product by offering luxury accommodation and entertainment as well as theopportunity to explore new destinations. Cruise ships range is size from small,private yachts to 220,000 ton behemoths which are travelling resorts capable ofaccommodating several thousand passengers at a time. The duration of cruisesalso range from a minimum of typically two days to monthsThe cruise industry is primarily concentrated in and around North America withthe Caribbean being the most popular destination. Americans account for morethan 70% of cruise travellers worldwide. Other popular circuits include Alaska,North Europe, the Mediterranean and the Trans-Atlantic routes. An increasingnumber of cruises are going round the world or on long cruises spanning oceans.Cruise ports have sprung up all over the world. Generally, these are major tradeports which happen to be located in tourist hot-spots. Miami has become the de-facto capital of world cruise tourism. Caribbean ports, San Diego, Stockholm,Marseille, Barcelona, Venice, Canaveral, Los Angeles, Singapore and HongKong are among the most popular cruiser ports worldwide. So far, cruise tourismhas been confined mostly to affluent markets of the developed nations. The morepopular cruise ports have dedicated cruise terminals while others handle cruiseships at general berths with make-shift arrangements.India was a late entrant to the cruise industry. Till a few years ago, a few Indianports – mostly along the West Coast – got random visits from cruise ships whichwere passing by. Today, the ports of Mumbai, Cochin and Goa receive around a100 visits each year from cruise ships, some of which have made India a regulardestination. Now, the Government of India has drawn up plans to create cruisehubs in ports like Mumbai, Murmagoa, New Mangalore, Cochin and Tuticorin.Trivandrum is the tourism hub of Kerala, which in itself is one of the most populartourist destinations in India. Trivandrum accounted for nearly 30% of foreigntourist arrivals in Kerala in 2007-08, translating to about 150,000 tourists, as wellas around 15% of domestic tourists. Its unique combination of world-classbeaches, ayurvedic wellness treatments, cultural and architectural heritage,backwaters and ecological destinations has made it a top choice among allsegments of tourists. But what makes Trivandrum a unique proposition for cruisetourism in the region is its strategic location on the tip of the Indian peninsula.The international shipping channels approach as close as ten nautical miles tothe coast of Trivandrum making it the best choice for cruise vessels to make portin India, with the minimum deviation from their course across the Arabian Sea orIndian Ocean. The upcoming deep-water port at Vizhinjam on the outskirts ofTrivandrum city and the presence of the Trivandrum International Airport alsopromote the attractiveness of the city as a premier multi-modal cruise destination. 3
  4. 4. In addition to the traditional sort of cruises, the potential for medium-duration tripson the backwaters of Kerala also needs to be explored further. While currentbackwater activity essentially consists of nearly static excursions on lakes likeVembanad and Ashtamudi, there exists the potential for medium duration tripsalong the backwater and canal system which runs from south of Kerala till thenorth. Trivandrum is the Southern terminus of this one-of-kind network, most ofwhich has been incorporated in the National Waterway III.ObjectiveThe broad objective of this study is ”A Pilot Study on Potential and Prospects ofCruise Tourism in Trivandrum”. The specific objectives are To make an assessment of the cruise tourism industry To examine the marine and inland cruise tourism business in Kerala To explore the potential and prospects for developing cruise tourism in Trivandrum.Scope of StudyThe development of the cruise tourism sector in Trivandrum will be a majoraddition to the growth of Kerala into a premier global tourism destination. It willhelp to improve the contribution of the sector to Keralas economy along withother new initiatives like eco-tourism and responsible tourism. This study aims toprovide a first step in that direction.Study AreaThis study will focus on Trivandrum, in Kerala and the surrounding areas with theview of identifying the potential for developing cruise tourism and its relatedactivities.MethodologyThis study will make use of primary and secondary data. The primary data will becollected mainly through Delphi technique. The secondary data will be fromvarious sources such as books, journals and internet. 4
  5. 5. Chapter 1 - Literature ReviewSection 1: The Evolution of the Cruise IndustryThe Cruise Industry has become so diversified and complex, that finding asimplistic definition for it is difficult. However studies and guides of the industry bythe Cruise Lines International Association (1992, 2006), Hockmann (1993) andWard (1996) define a cruise on sea as a trip on a ship which has beenpurposefully styled as a floating leisure environment.However, when we look back at the history of the industry, it beomes evident thatits evolution was a spin-off of other trades. In fact, the earliest ocean-goingvessels were not primarily concerned with passengers, but rather with the cargothat they could carry as this was more profitable and cargo could be packed inmore tightly, making it a more profitable and efficient proposition, especially onthe small, sailing ships which sailed the seas through most of maritime history.(Lydia Boyd, Duke University,2008)The Black Ball Line in New York, in 1818, was the first shipping company to offerregularly scheduled service from the United States to England and to beconcerned with the comfort of their passengers. By the 1830s steamships wereintroduced and dominated the transatlantic market of passenger and mailtransport, due to their speed and ever-increasing size. The market wasdominated by English companies, led by the British and North American RoyalMail Steam Packet (later the Cunard Line). On July 4, 1840, Britannia , the firstship under the Cunard name, left Liverpool with a cow on board to supply freshmilk to the passengers on the 14-day transatlantic crossing. The advent ofpleasure cruises is linked to the year 1844, and a new industry began.During the 1850s and 1860s there was a dramatic improvement in the quality ofthe voyage for passengers. Ships began to cater solely to passengers, ratherthan to cargo or mail contracts, and added luxuries like electric lights, more deckspace, and entertainment. In 1867, Mark Twain was a passenger on the firstcruise originating in America, documenting his adventures of the six month trip inthe book Innocents Abroad. The endorsement by the British Medical Journal ofsea voyages for curative purposes in the 1880s further encouraged the public totake leisurely pleasure cruises as well as transatlantic travel. Ships also began tocarry immigrants to the United States in "steerage" class. In steerage,passengers were responsible for providing their own food and slept in whateverspace was available in the hold. Progressively, different classes emerged aboardthe larger liners.By the early 20th century the concept of the superliner was developed andGermany led the market in the development of these massive and ornate floatinghotels. The design of these liners attempted to minimize the discomfort of oceantravel, masking the fact of being at sea and the extremes in weather as much aspossible through elegant accomodations and planned activites. The Mauritaniaand the Lusitania, both owned by the Cunard Line of England, started thetradition of dressing for dinner and advertised the romance of the voyage. Speedwas still the deciding factor in the design of these ships and transportationcontinued to be the primary benefit derived from the liners. The There was nospace for large public rooms, and passengers were required to share the dining 5
  6. 6. tables. The White Star Line, owned by American financier J.P. Morgan,introduced the most luxurious passenger ships ever seen in the Olympic(complete with swimming pool and tennis court) and Titanic. Space andpassenger comfort now took precedence over speed in the design of theseships-resulting in larger, more stable liners. The sinking of the Titanic on itsmaiden voyage in 1912 devastated the White Star Line. In 1934, Cunard boughtout White Star.World War I interrupted the buidling of new cruise ships, and many older linerswere used as troop transports. German superliners were given to both GreatBritain and the United States as reparations at the end of the war. The yearsbetween 1920 and 1940 were considered the most glamorous years fortransatlantic passenger ships. The height of the transatlantic speed competition,for the coveted Blue Riband, was a feature of this period when the speed of theliners was a prestige issue not just for their owners or passengers but forcountries as well.(Wikipedia, 2009) These ships catered to the rich and famouswho were seen enjoying luxurious settings on numerous newsreels viewed bythe general public. American tourists interested in visiting Europe replacedimmigrant passengers. Advertisements promoted the fashion of ocean travel,featuring the elegant food and on-board activities.Cruise liners again were converted into troop carriers in World War II, and alltransatlantic cruising ceased until after the war. European lines then reaped thebenefits of transporting refugees to America and Canada, and business travelersand tourists to Europe. The lack of American ocean liners at this time, and thusthe loss of profits, spurred the U.S. government to subsidize the building of cruiseliners. In addition to the luxurious amenities, ships were designed according tospecifications for possible conversion into troop carriers. Increasing air travel andthe first non-stop flight to Europe in 1958, however, marked the ending oftransatlantic business for ocean liners. Passenger ships were sold and lines wentbankrupt from the lack of business.The 1960s witnessed the beginnings of the modern cruise industry. Cruise shipcompanies concentrated on vacation trips in the Caribbean, and created a "funship" image which attracted many passengers who would have never had theopportunity to travel on the superliners of the 1930s and 1940s. However,converted liners were not ideal for cruise operations as their design favouredspeed over all else. They tended to have powerful engines and little space for thenew amenities which passengers were demanding if cruise ships were toemulated resorts.(Wigand Ritter and Christian Schaffer, 1998) The engines wereunneccessarily powerful and hence often uneconomical for the more leisurelycruise trips. There were relatively few outside cabins and the accomodation wasusually segmented into many classes. Thus, there was a demand for dedicatedcruise vessels.These were slower than the liners, but were purpose designed and built more tobe floating resorts than anything else. These ships have lavish accomodations,maximise the number of outside cabins, expansive interior common spaces,extensive deck area and luxurious amenities. They are modelled on internationalhotel-chains in their design, quality and amenities. While there are ships ofcapacities from a few dozen to several thousand passengers, the trend haspredominantly been towards bigger ships, which now carry the vast majority ofcruise passengers. Extensive entertainment facilities, including water theme 6
