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  2. 2. Why Should we all care for the Tiger? As It is our national animal….
  3. 3. CONSERVATION STATUS • LC Stands For Least Concern • NT Stands For Near Threatened • VU Stands For Vulnerable Species • EN Stands For Endangered • CR Stands For Critically endangered • EW Stands For Extinct in Wild • EX Stands For Extinct
  4. 4. The tiger (Panthera tigris) is the largest cat species, reaching a total body length of up to 3.3 metres (11 ft) and weighing up to 306 kg (670 lb). Their most recognizable feature is a pattern of dark vertical stripes on reddish-orange fur with lighter under parts. They have exceptionally stout teeth, and their canines are the longest among living felids with a crown height of as much as 74.5 mm (2.93 in) or even 90 mm (3.5 in). In zoos, tigers have lived for 20 to 26 years, which also seems to be their longevity in the wild. This, coupled with the fact that they are indigenous to some of the more densely populated places on earth, has caused significant conflicts with humans.Tigers once ranged widely across Asia, from in the west to the eastern coast of Russia. Over the past 100 years, they have lost 93% of their historic range, and have been extirpated from southwest and central Asia, from the islands of Java and Bali, and from large areas of Southeast and Eastern Asia Today, they range from the Siberian Tigia to open grasslands and tropical mangrove swamps. The remaining six tiger subspecies have been classified as endangered by IUNC. Tigers appear on many Flags, coasts of arms, and as mascots for sporting teams. The Bengal tiger is the National animal of Bangladesh and India.
  5. 5. Scientific classification • Kingdom:Animalia • Phylum:Chordata • Class:Mammalia • Order:Carnivora • Family:Felidae • Genus:Panthera • Species:P. tigris
  6. 6. SUBSPECIES OF TIGER • Panthera tigris tigris • Panthera tigris corbetti • Panthera tigris jacksoni • Panthera tigris sumatrae(CRITICALLY ENDANGERED) • Panthera tigris altaica • Panthera tigris amoyensis(CRITICALLY ENDANGERED) • Panthera tigris virgata(EXTINCT) • Panthera tigris balica(EXTINCT) • Panthera tigris sondaica(EXTINCT)
  7. 7. Panthera tigris tigris(Bengal tiger) The Bengal tiger is a tiger subspecies native to the indian subcotinent that in 2010 has been classified as endangeres by IUNC. The total population is estimated at fewer than 2,500 individuals with a decreasing trend, and none of the Tiger Conservation Landscapes within the Bengal tiger's range is large enough to support an effective population size of 250 adult individuals.The Bengal tiger is the most numerous tiger subspecies with populations estimated at 1,520–1,909 in India, 440 in Bangladesh, 124–229 in Nepal and 67–81 in Bhutan.Bengal is traditionally fixed as the typical locality for the binomial Panthera tigris, to which the British taxonomist Reginald Innes Pocock subordinated the Bengal tiger in 1929 under the trinomial Panthera tigris tigris.
  8. 8. Panthera tigris corbetti(Indochinese tiger) The Indochinese tiger is a tiger subspecies found in Myanmar, Thailand, Laos, Cambodia, Vietnam andsouthwestern China that has been classified as endangered by IUCN. Its status is poorly known but the extent of its recent decline is serious, approaching the threshold for critically endangered . Panthera tigris corbetti, also called Corbett's tiger, was named in honour of Jim Corbett . Tigers in peninsular Malaysia, formerly classified as Indochinese, have recently been reclassified as a separate subspecies, Malayan tiger Panthera tigris jacksoni. The "Corbett's" name stems from the scientific name of the subspecies, Panthera tigris corbetti, which in turn is named in honor of Jim Corbett. No Indochinese tigers have been seen in China since 2007, and it is believed that the last specimen there was killed and eaten by a man now sentenced to 12 years' imprisonment for the crime.
  9. 9. Panthera tigris jacksoni(Malayan tiger ) The Malayan tiger is a tiger subspecies that inhabits the southern and central parts of the Malay Peninsula and has been classified as endangered by IUCN in 2008 as the population was estimated at 493 to 1,480 adult individuals in 2003; none of the three subpopulations likely harbors more than 250 mature breeding individuals, with a declining trend. When in 1968 Panthera tigris corbetti was newly designated, the tigers of Malaya and Singapore were included into this subspecies. In 2004,Panthera tigris jacksoni was recognized as a new subspecies when a genetic analysis found that they are distinct in mtDNA and micro-satellite sequences from Panthera tigris corbetti.The Malayan tiger's local name is harimau belang, which rather redundantly means "striped tiger".
  10. 10. Panthera tigris sumatrae(Sumatran tiger) The Sumatran tiger (Panthera tigris sumatrae) is a tiger subspecies that inhabits the Indonesian island of Sumatra. It was classified ascritically endangered by IUCN in 2008 as the population is projected to be 441 to 679 individuals, with no subpopulation having an effective population size larger than 50 individuals, with a declining trend. The Sumatran tiger is the only surviving member of the Sunda Islands group of tigers that included the now extinct Bali tiger and Javan tiger. Sequences from complete mitochondrial genes of 34 tigers support the hypothesis that Sumatran tigers are diagnostically distinct from mainland populations.
