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Synchronous machines
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Basics of Synchronous machines

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synchronos machines

  1. 1. Outlines:  Introduction  Construction  Working principle  Types of Synchronous Machine  Comparison between cylindrical rotor type generator and Salient pole rotor type generator
  2. 2.  A synchronous machine is an AC machine whose speed is proportional to the frequency of armature current  A machine which rotates at a speed fixed by the supply frequency and the number of rotor poles is called synchronous machine  It always runs at synchronous or constant speed and has no slip  Synchronous machine includes synchronous generators and synchronous motors
  3. 3. 2-Pole Salient Pole M/C 4-Pole Salient Pole M/C 4-Pole Cylindrical M/C
  4. 4. Cylindrical Rotor type Synchronous Generator Salient Pole Rotor type Synchronous Generator
  5. 5.  A Synch. Generator consists of two main parts;  1) Stator and  2) Rotor Stator:-  The stator is the stationary parts part of the Synch. Generator  It works as a armature in synchronous machine  The armature winding is housed in it
  6. 6. Rotor:  Rotor is the rotating part of the synchronous machine  It work as a field of the synchronous machine  Field system is rotating in the synchronous machine  Field winding is housed on it  Field winding is excited by DC supply through brushes and slip ring
  7. 7.  It works on the principle of Electromagnetic induction  In the synchronous generator field system is rotating and armature winding is steady.  Its works on principle opposite to the DC generator  High voltage AC output coming from the armature terminal
  8. 8. Generators:- Hydro-generators (Salient Pole Type):  The Synchronous generators driven by water turbines are known as hydro generators or Water wheel generators  They have rating upto 750 MW and are driven at speeds ranging from 100 to 1000 RPM Turbo-alternators (Cylidrical Rotor Type or Wound Rotor Type):  They are driven by steam turbines  The efficiency of steam turbine is high at large speeds, the turbo-alternators are designed for speed upto 3000 RPM. Turbo-alternators have ratings upto 1000MW
  9. 9. Engine Driven Generators:  These generators are driven by different forms of combustion engines at speed upto 1500 RPM and rating upto 20 MW  These generators are driven by gas turbines have higher speeds and also higher power ratings Motors:- Synchronous Motors:  Synchronous motors may be either plain synchronous machines or synchronous induction machines  The plain Synchronous machine with salient pole is commonly used  Synchronous motors have some define advantages over induction motors and these include constant speed operation, Power factor control and high operating efficiency
  10. 10. - Also Synchronous motors prove to be cheaper than induction motors for high power low speed applications - The applications of Synchronous machines include constant speed drives for compressors, blowers, low head pumps Compensators: - Synchronous compensators are used for control of reactive power in power supply networks - They are designed for ratings upto 100 MVAr and speed upto 3000 RPM
  11. 11. Synchronous generators are classified in two category according to its rotor construction:  1) Cylindrical Rotor Type  2) Salient pole Rotor Type Cylindrical Rotor Type:-  This type machines are High speed machines (1000 to 3000 RPM)  This type machine has Small diameter and is large axial length  This type of machines are used in Thermal power plant and gas turbine power plant Where speed requires high
  12. 12. Field Pole Field Winding
  13. 13. Damper Windings
  14. 14. Damper Bars Field Winding
  15. 15. Cylindrical rotor:-  Cylindrical rotor does not have poles that are projecting out.  The air gap between the stator and rotor is uniform.  The smooth cylindrical rotor has small no of poles.  Cylindrical rotors are mechanically strong.  They have small diameters and large axial length.  The prime movers used are steam turbines and electric motors.  They are preferred for high speed alternators which range from 1000 to 3000 RPM
  16. 16. Salient Pole rotor:-  Salient pole rotor does have poles that are projecting out from surface.  The air gap between the stator and rotor is non-uniform.  The salient pole rotor has large no of poles.  Saline Pole rotors are mechanically weak.  They have large diameters and small axial length.  The prime movers used are IC engines and law speed turbine.  They are preferred for law speed alternators which range from 100 RPM to 500 RPM
  17. 17. Query ???
  18. 18. Thank you !
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Basics of Synchronous machines

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