  7. 7. parks and theaters, are available on most large cruise ships and the itinerariesare extensive to ensure that cruisers get as much variety as possible.The growth in the size and popularity of cruise vessels has been mirrored by thedevelopment of major cruise ports. Miami being the most successful of these,cruise ports have gone from being occasional ports of call for ships to being welllaid out home ports for dozens of giant ships. Whereas old warehouses and otherexisting facilities were initially used to handle cruise ships, today state-of-artpurpose designed and built cruise terminals have been developed at many majorports. The latest trend is to combine hotels, retail and other facilities with cruiseterminals.The contribution of the Cruise Industry to the global economy has been steadilyrising, with total revenues of over $ 20 billion and accounting for about 20million passengers in 2008. It is expected to reach a figure of $ 50 billion by2015, according to industry sources.(Cruise Lines International Association,2008) Evolution of Cruise Ship sizes – 1970 – 2010 Source: BEA International 7
  8. 8. Section 2: Concepts of the Cruise Tourism Industry2.1 Core ConceptsA cruise ship or cruise liner is a passenger ship used for pleasure voyages,where the voyage itself and the ships amenities are part of the experience.Cruising has become a major part of the tourism industry, with millions ofpassengers each year.Cruising is a unique tourism product, a blend of the 5A’s: attractions, activities,access, accommodation, amenities. The words "luxury" and "pampering" arefound in all cruise brochures, and every cruise line proudly highlights these fiveaspects to market its product. Cruising is now well established as one of the mostservice-intensive sectors in the world, with ever more incredible state-of-the-artvessels being built each year. ‘Pampered in luxury" accurately describes thecruise experience.Cruise ships operate mostly on routes that return passengers to their originatingport. In contrast, dedicated transport oriented ocean liners do "line voyages" andtypically transport passengers from one point to another, rather than on roundtrips. Some liners also engage in longer trips which may not lead back to thesame port for many months.Traditionally, an ocean liner for the transoceanic trade will be built to a higherstandard than a typical cruise ship, including stronger plating to withstand oceanvoyages, most commonly crossing the North Atlantic.River cruise ships are smaller than ocean-going cruise ships, typically holding90-240 passengers (though there are ships that take only 5 passengers, andothers can carry 1,000 passengers). Due to their smaller size and low draft, rivercruise ships can go where ocean cruise ships cannot, and sometimes to whereno other transport is practical: rivers are an excellent way to reach someattractions, for example in Russia and China.2.1Types of Cruises2.1.1 Contemporary CruisesThese are the most popular and recognized type of cruises, which serve themost popular segment, the mass market or first class cruisers. These cruiselines typically have resort-style facilities with heavy emphasis on shipboardactivities. Most of these lines have both shorter itineraries that are closer to homeand longer ones that may require international travel. These cruises tend to havenewer and larger cruise ships with lots of amenities including lavish show rooms,extensive spa facilities, expansive childrens programs, televisions and in-roommovies in all cabins, double/queen beds, etc. They often have something foreverybody - all age groups. These cruises are typically the best for families andkids of all ages. 8
  9. 9. 2.1.2 World CruisesLarge ships traveling the world over definitely have their appeal. In every port,spectators line up dockside to marvel at these giant ships. Big ships also havethe distinction of being out to sea for longer periods of time, circumnavigating theglobe. They take passengers to places most others can only dream about, anddo it in high style. Large cruise lines often reposition their ships according toseasons or to entice different clientele. For example, several cruise lines sendships up to Alaska in the summer, then reposition them to the Caribbean in thewinter months. Most schedule a longer cruise trip through the Panama Canal andalong the South America coastline to the Mexican Riviera, with stops that includeports in Costa Rica, Belize, Cozumel and Cancun. Heading east from thePanama Canal, a cruise ship might make stops in Aruba, Trinidad, or Barbados.Other ships leave Alaska and cruise to the Hawaiian Islands and then to Asiabefore swinging back around to the Caribbean. Another characteristic of largecruise lines is that duties aboard big ships are more specific.2.1.3 River and Barge CruisesMore and more people are considering river and barge cruises as an alternativeto oceangoing trips, or extending their cruise experience to include these uniquewaterway vessels. Passengers find this form of cruising to have a more informal,intimate atmosphere, especially since some of the smaller river barges limit theircruises to a dozen passengers or so. This arm of the cruise industry has seentremendous growth in the last decade. Some of these destinations include theNile, Amazon, Volga, Yangtze, Mississippi, Columbia, Danube, and Rhine rivers.The longest waterway in Europe is the newly opened Rhine-Main-Danube, whichconnects fourteen countries from Rotterdam on the North Sea to Sulina andIzmail on the Black Sea, offering passengers and crew incredible, ever-changingscenery most oceangoing cruises would be hard-pressed to match.Barges, which cruise primarily through European canals from April throughNovember, are even smaller than their river counterparts. They serve mainly asfirst-class water hotels. Passengers go ashore on their own during the day,returning at night for a gourmet dinner. Despite their sometimes ungainlyappearances, barges are highly sophisticated and beautifully outfitted withcustom-built furniture, rich fabrics, and crystal service ware. Because of theirpopularity with North American passengers, European river and barge cruisecompanies have been known to employ English-speaking crews to handle avariety of duties.During river cruises the countryside is usually in view, so they are especiallyrelaxing—and interesting—to those who prefer land nearby. River cruises usuallylast from 7 to 15 days, although some can last 3 weeks or longer. Some riverships resemble 5-star hotels, with sun decks, dining rooms, lounges, fitnessfacilities, swimming pools, casinos and other entertainment. Accommodation,meals onboard, entertainment and special events (holidays, festivals, contests,concerts, etc.) are usually included in the cruise price, while bar expenses,sauna, massage, laundry and cleaning, and phone calls are not. 9
  10. 10. Most cruises have a variety of onboard and onshore activities. The latter includeguided tours to historic and cultural sites, visiting local attractions, museums andgalleries, and other points of interest. Guides give a running commentary whilesailing.A river cruise is very different from an ocean cruise. For a start, you are in almostconstant sight of land and stops are far more frequent than they are at sea. Thevessels are like small, friendly, floating inns, whereas ocean-going ships tend tobe bigger, flashier, busier and livelier, the crew practised in the art of moving upto 4,000 people from one port to another and getting them on and off the ship. Incontrast, when your river cruise vessel docks you simply walk up the gangwayand into the town or city—in many cases the dock is located right at the heart ofthings. Despite these differences, however, most people who enjoy oceancruising and the relaxing rhythm of life afloat are attracted to river cruises aswell..Popular river cruises include trips along the Nile, the Mississippi, the Yangtze,the Mekong, the Danube, the Rhine, the Seine, or the Volga. There are severaldozen river cruise companies each with 1 to 21 ships.2.1.4 Destination / Expedition CruisesDestination and expedition cruises are selected, just as river cruises, based onthe destination to be visited. Travellers are attracted by the unique, out-of-the-way, remote or exotic ports of call. These cruises offer the stimulation ofexploring new territories while in the company of like-minded travellers. The shipsmost used for destination and expedition cruises are yacht-style ships, river shipsand private yachts.2.1.5 Sailing and Yacht CruisesYachts and sailing ships generally have smaller crews If it is an open-watersailboat, the entire crew will likely need to know how to sail and be expected towork the riggings and lines. On such a boat, a deckhand might also servebreakfast, clean cabins, and lead tours ashore.Because of their ability to travel to remote, secluded areas, many smaller shipshave found an appropriate niche for the environmentally aware 90s market:"eco-touring." Eco-tour itineraries typically involve some kind of nature andecology-oriented cruises to primitive wilderness areas. Tours of the NorthwestPassage along the British Columbia coast, Alaska, and numerous areas in theSouth Pacific and South America have become very popular. These cruises area far cry from the luxury cruises featuring 1,200-foot ships with ballrooms andcasinos.2.1.6 Day CruisesDay cruises are typically a cruise experience of 15 hours or less. Passengerschoose this method of cruising, as a days outing or combined with a longervacation. These cruises may be geared to gambling, whale watching, dinner, etc. 10
  11. 11. The ships most used for day cruises are cruise ships, steamboats, ferries, riverships, and private yachts.2.2 Cruise linesCruise ships are operated by cruise lines, which typically own and operate one ormore ships. Some of the biggest lines include Carnival Cruises, Royal CaribbeanInternational and Cunard. Cruise lines often also operate cruise terminal facilities.Lines vary in size, from those which own single vessels to the majors who owndozens of ships. They also vary in the types of cruises they offer and thesegments of customers that they target.Despite this bewildering variety, cruiselines can broadly be classified as :2.2.1 Mainstream cruise lines: are the ones most often associated withmodern cruising. They offer the advantage of something for everyone and nearlyevery available sports facility imaginable like ice;skating rinks,bowling alleys,golfcourses etc. The mainstream lines have two basic ship sizes – large cruiseships and megaships in their fleets. These vessels have plentiful outdoor deckspaces,and many have a wraparound outdoor promenade deck that allows youto stroll or jog the ship’s perimeter.While they are replete with resort style innovations, they still feature cruise shipclassics-afternoon tea,complimentary room service,and lavis pampering. Thesmallest ships carry 1000 passengers or fewer .whle the largest carry 3000passengers and are filled with diversions.These ships tend to be big and boxy. Picture windows are standard equipmentand cabins in the top categories have private verandas. From their casinos todiscos, everything is bigger and more extravagent than on other ships..2.2.2 Premium cruise lines: They have a lot in common wth the main streamcruise lines, but offer a little more of everthing. The atmosphere is more refined,surroundings less raucous, and service more polished and attentive.Ships tend to be newer midsize to larger vessels that carry fewer passengersthan mainstream ships and have a more spacious feel. Decor is moreglamourous and subtle. State rooms range from inside cabins with or withoutbalconies to suites with numerous amenities, including butlers on some lines.Although premium lines usually have as many extra charges as mainstream lines,the overall quality of what you receive is higher. Producton shows are moresophisticated than on mainstream lines.2.2.3 Luxury cruise lines: Comprising only 5% of the market, the exclusiveluxury cruise lines, such as Crystal, Cunard, Seabourn, Sea Dream, Silver Seasand so on offer high staff to guest ratios for personal service, superior cuisine ina single open seating, and highly a inclusive product with few onboard charges.These small and midsize ships offer much more space per passenger ascompared to the earlier two types. Lines differ in what they emphasize on, withsome touting luxurious accommodations and entertainment and others focusingon exotic destinations and onboard enrichment. With intimate sizes,the smallluxury ships visit some of the most uncommon destinations. 11