  11. 11. Panthera tigris altaica(Siberian tiger) The Siberian tiger , also known as the Amur tiger, is a tiger subspecies inhabiting mainly the Sikhote Alin mountain region with a small subpopulation in southwest Primorye province in the Russian Far East. In 2005, there were 331–393 adult- subadult Amur tigers in this region, with a breeding adult population of about 250 individuals. The population has been stable for more than a decade due to intensive conservation efforts, but partial surveys conducted after 2005 indicate that the Russian tiger population is declining.The Siberian tiger is the largest living felid and ranks among the biggest felids that ever existed.Phylogeographic analysis with extant tiger subspecies suggests that less than 10,000 years ago the ancestor of Amur and Caspian tigers colonized Central Asia via the Gansu−Silk Road corridor from eastern China then subsequently traversed Siberia eastward to establish the Amur tiger population in the Russian Far East.
  12. 12. Panthera tigris amoyensis( South China tiger) The is a tiger subspecies that was native to the provinces of Fujian, Guangdong, Hunan, Jiangxi in southern China, and has been classified as critically endangered by IUCN since 1996 as it is possibly extinct in the wild. There is a small chance that some individuals are still extant. But already in the late 1990s, continued survival was considered unlikely due to low prey density, widespread habitat degradation and fragmentation, and other human pressures. No official or biologist has seen a wild South China tiger since the early 1970s, when the last verified record is of an individual brought into captivity. Since the 1980s, the South China tiger is considered a relict population of the "stem" tiger, living close to the possible area of origin. Morphologically, it is the most distinctive of all tiger subspecies . The name Amoy tiger was used in the fur trade. It is also known as the South Chinese, the Chinese, and the Xiamen tiger.
  13. 13. Panthera tigris virgata(Caspian tiger) The Caspian tiger, also known as the Turan tiger, Hyrcanian tiger, is an extinct tiger subspecies that has been recorded in the wild until the early 1970s, and used to inhabit the sparse forest habitats and riverine corridors west and south of the Caspian Sea, from Turkey, Iran and east through Central Asia into the Takla Makan desert of Xinjiang, China. There are no individuals in captivity.The Caspian tiger was formerly found in Chinese and Russian Turkestan, Afghanistan, Iran, and Turkey.The Caspian tiger together with the Siberian and Bengal tiger subspecies represented the largest living felid and ranked among the biggest felids that ever existed.
  14. 14. Panthera tigris balica(Bali tiger) The Bali tiger (Panthera tigris balica), harimau Bali in Indonesian, or referred to as samong in archaic Balinese language,was asubspecies of tiger which was found solely on the small Indonesian island of Bali. This was one of three subspecies of tiger found in Indonesia, together with the Javan tiger, which is also extinct, and the critically endangered Sumatran tiger. It was the smallest of the tiger subspecies.The last specimen definitely recorded was a female shot at Sumbar Kima, west Bali, on September 27, 1937. However, a few animals likely survived into the 1940s and possibly 1950s. The subspecies became extinct because of habitat loss and hunting.Given the small size of the island, and limited forest cover, the original population could never have been large.
  15. 15. Panthera tigris sondaica(Javan tiger) The Javan tiger was limited to the island of Java, and has been recorded until the mid-1970s. Javan tigers were larger than Bali tigers; males weighed 100–140 kg (220–310 lb) and females 75–115 kg (170–250 lb). After 1979, there were no more confirmed sightings in the region of Mount Betiri. An expedition to Mount Halimun Salak National Park in 1990 did not yield any definite, direct evidence for the continued existence of tigers.
  16. 16. Colour variations W H I T E T I G E R G O L D E N T I G E R
  17. 17. Hybrids Hybridisation among the big cats, including the tiger, was first conceptualised in the 19th century, when zoos were particularly interested in the pursuit of finding oddities to display for financial gain . Tiger have been known to breed with tigers (most often the Amur and Bengal subspecies) to create hybrids called ligers and tigons. Such hybrids were once commonly bred in zoos, but this is now discouraged due to the emphasis on conserving species and subspecies. Hybrids are still bred in private menageries and in zoos in China.The liger is a cross between a male lion and a tigress. Because the lion sire passes on a growth- promoting gene, but the corresponding growth-inhibiting gene from the female tiger is absent, ligers grow far larger than either parent. They share physical and behavioural qualities of both parent species (spots and stripes on a sandy background). Male ligers are sterile, but female ligers are often fertile. Males have about a 50% chance of having a mane, but, even if they do, their manes will be only around half the size of that of a pure lion. Ligers are typically between 10 to 12 feet in length, and can be between 800 and 1,000 pounds or more.The less common tigon is a cross between the lioness and the male tiger.
