After gathering information, the job analyst uses the information to analyze the job. One of the broadest and best-researched instruments for analyzing jobs is the Position Analysis Questionnaire (PAQ). The person analyzing a job determines whether each item on the questionnaire applies to the job being analyzed, and then rates each item based on six scales. Using the PAQ provides an organization with information that helps in comparing jobs, even when they are dissimilar.
The procedure for determining the duties and
skill requirements of a job and the kind of
person who should be hired for it.
Relationship of Job Requirements
to Other HRM Functions
Determine recruitment qualifications.
Provide job duties and job specifications
for selection process.
Determine training needs and develop
Provide performance criteria for evaluating
Provide basis for determining employee’s
rate of pay.
May help to determine bargaining units.
Job analysis is a systematic investigation of the tasks,
duties and responsibilities necessary to do a job.
Job analysis is the process of collecting job related
Step I Strategic Choices in JA
The extent of employee involvement in job
The level of details of the analysis.
nature of job)
Timing and frequency of the analysis
Past oriented vs future oriented.
Step II Information Collection
Major Decision involved are:
The type of information collected
Method of collection
Person involved in collection.
Types of Information to be Collected
Machines, tools, equipment, and work aids
Persons involved in Information
3 categories of person that can be involved:
Trained Job Analysts
This decision depends on nature and objective of
Methods of Collecting information
Position Analysis Questionnaire
Management Position Description Questionnaire
Position Analysis Questionnaire (PAQ)
What is it?
A standardized job
1. Information input
questions about work
conditions, and job
apply to a wide variety
2. Mental processes
3. Work output
4. Relationships with
5. Job context
6. Other characteristics
Management Position Description
MPQD is a standardised instrument designed specifically for use in
analyzing managerial jobs. The 274-item questionnaire contains 15
sections. It would take 212hrs to complete the questionnaire. In most
cases the respondents are asked to state how important each item is to the
Management Position Description Factors
1. Product, marketing and financial strategy planning.
2. Coordination of other organisational units and personnel.
3. Internal business control.
4. Products and services responsibility.
5. Public and customer relations.
6. Advanced consulting.
7. Autonomy of actions.
9. Staff service.
11. Complexity and stress.
Since each method is faulty analyst often rely
Two or more techniques are used.
Application of job analysis information
A recognized list of functions, tasks,
accountabilities, working conditions and
competencies for a particular occupation or
Job Description is a list of a job’s duties,
responsibilities, reporting relationships,, and
There is no standard format using writing job
description but it contain:
Indicates job duties and organizational level
It specifies title of job like, marketing manager,
Distinguishes job from all other jobs
Contain several type of information.
Job status section permits quick identification of the
exempt or non exempt status of job
The date at which description written, the name of
a person who wrote it and name of a person who
The immediate supervisor title is some times also
shown in identification section.
Describes general nature of job, listing only major function
For example,marketing manager
Plans, direct and coordinates the
marketing of the organizational product.
Responsibilities and duties
List of major responsibilities and duties.
All major duties should be separately and described in few
Example.establishes marketing goals,develop marketing
plans and programs, communicates with advertising
It also explain working condition, hours of
work, safety and health hazards etc
Writing Job Descriptions
Step 1. Decide on a Plan
Step 2. Develop an Organization Chart
Step 3. Use a Job Analysis/Description
Step 4. Obtain Lists of Job Duties
Step 5. Compile the Job’s Human Requirements
Step 6. Complete Your Job Description
Example of Job Description
GRADE LEVEL: _______________
AS ON DATE :_________
JOB NO. : ______
FUNCTIONS (job summary):
TASKS AND DUTIES:
Specimen of Job Description
Human Resource Department
Responsible for the design and administration of employee
Conduct job analysis.
Prepare job descriptions for current and projected
Evaluate job descriptions and act as Chairman of Job
Insure that company’s compensation rates are in tune with
the company’s philosophy.
USES OF JOB DESCRIPTION
grading & classification
placement & orientation of new employees
promotions & transfers
defining & outlining career paths
redressal of grievances
defining limits of authority
health & fatigue studies
developing performance standards
Skills required to perform the job
Physical demands of the job
specify the minimum qualifications required of a
worker to fill specific jobs
Describes what the job demands of employees and
the human factors and traits required to do job well.
It include specific tool, action, experience,
education, training, that help clarify individual
requirement for successful job performance.
It is written record of the physical ,mental,social &
psychological and behavioral characteristics which
a person should possess in order to perform the job
JOB SPECIFICATION FACTORS
SUPERVISION OF OTHERS
CONTACTS WITH OTHERS
Specimen of job specification
MBA with specialisation in HRM/MA in social work/PG
Diploma in HRM/MA in industrial psychology.
A degree or diploma in Labour Laws is desirable.
At least 3 years’ experience in a similar position in a large
Skill, Knowledge, Abilities
Knowledge of compensation practices in competing
industries, of job analysis procedures, of compensation
survey techniques, of performance appraisal systems.
Skill in writing job descriptions, in conducting job analysis
interviews, in making group presentations, in performing
Ability to conduct meetings, to plan and prioritise work.
Work Orientation Factors
The position may require upto 15 per cent travel.
Preferably below 30 years.
Job evaluation provides the relative value of
each job in the organization. It is an important
If an organization is to have an equitable
compensation program, jobs that have similar
demands on terms of skills, education and
other characteristics should be placed in the
common compensation groups.
Is the process of structuring work and
designating the specific activities at
individual or group levels .
It determines the responsibility of an
The authority he enjoys over his
Scope of decision making , level of
satisfaction & productivity