  12. 12. 2.3 Key Cruising Terms (Glossary of Cruising Terminology, 2008)One way cruise: they begin at a point and end at a different point..they allow youto visit a wider variety of ports and travel farther from your port of embarkation.Loop cruise: they begin and end at the same point and often visit ports inrelatively close proximity to one another..Cruise costs:cruise fares vary considerably by itinerary and season,as well asthe category of accomodatons selected.publised rates are higher for the mostunique and desirable itinerares and cruises during peak seasons.Air/Sea: A comprehensive package that combines both the cruise itself and airtransportation to and from the cruises ports of embarkation and debarkation.Air/Sea programs are usually add-ons available at extra cost.Air City: The city chosen by you to serve as the origination and termination pointfor your flights to and from the cruise.Baggage Allowance: The amount of baggage, generally consisting of thepassengers personal effects, permitted by the cruise line free of charge.Berth: There are two definitions: the dock or pier where you embark or debarkfrom the ship; the bed in which you sleep onboard the ship.Cabin: its the passenger’s personal space onboard. they may be insidecabins,outside cabins,balcony cabins and suitesDebark/debarkation: To exit, or the process of exiting the ship. The term"disembark" is also usedEmbark/embarkation: To enter, or the process of entering or boarding the ship.Fare Market Value (FMV): The Fare Market Value, or “FMV,” represents theestimated, fair market price (including port charges) for a specific cruisedeparture. This dollar amount is derived by analyzing the price history andseasonality patterns of this and other competitive cruise ships sailing similaritineraries.Frequent Cruiser Program: All major cruise lines have them - membershipclubs for their frequent cruisers. In most cases, eligibility begins with your secondcruise with the same cruise line. Advantages may include membership pins,cruise discounts, specially-selected cruises, onboard amenities, private cocktailparties, early notification of new itineraries and newsletters or e-mails.Homeport: A port of embarkation/debarkation where the ship is based for a longperod of time.The current trend is towards the increased use of Homeports inship itineraries.Itinerary: A ships schedule of port stops and days at sea. Most cruise itinerariesvary from 3 to 12 days. The 7-day itinerary remains the industry standard though 12
  13. 13. the trend is towards shorter cruises. Seven-day cruises generally include 3-5 portstops and 2-4 days cruising at sea.Panamax: The Panama Canal permits ships no wider than approximately 110feet - any wider and the ship just wont fit. Ships that squeak under that maximumare often referred to as "Panamax" ships.Per Diem: The per person, per day cost of a cruise.Port Charges: A charge levied of cruise lines by local government authorities.This charge is passPort-of-Call: A country, island or territory, or population center a cruise shipvisitsed on to the cruise passenger.Shore Excursions: Shoreside tours operated by independent tour companiesspecifically for cruise passengers. An extra charge is usually applied to thepassenger’s shipboard account.Tender (or Launch): A smaller vessel used to move passengers to and from theship and shore when the ship is at anchor. Some cruise ports, due either tolimited docking facilities or harbor depths, require ships to anchor offshore,necessitating the use of tenders to transport passengers ashore. Passengerswith certain disabilities may be restricted in their use of tenders.Theme Cruise: Any cruise that offers or suggests a specific onboard "theme"such as sports or 70s disco music. Other themes include history, cooking, arts &crafts, or even lunar eclipses or comet watching.Transatlantic: A cruise that crosses the Atlantic Ocean.2.4 Associated concepts of Cruise Tourism2.4.1 Onboard entertainmentIn the early days of cruise travel,shipoard entertainment consisted of a little morethan poetry readings and passenger talent shows.(The Complete Guide toEuropean Cruises, Fodors, 2008) Its very dfferent today. These days, cruisesinclude two or more original production shows, one may be a Las Vegas styleextravaganza and other a best-of-Broadway show. Other shows highlight thetalents of singers, dancers, comedians ,acrobats etc. Real treats are the folkloricshows or other entertainment events arranged to take place when cruise shipsare in port. It’s an excellent way to get a glimpse of the cultural history of theperforming arts of the local communities. Most ships also have movie nghts, orin-cabin movies. Enrichment programs have also become a popular pastime atsea. Speakers can include destination oriented historians, authors, radio andtelevision personalities etc. Ship lounges, nightclubs and casinos form a majorpart of onboard entertainment. 13
  14. 14. 2.4.2 Sports and fitnessOnboard sports facilities might include a basketball court, volley ball or tenniscourts. Most of the larger ships even offer innovative and unexpected featureslike rock climbing walls,bungee trampolines, surfing pools, jogging tracks and soon. At least one swimming pool will be present.Shipboard fitness centres have become ever more elaborate, offering state-of-the-art machines,treadmills,weight machines, multi-gyms etc. and have trainedinstructors on board to offer assistance and guidance.2.4.3 Spas and Wellness CentersWith all the usual pampering and service in luxurious surroundings, simply beingon a cruise can be a stress reducing experience. Spas ave become among themost popular shipboard facilities which offers facial treatments,manicures,pedicures, massages, sensual body treatments etc In fact, one of themost popular benefits cruisers have come to expect is to improve their wellness.Historically, cruises have been recommended as healthy travel and tourismoptions, but modern cruise ships take this to a new extreme with the most modenfacilities including saunas, hydro-treatment pools and so on. In fact, some lineshave made USPs out of on-board wellness treatments.2.4.4 Audience ParticipationIn order to give the entertainment a creative angle and a more exciting feel thereare some activities that are designed to encourage Audience Participation.(Cruise Tourism Potential & Strategy Study, CRISIL, 2005) Some of theseparticipatory activities may be:  Karaoke contests  Trivia contests  Game shows  Guest talent Shows  Parties like 50s and 60s Night, Masquerade Ball, Toga Party and Pirate Theme Night  Wine testing and classes  Cooking demonstrations  Casino and card game lessons  Ice-carving instruction  Jewellery seminars  Latin dance schools that teach Cha-cha, rumba, merengue, waltz, two- step, tango, swing, foxtrot, jitterbug, line dancing, country, caribbean, hula, cha-cha slide and 70s Disco.2.4.5 TournamentsTournaments like Ping-pong, floating golf green, billiards, shuffleboard, ring toss,basketball, miniature-golf etc are organized specially on long cruises to bringhealthy competition 14
  15. 15. 2.4.6 LibraryReading being one of the favourite indulgences on the cruise, cruise ships arestocked with an impressive and wide range of subjects which are availablestarting from topics like travel, art, biography, fiction, non-fiction, science fiction,beauty, health and many more.2.4.7 Other Activities and FacilitiesA list of some more activities in addition to the above include:  Sun soaking in the Solarium, which is basically a room, built largely of glass to afford exposure to the sun. There are also sunbeds which is a device emitting radiation(usually UVA, but recently also UVB) used for cosmetic reasons (to induce an artificial tanning) but also for medical reasons.  Casinos, with games like Poker slots or blackjack. Some cruises also offer casino classes. Casinos are becoming an important component of ships world-wide, especially since they are not available on-shore in many countries.  Dance floors, wine bars, night clubs/lounges for pub-goers. There are theme pubs with live bands and shows.PREFACE2.5 Key Characteristics of cruisingWhile there are a wide variety of cruise types, most of them share severalcommon characteristic features:  Cruising is intensively service-oriented. Most ships provide a 24-hour Room service. New ships are adding 24-hour pizzerias. Other facilities include casino, pool, jacuzzi, sauna, gym, on-board lectures, card rooms, an unending variety of organized games and contests, supervised childrens activities and entertainment including Broadway and Las Vegas- style shows, lounges, nightclubs, movies, dancing and more. Cruise ships are more like mini cities providing most of what such a city has to offer.  Cruise ships are destinations in themselves, with features and amenities comparable or superior to land-based resorts. This can be particularly attractive in destinations that lack high quality hotels or "creature comforts."  Modern cruise ships have state-of-the-art telecommunications equipment, including incabin ship-to-shore phones. Yet they enable the passenger to feel secluded and "out of time." You have the illusion of getting away from it all.  Cruising is remarkably affordable. Contemporary cruises are often available at a price that is generally lower than a comparable land-based vacation with many of the costs included in the fare including food, some entertainment and excursions.  Cruising offers multiple destinations, without the hassles of packing and unpacking. Itineraries include visits to three or more ports of call (depending on length of cruise). 15