  18. 18. Hunting and diet In the wild, tigers mostly feed on larger and medium sized animals. Sambar, gaur, chital, barasingha, wild boar nilgai and both water buffalo and domestic buffalo are the tiger's favoured prey in India. Sometimes, they also prey on leopards, pythons, sloth bears and crocodiles. In Siberia the main prey species are manchurian wapiti, wild boar, sika deer, moose, roe deer, and musk deer. In Sumatra, sambar, muntjac, wild boar, and malayan tapir are preyed on. In the former Caspian tiger's range, prey included saiga antelope, camels, caucasian wisent, yak, and wild horses. Like many predators, they are opportunistic and will eat much smaller prey, such as monkeys, peafowls, hares, and fish. Adult elephants are too large to serve as common prey, but conflicts between tigers and elephants do sometimes take place. A case where a tiger killed an adult Indian Rhinoceros has been observed. Young elephant and rhino calves are occasionally taken. Tigers also sometimes prey on domestic animals such as dogs, cows, horses, and donkeys. These individuals are termed cattle-lifters or cattle-killers in contrast to typical game- killers.old tigers, or those wounded and rendered incapable of catching their natural prey, have turned into man-eaters; this pattern has recurred frequently across India. An exceptional case is that of the Sundarbans, where healthy tigers prey upon fishermen and villagers in search of forest produce, humans thereby forming a minor part of the tiger's diet. Tigers will occasionally eat vegetation for dietary fiber, the fruit of theSlow Match Tree being favoured.
  19. 19. Conservation Effort in India India is home to the world's largest population of tigers in the wild. According to the World Wildlife Fund, of the 3,500 tigers around the world, 1,400 are found in India. Only 11% of original Indian tiger habitat remains, and it is becoming significantly fragmented and often degraded. A major concerted conservation effort, known as Project Tiger, has been underway since 1973, initially spearheaded by Indira Gandhi. The fundamental accomplishment has been the establishment of over 25 well-monitored tiger reserves in reclaimed land where human development is categorically forbidden. The program has been credited with tripling the number of wild Bengal tigers from roughly 1,200 in 1973 to over 3,500 in the 1990s. However, a tiger census carried out in 2007, whose report was published on February 12, 2008, stated that the wild tiger population in India declined by 60% to approximately 1,411. It is noted in the report that the decrease of tiger population can be attributed directly to poaching. Following the release of the report, the Indian government pledged $153 million to further fund the Project Tiger initiative, set up a Tiger Protection Force to combat poachers, and fund the relocation of up to 200,000 villagers to minimise human-tiger interaction. Additionally, eight new tiger reserves in India were set up.[ Indian officials successfully started a project to reintroduce the tigers into the Sariska Tiger Reserve. The Ranthambore National Park is often cited as a major success by Indian officials against poaching.
  20. 20. Population estimate Bangladesh Bhutan Cambodia China India Indonesia Laos Malaysia Myanmar Nepal Russia
  21. 21. Tiger Attack If a human comes too close and surprises a sleeping or a feeding tiger (particularly if it is a tigress with cubs), a tiger may attack and kill a human. Tigers can also attack humans in a case of "mistaken identity" (for example, if a human is crouching while collecting firewood, or cutting grass). Some also recommend not to ride a bicycle, or run in a region where tigers live in order to not provoke their chase. Peter Byrne wrote about an Indian postman who was working on foot for many years without any problems with resident tigers, but was chased by a tiger soon after he started riding a bicycle for his work. In some cases tigers change their natural diet and become man-eaters. This is usually a result of a tiger being incapacitated by a gunshot wound or porcupine quills, or some other factors. As tigers in Asia often live in a close proximity to a large number of humans, the tiger has killed more people than any other cat. Between just 1911 and 1994 , tigers killed 16,152 people in India.Man-eaters have been a recurrent problem for India, especially in kumaon,Garhwaland the Sundarbans mangrove swamps of Bengal. Here some healthy tigers have been known to hunt humans. Even though tigers usually avoid elephants, they have been known to jump over elephant's backs and severely harm the mahout riding on the elephant's back. Kesri Singh mentioned a case when a fatally wounded tiger attacked and killed a hunter who wounded it, while a hunter was on the back of an elephant. Most man-eating tigers are eventually captured, shot or poisoned.
  22. 22. Before Independence…. • The British saw large animals as signs of a wild, primitive and savage society. They believed that by killing dangerous animals the British would civilise India. They gave rewards for the killing of tigers, wolves and other large animals on the grounds that they posed a threat to cultivators. • 0ver 80,000 tigers, • 150,000 leopards • and 200,000 wolves were killed for reward in the period 1875-1925. • Gradually, the tiger came to be seen as a sporting trophy. • The Maharaja of Sarguja alone shot 1,157 tigers and 2,000 leopards up to 1957. • A British administrator, George Yule, killed 400 tigers.
  23. 23. • Made By:Abhishek Chawla • Submitted to : Ms. Shruti.