  16. 16. 2.6 Niche cruise tourism marketsWhile the bulk of cruise tourists fall into the main categories enumerated earlier,several major niche categories have evolved to cater to different requirementsamong a diverse market. These include:2.6.1 Cruises for the FamilyThis segment targets the youngest end of the market. Since families look formoderately priced holidays, most operators offer such packages with interestingcomplementary activities. Fifty per cent discounts for the under 12s and freeflights for children under 2 years of age are a common feature of such packages.Special offers are available during the school holiday season. Of the major cruiseoperators, Carnival carries the most children and is the Number One familycruise line. Though it has entered the market late in 1998, Disney is also one ofthe most popular cruise line amongst this segment.2.6.2 The Senior Citizen SegmentThis is the largest growing niche with senior citizens having considerablepurchasing power and a great affinity with the product. A study done by Traveland Tourism Analyst in 1996 shows that 10% of the senior citizen segment in theEuropean Union used cruise as mode of transport for international trips. Certaincruise lines like the British tour operator – Saga and Swan Hellenic cater to thisclass exclusively. Some cruise lines like Fred & Olsen, P&O also offer cruiseswith no flights involved.2.6.3 The Conferences and Incentives SegmentWith the increasing combination of business with leisure, cruise ships are wooingthe business segment with well equipped with state-of-the-art features that canhouse all delegates within a closed space facilitating the holding of conferencesand seminars with an element of novelty thrown in. Mostlarge ships have 700 to 800 capacity assembly, the largest hall being one with acapacity of 1,350 in Royal Caribbean International’s ‘Voyageur of the Seas’.Cunard estimates that 15% of its business is from incentives and conferences.Cruises organized by large companies are also widely approved of in Japan.Such cruises are generally short in duration.2.6.4 Theme CruisesThemes are built by offering new itineraries or by adding specialized products.The best example of such types of cruise is the Disney Cruise. Thus, Carnivalhas the Paradise ship exclusively for nonsmokers, HAL offers a Caribbean cruisewith a screening of films from the forties, there are cruises dedicated to winetasting and such other exotic themes added to exotic locales.2.6.5 Adventure CruisesExpedition cruises have a modest, though not insignificant, demand. Mostcompanies that operate this market do not belong to the big groups. Somenotable cruise operators in this category are The World Cruise Company and 16
  17. 17. Abercrombie & Kent with ships like Explorer, Clipper, Marine Expeditions andQuark Expeditions with the total fleet being 63 ships and around 5,500 berths.There are also other liners like the Swan Hellenic and Orient Lines with a strongeducational element.2.6.6 River & Canal CruisesCanal & River cruises form a niche element of the cruise sector, arising from thefact that most cruise ships take by and large coastal routes, whereas all of thedestination’s charm can hardly be explored within the constraint of a one-daystop at a port of call. Cruise ships take coastal routes because the rivers andcanals cannot accommodate large cruise ships, however, it would be possible toenable interested passengers to explore the charms of the destination through aflotilla of specially designed river ships and cruise barges. As a niche of cruising,river and canal voyages are an increasingly popular option, particularly fortravellers who enjoy the comforts and variety of cruising, but want to see more ofthe heartland. The boom in river cruises started from Europe, which has exoticdestinations connected by rivers and far from coastal areas. Today, theEuropean river-cruise industry is in a major expansion mode. Nearly every cornerof the continent has navigable rivers and a selection of ships, which continue togrow increasingly comfortable and luxurious. Viking River Cruises is recognisedas the worlds largest river cruise line.Product DesignRiver/canal cruise ships, are essentially smaller versions of cruise ships, rarelyholding more than 200-plus passengers, and generally carrying less. Theriver/canal barges are even smaller, carrying between six and fifty passengers.The entertainment on broad is also much simpler. Beyond mealtimes,entertainment onboard may be limited to shuffle-board or book-reading. Rivercruise ships do not provide a range of experiences as happens aboard a largeship. These ships carry no casinos and offer little in the way of eveningentertainment.River cruises range from a couple of hours cruising along a city’s shoreline for aromantic dinner to a full blown week or month-long cruise experience in some ofthe world’s most exotic locations. There are dining or party river cruise boats thatsail for a few hours. These offer fine dining, professional entertainment, musicand dancing while cruising up and down the city’s waterways. They often caterto romantic occasions, large parties and business dinners and itineraries that arenormally offered could be dinner cruise, lunch cruise, Christmas cruise, NewYear eve, conference & meetings, floating restaurant and cruises targeted tospecific events. Also, many of them offer special holiday packages. On the otherhand, there are long river cruises that cover theme-based destinations like ruralexploration or pilgrimage destinations on holy rivers. For example, the ColumbiaRiver Cruise plies on the Columbia River running through seven states of the US,offering magnificent views of river while allowing the passenger to visit nationalparks, cities, and towns en-route. Some river cruises also offer adventuresomeactivities such as kayaking and white water rafting. 17
  18. 18. 2.7 Cruise Tourism Ports2.7.1 Types of Cruise PortsWith respect to cruise ships, Ports may act as a ‘Port of Call’ or as a ‘Home Port’.As a Port of Call the port would act as the transit and receiving ports to nationaland international ships that touch several destinations as part of their cruisecircuit. Travellers who disembark at the port visit destinations either close at handor may sometimes even fly to distant destinations. At times travellers whodisembark at a particular port may embark the ship at some other port closer tothe destination they have chosen to visit.As a Home Port or Hub Port, the port would act as the base for a cruise ship,which would take passengers around a cruise circuit and then come back to thehomeport to berth. Travellers would either ‘fly in’ or ‘drive in’ to the homeports totake their cruise.2.7.2 Roles the Ports PlayWhether as a post of call or as a home port, ports play a vitally significant role incruise tourism to understand which it would be necessary to appreciate differentaspects of this role which may be set forth as follows:(Cruise Tourism Potential &Strategy Study, CRISIL, 2005)  Infrastructure Role: Ports provide the sea based and land based core infrastructure for ships to arrive and berth comfortably and safely. They are to ships what airports are to aircrafts and, accordingly, the nature, extent and sufficiency of the port infrastructure facilities would determine the size, frequency and type of vessels which come in.  Hospitality Role: For visiting ships, Ports provide the vital entry point and the first exposure of the tourist to the destination. Similarly for outgoing tourists, ports would be the exit point. The manner of receiving the tourists and the tourist amenities and facilities provided would determine the tourism popularity of the concerned port.  Connectivity Role: Since ports are the transit locations for incoming as well as outgoing tourists, the efficiency of the ports in terms of effective linkages to airports, railways etc and fast connectivity to popular tourism destinations in the State and the country would be critical.2.7.3 Infrastructure at Cruise PortsWhile cruise ships can be handled at general purpose berths or even throughlighterage, it is desirable for all major cruise ports to have dedicatedinfrastructure which enables the handling of large numbers of passengers withease. Ports, dependent on an increase in cruise traffic or self phaseddevelopment plans, create these facilities for cruise activity. Facilities for Cruise TouristsPrimary Facilities: These facilities are desirable for meeting the basicrequirements of cruise tourists coming to the shore. They include: 18
  19. 19.  Customs and Immigrations Facility  Passenger Lounge  Luggage Counter  Tourist Information centre  Public address system  Drinking water  Toilets / Showers / Lockers  Foreign exchange counters  Bank service counters / ATM  Wheel chairs for disabled, old  Communication centre  Cafeteria  Trolleys for baggage  Taxi service Excursion facility / Tour Operators / Coach transfers / shuttle bus  service  Parking Space for vehicles  Linkage/shuttle service to the Airport/ Railway StationSecondary FacilitiesThese facilities within the terminal are desirable for creating an ambience tointernational standards. Many of these facilities being commercial, in addition tolending a class to the terminal, can also possibly act as money-spinners for theport. They include:  Terminal Map / Sign Boards  Escalators / Elevators Crew lounge  Air-conditioning for terminal building  Duty free shopping Gift / Souvenir / Artifact & Curio shop  Restaurant  Postal service  Internet café  Medical Clinic  Ice cream Bar  Magazine / Book store  Florist  Yacht Parking Facility/ Harbour Cruise Facility  Laundromat  Entertainment Centre / Gaming zone  Conference Room2.7.3.2 Facilities for Cruise VesselsThese facilities are desired by cruise vessels so that they can extend safety andconvenience for their passengers and crew. Supplies to cruise vessels aregenerally a premium activity, which enhance the commercial viability for theports.  Terminal Building  Gangway / Aerobridge 19
  20. 20.  Trucks for handling baggage  Baggage Conveyor system  Agents Office  Embarkation Balcony  Ship Water Supply  Fuel Bunkering  Garbage disposal facility2.7.3.3 Port & Port related infrastructural facilities  Berth  Pilotage  Towage  Mooring Arrangements  Navigation Facility  Ship coordination centre  Administration Office  Maintenance & Repair2.7.3.4 Facilities for entry-exit checks / clearancesCruise tourists arriving into / departing from the port are subject to certain checksand clearance procedures by law. Officials from specific governmentdepartments are deputed to extend the clearances. Considering the short staynature of cruise vessels at the port-of-call and sensitive natureof international cruise tourists, the clearance procedure should be quick andhassle-free. The port authorities should create adequate infrastructure toenhance the efficiency of the departments. The facilities to be provisioned by theport at the cruise terminal include:  Custom clearance counter  Immigration check  Security check counter 20
  21. 21. Section 3: Global Scenario and Market Review3.1 Global market3.1.1 Cruising RoutesCruising routes as of today pass through seas, rivers and canals. The openocean is not a cruise area, except the trans-atlantic link. Enroute destinations arecategorized from popular, to historical, to adventurous or experimental.(WigandRitter and Christian Schafer, Tourism Recreation Research Vol 23(1), 1998) Theactual intensity of demand ranges from the rarely visited or experimental oradventurous such as cruise areas of Antarctica and the Amazon, to the mostfrequented or popular cruise destinations of the Caribbean and theMediterranean seas. In the icebound polar zones, the high cost of icebreakingcruises prevents this last territory from be trespassed, although recently growinginterest of the public has created a demand for destinations in the northwestpassage, Northeastern passage, Greenland, Spitsbergen as well as the AntarcticPeninsula and the Ross Sea. In the meantime, there was a steady growth incruises and the most significant increase has occurred in the Indian Ocean andthe Western Pacific. This demand pattern belies the expectations about thedream –cruise of the warm and sunny tropical seas. There seems to be a lot ofprospective buyers for the more austere charms of the colder areas too. Thedominating position of the Caribbean is due to the popularity of cruises in theUSA, where the cruises are short and therefore not too expensive.3.1.2 Cruising MarketsAmusement facilities on board has become major incentives although gamblingand liquor are still off limits in some parts of the USA. Some 79% of all cruisepassengers in 1989 were Americans(Ward, 1998). for them the vessel s a self-contained “fun-ship”.Europeans prefer longer cruises of two or three weeks and rate comfort higherthan amusement as the reason for cruising. Most of the passengers are retiredpeople wishing to see places they may peraps, never have the chance to visit intheir lifetimes. This makes the routing of the cruise the Unique Selling Propostion(USP). Many ports of call and shore excursions prolong the programmes andmake them rater expensive. The European market has however,already beentapped and the same can be said for Japan. From a geographical perspective,cruises in the Caribbean and the Mediterranean are definitely the most lucrativeoffers for the north American and the European markets for the reasons ofproximity, climatic amenity and the variety of sightseeing .In Europe, cruises skirtalong the coasts of Norway and sometimes reach Spitsbergen, whilst in forAmerica, they follow the inland routes of British Columbia to Alaska. Some shipsare transferred for operation in the southern seas during the northern winter.Visits to archipelagos and islands are a special type of cruise. Sometimes suchshort cruises, upto seven days duration, are run with the same ships, 50 times ayear. Such circuits are popular as a sail and stay packages with a normal bathingholiday on land,in the Caribbean and Greek islands and also around Hawaii,Tahiti, the Canaries and experimentally around Spitsbergen and even Antarctica. 21
  22. 22. Every cruise region has a small number of main departure or embarkation ports.For instance, Genoa, Venice, Istanbul etc in the Mediterranean, the Caribbeanports such as Miami, Port Canaveral, San Juan in Puerto rico,Bridgetown/Barbados and Singapore in South-East Asia are major cruise hubs.Such ports are linked to major airports of Europe and America and enable thetourists to fly-cruise to start their cruises without delays. Main ports like thesealso serve for maintenance, bunkering, loading of supplies and discharge ofwaste since the are usually, though not exclusively, sea ports with all marinefacilities.3.2 Market ProfileAs a predominantly luxury service industry, it is vital to understand the marketprofile of the cruise industry. As of today, the industry has been able to accessonly a few niches within the massive tourist market, resulting in a penetration ofonly about 1.5% into the overall market. A better understanding may drive betterpenetration as well as help to sustain current growth. In the case of developingcruise markets and hubs, market profiling is especially important.In 2008, the Cruise Line International Association conducted a comprehensivemarket profiling exercise with leading research agency WNS conducting theactual survey.(CLIA Cruise Market Study 2008, 2008) The key aims of the surveywere to guage market penetration, propensity to travel, demographics, cruisepatterns and so on.3.2.1 Market Segmentation by IncomeIncome is perhaps the key determinant in identifying potential cruisers as thecruise industry remains restricted to the upper income segment, wherein thereare further sub-segments like contemporary and luxury cruises which are againbased on relative affluence.  Core Market (25+/$40,000): As indicated below, the most likely scenario is that the majority of adults from this target market will cruise within the next three years, based on stated intent to cruise. In addition to population and cruising intent updates, these projections also include US/European River cruises. This segment is most likely to choose short or medium duration contemporary.  Affluent Market (25+/$60,000+): This segment is likely to go for contemporary or luxury cruises  Very Affluent Market (25+/$80,000+): This more limited market is showing slow growth, but cruisers from this segment will prefer the upper end of cruises  Ultra Affluent Market (25+/$150,000+): This very high-end group is showing surprisingly quick growth and are likely to go on luxury, long duration cruise and niche cruises. 22
  23. 23. 3.2.2 Key Findings  Consumer Interest in cruising continues to be strong, despite the economy and fuel costs: 77% of past cruisers and 55% of those who have yet to take a cruise expressed interest in doing so within the next three years.  95% of cruisers rate their cruise experience as satisfying: 44% claim “extremely satisfying” making a cruise among the best in meeting and exceeding expectations.  Median age of cruisers is now 46, down from 49 in 2006; cruises continue to attract younger travelers  Cruisers agree (80%) that cruise vacations are a good way to sample destinations they may wish to visit again, which further demonstrates that cruisers are the best prospect for travel.  Cruise line utilization and awareness of 30+ U.S. embarkation ports adds strong inducement to future cruising: 72% cite additional “close to home” ports as a reason they’ll be more likely to cruise. Benefits cited: added convenience (74%), ability to drive to the ship (71%), saving money on air travel (67%) and avoiding hassles of flying to embarkation points (64%).  Cruisers are the premier leisure traveler; they take 39% more vacations per year than non-cruisers and take more types of vacations with nearly one in four being a cruise. They also typically spend 50% more on their vacation than a non-cruiser.  Both past cruisers (69%) and cruise prospects (56%) recognize a cruise vacation as providing very high value. Those who’ve experienced the inclusive nature and service of a cruise, rank it as the best vacation value.From the survey, we can infer that the potential for cruises continues to berelatively strong despite the current economic turmoil perhaps due to the fact thatcruisers are mostly from the upper income segment which has been relativelyless hard-hit than the middle and lower income segments. Similarly, the presenceof regional cruise ports encourages the local market to go on cruises. In the otherdirection, incoming cruise travellers are likely to come back for a longer durationvisit if they like the destination, creating even more benefit to the local economy.While we have made some inroads into understanding the cruise routes,destinations and the global market profile, it is vital to seek learnings from leadinginternational cruise hubs since our purpose is to study the potential of setting upa new cruise hub. This will aid in internalising and applying the best practicesused by these ports to dominate the global cruise industry for a long time. Fourour purpose, we will look at Miami – the worlds cruise capital – and Singapore,which is the regional cruise hub of South Asia.3.3.1 Case Study 1 – MiamiHistoryThe Port of Miami got its start when business tycoon Henry Flagler extended hisEast Coast Railroad to Miami in 1896.(Port of Miami Guide, 2008) Shortlythereafter, Flagler funded construction of the Port of Miami and began collecting 23
  24. 24. dockage fees. The following year brought passenger cruise service to Nassau. In1915, city officials authorized plans for a public terminal, turning basin andchannel deepening project, and the Port of Miami became a primary hub forshipping to South Florida. Passenger service to Baltimore and New York beganin the 1930s, followed by inauguration of cruise service to Havana, Cuba in the1940s, and subsequent control of port operations by the U.S. Navy during WWII.In 1956, Dodge Island was annexed for port expansion. In 1968, the Port ofMiami set a record with four maiden voyages in a single month and celebrateddedication of a $5 million cruise terminal. In 1976, Miami became the first port inhistory to log more than one million cruise passengers in a year, with that pacequickening to a record 1.5 million in 1980 when terminals 8 and 9 swung open.Other milestones include the 1992 ribbon-cutting for the elevated, five-lanebridge linking Port berths and the mainland, and the 1996 installation ofdecorative bridge lighting to provide a glowing nocturnal landmark for Miami’sskyline.The development of the cruise terminal took another major step forward in 1999when terminals 3, 4 and 5 got a major facelift to accommodate RoyalCaribbean’s Voyager of the Seas, at that time the largest cruise ship everconstructed, with first-time at-sea amenities including no less than a full-sizebasketball court, an ice-skating arena, and a rock climbing wall.Current StatusIn 2007, the Port of Miami handled 3,787,410 passengers and over 750 cruisedockings. It is the Home-Port for over 20 mega-ships and the hub port for theworlds largest cruise lines like Carnival Cruises and Royal CaribbeanInternational.Today’s Port of Miami progress is reflected in $ 250 million of constructionprojects geared toward upgrades and modifications, including new cruiseterminals, remodeling of two existing terminals, two additional multi-level parkinggarages, access road reconfiguration, and a security gateway complex. (JuanKuryla, 2006).Passenger terminals D and E, are the latest additions to the Miami Cruise Port.These 105,000 square-foot ultramodern, three-story buildings will meet theneeds of the new mega cruise ships that carry up to 5,000 passengers. Eachterminal will have among its special design features and amenities a VIP lounge,a high-tech security screening facility for embarkation, airline counters, and anairport-style conveyor baggage system. Their combined cost is approximately$80 million.As the embarking passengers enter the spacious ticketing area, they will bestanding in front of an uninterrupted 300-foot long and 85-foot high glass wallfacing the cruise ship. Disembarking passengers will go through a One StopFederal Multi-Agency Facility that brings under one roof the earlier functions ofthe Immigration and Naturalization Service, U.S. Customs and Border Protection,and the U.S. Department of Agriculture.Home-PortThe Port of Miami has focused on positioning itself as a premier Home-Port aswell as being a port-of-call frequent by the majority of the worlds cruise lines. 24
  25. 25. In the case of a Home-Port, where cruises begin and end, there are multiplebenefits for the port and the community: • Cruise passengers often spend time in the city before and after their cruises, which results in major revenues for the local economy • Cruise ships taken on most of their supplies and fuel as well as carry out their repairs at the home port. • Guaranteed cruise traffic • Enhances the brand of the city as a premier tourism destinationTo be a good Home-Port, Miami has identified five key aspects which need tobe taken up: - Outstanding port services and an equally appealing city - Modern and efficient airport with substantial airliftModern airlift - Attractive tourist destinations and itineraries - Large population center - Accessibility to that populationAs one of the most popular tourist destinations in North America, Miami (Florida)was already gifted with most of the required attributes to become a preeminenthome-port.Under the “Cruise Miami Program”, the Port has partnered with the GreaterMiami Convention and Visitors Bureau to encourage cruise vacationers to arrivein Miami either before or after their cruise vacation to enjoy our many entertainingdestinations.(Juan Kuryla, 2006)In addtion to this, the Port of Miami encourages its port-of-call program, wherecruise lines bring their vessels mid-week and passengers can spend a day inMiami with the hope of returning for a future vacation.Benefits to the EconomyThe benefits of the Port of Miamis strategy to grow traffic have been quiteevident. Half of the Passengers extended their stay in Miami before or after theircruise. Average passenger expenditure is $89.00 per dayand overnighters spentan average of $280.00. 68% of cruisers flew on a commercial airline and 24%drove into Miami.Being a Home-Port and a Port-of-Call benefits the seaport and several touristattractions, such attractions as Everglades tours, South Beach , Vizcaya, , ParrotJungle, the Miami Seaquarium and local shopping venues. Thousands of cruisepassengers have the opportunity to visit South Florida and contribute to the localeconomy.(Khalid A. Salahuddin, 2005)The Port of Miami makes the largest contribution to the cruise industry acrossFlorida which also includes such major cruise hubs as Port of Canaveral and Portof Palm Beach. Overall, Florida received nearly $4.6 billion in direct spendingand the Cruise industry generated 130,750 jobs with wages totaling over $4.6billion in income for Florida workers. Passengers and crew spent $421 million inFlorida in 2003. 25
  26. 26. Key LearningsBeing the Cruise Capital of the World, the Port of Miami offers many keylearnings which will prove invaluable to upcoming and proposed cruise ports. 1. Emphasis on development as a Home-Port 2. World-class infrastructure 3. Integration of Cruise Tourism into overall Tourism strategy 4. Availability of attractive tourist destinations and itineraries in the vicinity 5. Large catchment of potential cruisers 6. Building strong relationships with leading cruise operators.3.3.2 Case Study 2 - SingaporeHistoryWhile the cruise industry has historically remained concentrated around NorthAmerica and Europe, Asia has shown excellent growth in this sector since 1990.The Asia-Pacific region, which includes South Pacific, Southeast Asia, Far East& Trans-Pacific, experienced a growth of 134% during the 1992-2001 periodreaching a figure of 2.1 million nights and a global market share of 3.5%.(CruiseTourism Potential & Strategy Study, CRISIL, 2005)Singapore has been the hub port of the South Asian region for centuries with itsstrategic location on the Straits of Malacca, at the meeting point of the Indian andPacific Oceans. For almost 200 years, Singapore has traditionally been a port ofcall for cargo and trading ships. When Sir Stamford Raffles founded Singapore in1819 and subsequently established it as a trading post for the British East IndiaCompany, passenger ships also began to call at the island. Steamers operatedmail services from India to Hong Kong via Singapore, many of them withcommercial rates for the conveyance of passengers. (Singapore Tourism, 2008)Singapore Port also was a hub for regional ferry traffic which connected tonearby destinations in Malaysia and Indonesia.Till 1991, cruise ships were handled at the cargo berths of the Port of Singapore.In 1991 a dedicated International Passenger Terminal (IPT) was developed at acost of S$50 million by PSA at the Harbour Front Centre (formerly World TradeCentre) in conjunction with the Singapore Tourism Board to promote cruisetourism. In 1992, the regional ferry operation at Finger Pier was relocated to betogether with IPT at the upgraded facilities at HarbourFront Centre. (SingaporeCruise Center, 2008)In preparation for the arrival of the new generation of “Mega resort” cruise shipsto Singapore, the terminal at HarbourFront was upgraded and its berth extendedat a cost of S$22.5 million in 1998.In 2003, the Singapore Cruise Centre (SCC) as a department was divested fromPort of Singapore Authority (PSA) Corporation and became an independentcompany, Singapore Cruise Centre Pte Ltd (SCCPL) under the TemasekInvestment Group. The SCC became the operator for the IPT as well as theregional ferry terminals.Completion of SCCs second upgrade was completed in 2005 at the cost of S$5million. In 2006, the SCC@HarbourFront (IPT) welcomed its 10 millionth cruise 26
  27. 27. passenger since its operations in 1991. SCC@HarbourFront celebrated its 15thyear anniversary. SCCPL partnered Singapore Tourism Board & Civil AviationAuthority of Singapore to launch the S$10 Million Singapore Fly-CruiseDevelopment Fund (FCDF) to boost the cruise tourism.In 2007, SCC became the first cruise and ferry terminal in the region to providefree wireless Internet connectivity, and set the technological platform for futurewireless IT applications. The SCC is currently undergoing a $ 7 millionrenovation.The Singapore Cruise Center currently has two berths of 310 m and 270 mlength, 12 m draught and a 55 m height restriction.Current StatusIn 2008, Singapore handled over 1 million passengers and is the leader in theSouth Asian region.It is a major port-of-call for ships sailing along the major shipping channel whichpasses through the Malacca Strait. Almost every round-the-world cruise line,such Cunard or Holland America, halts at Singapore. It is also the home-port forthe Star Cruises line, which is far-and-away the market leader in Asia. In 2007,Royal Caribbean International started home-porting its ships in Singapore, withsome of the exotic ports of call include cities in Cambodia, Hong Kong, Malaysia,Thailand, and Vietnam. (Ravindran. N, 2007)Since Tourism is a major source of revenue for Singapore, it has emphasised onthe need to get cruise tourists to spend as much time and money in Singapore aspossible. Thus, it has gone out of its way to both encourage ships to use it as ahome-port as well as an extended port-of-call.Singapore is a major civil aviation and hence efforts have been made toencourage “Fly-Cruise-Fly” packages based out of Singapore. This is criticalsince Singapore is an island city with a very limited local market. Its catchment isfrom the whole of South Asia including India, Malaysia, China, Indonesia and soon, as well as international tourists who take cruises out of Singapore as part oftheir overall packages.The Singapore Tourism Board (STB) has been actively promoting cruise tourismas part of its portfolio. It has set up a $ 10 million fund - Singapore Fly-CruiseDevelopment Fund (FCDF) - to support the marketing activities of cruise lineswhich call at Singapore. The SDB has been actively projecting cruises as part ofits prominent and hugely successful “Visit Singapore” campaign.The Singapore Cruise Center is part of a mixed-use development called theHarbour Front, which also includes the massive Vivocity Mall. The SCC is alsoclose to the CBD of Singapore and its entertainment hub – Sentosa Island, whichenables tourists to easily access all the retail and entertainment facilities of thecity.Other than attractions in Singapore itself, cruisers are attracted by regionaldestinations like Phuket, Vietnam, Malacca, Kuala Lumpur and Cambodia.Singapore had announced the development of the International Cruise Terminalwith a scheduled completion date in 2010. This state-of-the-art facility will be ableto accomodate the biggest cruise ships in the world, a task beyond the limitationsof the SCC. Despite the current economic scenario, Singapore is proceeding with 27
  28. 28. the development of the ICT, although the completion date has been pushed into2011.Key LearningsAs the leading cruise port in South Asia, Singapore offers key insights for otherports in the region to follow:  World-class infrastructure helps to attract major cruise lines and gain regional leadership  Network of local and regional tourist attractions are a key requirement  Well developed civil aviation infrastructure  Integration of cruise tourism into overall tourism strategy strategy  Strong governmental support to industry, including funding, especially in the initial phase 28
  29. 29. Miami Cruise TerminalSingapore Cruise Terminal 29
  30. 30. Section 4: The Cruise Tourism Scenario in IndiaCruise tourism is still a new concept in India. The Government of India took thefirst steps in 2005. Despite constituting a cruise committee , identifying a fewpotential cruise hubs and conducting detailed studies, nothing substantial hasmoved on ground.(M K Banger, 2007) However, the potential for cruise tourism ismassive given the size of the domestic market, the range of possible destinationsin the region and the proximity of international shipping routes, among otherfactors.In 2008, India saw about 180,000 cruise passengers, mainly at the ports ofMumbai, Goa and Cochin. (PTI, 2008). In 2007-08, 54 international cruise firmssought permission to dock at Indian ports. The three major Indian cruise portssaw between 30 and 40 cruise dockings each with Cochin emerging as theleader due to its relative proximity to the international shipping channels.To understand the potential of the cruise tourism industry in India, it will beinstructive to examine the regional cruise market, the overall tourism industry inIndia as well as key cruise tourism drivers in the Indian context.4.1 The Regional MarketWhile global trends in Cruise Tourism are relevant, the developments in theneighbouring regions would be much more relevant to India.Traditionally the region is divided into four sectors: Southeast Asia (India,Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, Vietnam, Cambodia, Thailand, etc.), SouthPacific (Australia, New Zealand, Solomon Islands, Indonesia, Papua Asia andNew Guinea, etc.), Far East (Japan, Republic of Korea, Democratic PeoplesRepublic of Korea, China, etc.) and Trans-Pacific (Hawaii, Guam, Fiji, FrenchPolynesia, etc.).(Cruise Tourism Potential & Strategy Study, CRISIL, 2005)According to the World Trade Organisation, the real potential for the Asianmarket lies in selling products designed by Asians for Asians. It is verydifferent from the European market, especially with regard to the demographicprofile of demand, however, increasingly young Asians are following the exampleof their US counterparts when it comes to lifestyle, which is a guarantee ofsuccess for cruise holidays.Total cruise passenger traffic in the South Asian region is estimated at around1.2 million in 2007 with Singapore and Hong Kong being the major hubs and anestimate of 1.5 million in 2010 and 2 million in 2015.. (ASEAN Press Release,2007)4.2 The Indian Market TodayIndia had around 5.08 million foreign tourist arrivals and over 527 milliondomestic tourists in 2007.(Annual Report – Union Ministry of Tourism, 2008)There were 9.78 million outbound tourists. India stands 42nd and 11th respectively 30
  31. 31. in the World and the Asia-Pacific region for foreign tourist arrivals (FTAs). Allthese figures show impressive annual growth in excess of 15%, indicating arobust expansion in the near future.Some of the important drivers for the growth of foreign tourist arrivals include:  Natural beauty, heritage, cultural and architectural diversity  Relatively low cost destinations  Improved international connectivity  Strengthening of Indias brand across the world  Increased sophistication of promotional campaigns  Availability of better tourism infrastructureSome of the key developments promoting domestic tourist traffic and outboundtourist traffic include: (Cruise Tourism Potential & Strategy Study, CRISIL, 2005)  Increase in disposable income across the society due to economic growth  Young population  Increased business travel, including the Meetings, Incentives, Conventions and Exibhitions segment  Increased awareness of destinations  Better domestic and global connectivity  Increased marketing by States within India and by the tourism agencies of foreign destinationsAll this points to one of the largest potential domestic tourism markets in theworld with over 550 million tourists. As a very basic guess, even if 1% of thisnumber decide to go on cruises, the number is over 5 million!However, the actual number of cruise tourists who visited Indian ports was nomore than 50,000 in 2005-06 and an estimated 80,000 in 2007-08. While thishighlights how under-developed the industry is in India, it also points to themassive opportunity which exists in creating even a minimal level of interest incruises within Indias huge tourist market.4.3 Market Response and EstimationIn order to understand the market for cruise tourism in India, the first step is toidentify the potential segments of the tourist market from which cruisers may besourced. (Cruise Tourism Potential & Strategy Study, CRISIL, 2005)A. Cruise Tourist arrivals in India: Dedicated cruise tourists, who have beencoming into India through various ports till date also.B. International Tourist arrivals in India: International tourists coming into Indiaprimarily through various airports. As observed globally, these tourists offer alatent demand for undertaking short exploration cruises in and around thecountry as part of their overall travel plans. 31
  32. 32. C. Domestic Indian Tourists: India has a large percentage of domestic touristsundertaking different tourism activities. In the absence of infrastructure andfacilities, these tourists have hardly been exposed to the concept of ‘cruisetourism’. With development in infrastructure, this segment would comprise asignificant percentage of the cruise tourists, with primary interests in undertakingboth domestic and international cruise circuits.D. Indian Outbound Tourists: Recent progress in the economic indicators ofthe country has given rise to a category of upper class Indians visitinginternational destinations regularly for leisure purposes. This category offers anattractive potential for cruising through Indian ports, with their interests primarilycentred around cruise circuits that include international destinations.As a qualitative means of exploring the preferences of potential cruise tourists,CRISIL conducted a primary survey among 100 foreign tourists and 100domestic tourists to understand various parameters like the perception of Indiaas a cruise destination, ranking of preferred cruise ports, the facilities that theywould expect aboard cruise ships and at cruise ports, etc Some of the keyfindings include:(CRISIL - AC Nielsen ORG-MARG Survey, 2005)  South Asian destinations like Singapore, Thailand and Malaysia were popular both among domestic and foreign tourists  Overseas travel and beach holidays were most popular among both segments while domestic tourists rated cruises as their 3rd option.  Survey results show that 22 % of the Indian respondents had been on a cruise while only 3 % of the foreign tourists in India had actually been on a cruise.  81% of domestic and 46% of foreign tourists wanted to go on cruises  Singapore and Hong Kong were among the two most attractive destinations for domestic tourists  “Being at Sea” and “Seeing many places” were among the key benefits of cruises for both segments  It is clear that for domestic tourists the food/cuisine rates on top of the list. Accommodation, entertainment/ leisure facilities and ship liner more or less have been given the same importance while informality onboard and convenience while disembarking hold least priority  On the other hand the foreign tourists in India give the ship liner itself top priority followed closely by food, accommodation, informality on board and convenience while disembarking, which hold more or less the same rating.  While domestic tourists attach relatively less importance to port facilities, both segments rated easy transit through port, positive attitude of port personnel and convenience as top requirements  Both segments called for creation of world-class cruise terminals, a tourist- friendly attitude and attractive destinations near ports  Domestic tourists rated Mumbai-Kerala-Lakshadweep-Male as the most preferred cruise circuit while foreign tourists preferred Kerala-Backwaters- Goa the most, and Singapore and Colombo figured as two of the most attractive international destinations.While the above conclusions are mostly qualitative in nature, they will be of greatuse in designing a cruise product for the Indian context. 32
  33. 33. To estimate the Cruise tourism potential in India, empirical analysis on variousthe tourist segments and the potential demand they can generate, can be used.We expect the growth in demand for cruise activity to follow cruise tourismgrowth observed Internationally& trends for overall growth projected for tourismin India.As discussed earlier, the total cruise passenger demand would be the sum totalof potential demand arising from the following segments:A. Cruise Tourist arrivals in IndiaB. International Tourist arrivals in IndiaC. Domestic Indian TouristsD. Indian Outbound TouristsA. Cruise Tourist Arrivals in India – This figure is straightaway available.B. International tourist arrivals in India – World-wide, about 1.5% ofinternational tourists go on cruises. The same figure can be taken for foreigntourists arriving in India.C. Domestic Indian Tourists – Since cruise tourism is a sophisticated andusually expensive form of tourism, only urban, upper income tourists who travelfor leisure & holiday purposes may be considered for the market estimation. 27%of domestic tourists are from urban areas at present, while only 5% are from thehigher income segment and 8.7% travel for leisure & holiday purposes. Finally,we consider that only the same global percentage – 1.5% - of this number wouldprefer cruises. This works out to .0018% of the domestic tourist market.D. Indian Outbound Tourists – Only tourists going for Leisure & Holidaypurposes and some of those going for business are considered to be a potentialcatchment, the latter because many cruises offer combined business-leisurepackages. 17% of outbound tourists went abroad for Leisure & Holiday purposesand 29.1% for Business purposes. 50% of the latter are taken into account.Finally, it is assumed that 10% of this total would want to go on cruises, of whichonly 20% would prefer cruises originating in India. ie. 2% of Indians going abroadon leisure purposes would go on cruises originating in India. Segment % Traffic in 2007 (millions) Cruise traffic(millions) Cruise Arrivals 100 0.08 0.08 Foreign Tourists 1.5 5.08 0.08 Domestic Tourists 0.0018 527 0.0093 Outbound Tourists 0.0063 9.78 .062 Total 0.2313Hence, a potential already exists for over 231,300 cruise tourists in India as of2007. 33
  34. 34. 4.4 Initiatives to Develop Cruise Tourism in IndiaThe Government of India has recognised cruise tourism as a thrust area.Cabotage laws have been relaxed for a period of five years (December 2003onwards). This will allow foreign cruise ships to carry Indians from one Indianport to another, without having to touch a foreign port in between. Port tariffshave been reduced by 33%. In fact, in the National Tourism Policy, 2002, theCentral Government has proposed to develop Cochin and Andaman & Nicobarislands as international cruise destinations. It is also exploring the concept of anintegrated Indian cruise circuit comprising of six identified ports – Mumbai,Mormugao, New Mangalore, Cochin, Tuticorin and Chennai.To chart out a course of action in this regard, the following committees havebeen formed:  National Committee on cruise shipping constituted under Chairman, Mumbai Port Trust (MPT) – to explore potential of cruise tourism and ascertain infrastructural requirements at the identified ports.  National Committee under Director General of Tourism – to address marketing related issues.  Port-level committees under respective chairmen with representatives of all relevant service providers- to address and resolve issues at port level, monitor requirements of cruise vessels and tourists.  Standing Committee under Secretary, In-charge of Tourism of respective State Government with stakeholders – to develop and monitor requisite tourist related services at places of tourist interest.  Committee constituted under Chairperson, MPT - to review rules and regulations applicable to cruise tourism and recommend suitable amendments to make them tourist friendly.Consequent to the deliberations of the National Committee, Ports have takenfollowing actions:  Each port has drawn up a status paper of existing infrastructure including facilities for tourist reception lounge, baggage handling, communication centre providing telephone, internet, fax, transport arrangements etc.  In consultation with State Govt & tour operators, each port has prepared half day & full day excursion tours in and around the port cities which can be packaged as part of cruisefor the tourists. Tourist attractions easily accessible at other places in the country have also been identified.  Immigration facilities at ports have been discussed with immigration authorities & to some extent procedures streamlined for speedy clearance of passengers.  Each port has appointed a nodal officer for coordination with all agencies involved & for prompt redressal of any difficulty to tourists/ cruise liners.Of the short-listed ports, Mumbai invited EoIs from developers in 2006, howeverthe project has been stuck since the State Government has not agreed to thelocations proposed by the Port. Oyster Rock has been finalised as the location,as of November 22, 2008 and the project cost estimated at Rs 1800 Crores on aPPP basis. 34
  35. 35. Cochin has also finalised its location and gotten a detailed study done in 2007,however further progress has not happened. The project is estimated to costabout Rs 400 Crores.The other ports are still stuck at the project report stage. Therefore, despite theCentral Government focussing on cruise tourism from 2005, cruise shipscontinue to be handled at general purpose berths across India.5. Cruise Tourism in KeralaAmong Indian states, Kerala is relatively advanced in terms of cruise tourismdevelopment, both in the marine and river cruise segments.5.1 Marine CruisesIn terms of marine cruises, Kerala has received the highest number of cruisevessels among Indian states. (News@Webindia, 2009) Cochin Port, which is themajor port in Kerala, receives, on average, about 35 cruise ships each year.Smaller cruise also dock at Vizhinjam, near the States tourism hub at Kovalamon the outskirts of Trivandrum.In response to the Union Governments cruise promotion policy, the Cochin PortTrust appointed a consortium of consultants in May 2007 to determine how to setup an International Cruise Terminal.(V. Sajeev Kumar, 2007) The consultantshave recommended the development of a mixed-use Cruise Terminal in thePublic Private Partnership mode.(V. Sajeev Kumar, 2008) The total cost of theproject is estimated to be about Rs 375 Crores.The consultants pointed out that cruise tourism has emerged as the fastestgrowing sector of the global tourism industry over the past decade. Among Indianports, Kochi has been the cruise port in India with maximum cruise calls. Theport, located close to the international trunk sea route from Europe to FarEast/Australia with a deviation of only 72 nautical miles, prompts cruise liners totake advantage of the tourist attraction. The port has modern deep waterfacilities and further development will facilitate the handling of bigger cruisevessels with 360 metres length and beam over 40 metres.Although the development of the terminal seems to have ground to a halt, CochinPort continues to host cruise ships, including such famous as the Queen Mary 2,at its general purpose berths. The Port also hosted a stop of the Volvo OceanRace in December 2008.5.2 Backwater and River CruisesKerala is the undisputed King of backwater cruises in India, with the Vembanadand Ashtamudi lakes becoming world-famous for their houseboats in a shortperiod of time.However, the product offering of backwater cruises have become rather stagnantover time, with few new features being offered other than larger boats with a fewextra amenities. Most of the cruises cover little distance and just circle around 35
  36. 36. within one area of the backwater body, offering few destinations for the cruisersto visit. In this sense, there is little variety and the cruises seldom last for morethan two days.However, with the opening of the 205 Km long National Waterway III from Kollamto Kottapuram in November 2007, the avenue has opened for cruises coveringgreater distances, visiting more destinations and of longer duration. (The Hindu,2007) The waterway is being extended to Kovalam in the south andNeeleshwaram in the north. This means a potential cruising distance of about500 Km. A cruise could start at Kovalam, pass through Kollam, Alleppey,Kottayam, Ernakulam and Kozhikode and terminate at Neeleshwaram. Suchcruises could last over five days. The National Waterway is capable of takingvessels of upto 500 tons displacement and has a width of 30 m and a depth of2.5 m.Thus, the potential for river cruises across most of the length of Kerala andtraversing most of its key tourist destinations will soon be available to cruisersfrom across the world. 36
  37. 37. Chapter 2 – The Kerala ScenarioKeralas performance as a cruise tourism destination has been enviable amongIndian States. A combination of natural factors like its strategic location close tomajor shipping lanes and its attractiveness as a tourist destination, along with thestrong brand built up over the past few years has drawn tens of thousands oftourists to Kerala.Backwater cruises have far and away dominated the industry in Kerala. This isprobably due to the fact that although Kerala is a maritime State, it only has onemajor port, thus limiting avenues for marine cruise tourism while its backwatershave been in use for hundreds of years and are very extensive. However, thissaid, the marine cruise industry has been steadily growing in the State as well.Marine Cruise Tourism in KeralaKeralas development as a port-of-call for cruise liners is comparitively recent. Ithas only been since 2000 that significant numbers of liners started to call at theports of Kerala. This late development has been due to the fact that India hasbecome an international tourism hot-spot over the last decade or so with thelaunching of highly successful international promotional campaigns like“Incredible India.”Ports of CallKerala has a coastline of around 590 Km, which is probably the highest coast-to-area ration in India, making it the most maritime of all major States. Along thiscoast, there exist one major port and 17 intemediate or minor ports.The States lone major port is the Port of Cochin (a Major Port governed by MajorPort Trusts Act, 1963). There are 3 Intermediate and 14 Minor Ports in Kerala.They are Neendakara, Alappuzha, Kozhikkode (Intermediate Ports) andVizhinjam, Valiyathura, Thankasserry, Kayamkulam, Manakkodam, Munambam,Ponnani, Beypore, Vadakara, Thalasserry, Manjeswaram, Neeleswaram,Kannur, Azhikkal and Kasaragode (Minor Ports). The Major Port of Kochi isunder the Ministry of Shipping, Government of India while the intermediate andminor ports are under the administration of the Government of Kerala. Most ofthe minor and intermediate ports in the State are seasonal in nature withinsufficient infrastructure to handle even medium and small sized vesselsthroughout the year. (Kerala Ports, Govt. Of Kerala, 2008) Year No. of Cruise Tourists 2000-01 41,000 2001-02 19,000 2002-03 12,000 2003-04 25,000 2004-05 22,000 Cruise Tourist Arrivals in India (Cruise Tourism Potential & Strategy Study, CRISIL, 2005) 37
  38. 38. The above figures are drawn from Mumbai, Goa and Cochin ports only. Over thepast few years, Cochin has rapidly risen to the top position among Indian portsby a significant margin.In 2002-03, the Port hosted 11 cruise ships and followed it up with 18 in 2003-04.In 2004-05 it was 19, while in 2005-06 it was 22. (Thaindian Website, 2008) In2006-07, 38 cruise ships with 15,977 passengers visited Cochin Port while in2007-08, the figures rose to 43 ships and over 22,000 passengers respectively.(Kerala Tourism, 2008) The figures for 2008-09 are likely to be similar despite theglobal economic slowdown and the overall impact on tourism in and aroundCochin. Famous ships like the Queen Mary 2 and the Queen Victoria havealready made one or more visits to the port in the last 2-3 years.Cochin has also been rated as the best cruise port in India over a variety ofparameters. (Cruise Tourism Potential & Strategy Study, CRISIL, 2005) Cochinhas been dominating the cruise market in India over the last few years primarilybecause of the following reasons: • Keralas strong international tourism brand. This makes Kerala an attractive stop for many tourists who want to sample the attractions of Kerala during their cruise • Proximity to the international shipping route. Out of all current major ports, Cochin is one of the closest to the major shipping channels used by most cruise liners • Cochin already has port facilities available to handle all sizes of cruise ships. • The port is close to the city and tourists can make a quick visit to several tourist attractions.Cochin Port Trust (CPT) has recognised the importance of cruise tourism to theiroverall business and has been supportive of the initiative. The same has beentrue of Kerala Tourism, who see cruise arrivals as a way of attracting largenumbers of high-spending tourists to Kerala.The Port has decided to set up a dedicated Cruise Terminal to transform Cochininto an international cruise destination. It is estimated that as many as 150 shipsa year could call at Cochin once the terminal is commissioned. (The Hindu, K.A.Martin, 2008)CPT appointed a consortium of consultants to study the cruise terminal project inMay 2007. (The Hindu, V. Sajeev Kumar, 2008) The consultants recommendeda Public Private Partnership model for the project and an overall project cost ofRs 375 Crore. The project comprises building a world-class cruise terminal, aKerala Village as a major tourist attraction, a 238-room hotel complex, shoppingmall and office complex as well as a parking garage. The port has earmarked6.71 hectares of land for the project of which 4.24 will bring in lease income whilethe rest of the area will be developed through a special purpose vehicle (SPV).The project was expected to be commissioned in 2010, but is yet to take off as aprivate partner to develop the terminal has not yet been identified. 38
  39. 39. Minor PortsWhile Kerala possesses 17 intermediate and minor ports, only a few have beenvisited by cruise ships. Vizhinjam, on the outskirts of Trivandrum, has been theforemost of these while Beypore, near Kozhikode, has also received anoccasional visit.These small harbours are usually visited by small, luxury ships with no more thana 100 passengers on board. Hebridean Spirit and Ocean Odessey are two suchships which have visited Vizhinjam over the past few years. Slightly larger shipsmay anchor offshore and bring their passengers onshore in small tender boats.For example, Vizhinjam can only handle ships of up to 80 m length and 4.5 mdraft currently.In the case of Vizhinjam, it is the ports proximity to major tourists attractions andthe city of Trivandrum which makes it a port-of-call for many cruise ships despitethe lack of any tangible facilities. In fact, industry sources are confident that manylarger cruise ships would like to call at Vizhinjam but are discouraged from doingso due to the lack of handling facilities at the port. (The Hindu, S.A.Radhakrishnan, 2007)Kerala is endowed with minor ports almost along the entire length of its coast,which makes any part of the State easily accessible from the sea. It is an idealcruise destination, where backwaters, hill-stations and cultural attractions can allbe reached within a two hour drive from the landing point. The key hurdles beingfaced in utilising these facilities include: • Lack of draft in minor ports and fishing harbours. • Absence of passenger handling facilities • Poor access to many of the minor ports • Lack of dedicated Customs and Immigration facilities.While tender boats can be used to ferry passengers to the shores, this is lessideal than having the ship itself berth at the port and can be disrupted if seaconditions are less than ideal.Thus, Kerala has unmatched potential in becoming Indias marine cruise tourismhub but there is a long way to go in developing the world-class infrastructureneeded to realise that potential.Backwaters in KeralaBackwaters basically refers to water held or forced back due to a variety ofreasons. In the parlance of tourism, backwater represents a waterbody formedby the conglomeration of different water sources like rivers, lakes, canals etc.Kerala, a land of copious rainfall has a profuse overflow that runs into canalswhere the rolling water tumbles in a effective surge through hills and mountainpasses to join a number of odd rivers. In the state, out of 44 rivers, 41 flowtowards the West while 3 of the them make their way towards the East. The 39