5Engage, Explore, Explain, Elaborate,Evaluate (Five Es)/Oral PresentationsActive learning-Hands on activities/Think-Pair-Share/Group workKnowledge of subject matter, planning & attitudeExcursions for developing scienceunderstandingCase studies/Mini-conferences/Plays12346 CONCEPT MAPS
Knowledge of subject matter,The importance of subjectknowledge is that it helps teachersto empower students and ensurethat the pupils make all the progressthat they are capable of.Knowledge of subject matter helpsteachers to understand how pupilslearn and assimilate science andwhat pupils need to know by thetime they complete Grade 3 to 5.
PlanningPlanning shows itselfin the clarity of learningobjectives, good lessonstructures and the effectivequestioning of pupils.
When considering teaching strategies, we have tounderstand the powerful influence of the teachersaffective domain. This domain includes the teacher’semotions, motivations, attitudes, and values. Ateacher who displays enthusiasm for teaching sciencedemonstrates positive emotions about science, whichcan influence students’ attitudes and consequentlytheir learning!Students answerquestions generated bythe teacher from open-ended laboratoryActivities.Students answerquestions of their ownfrom open-endedlaboratory activities.Most students learn bestthrough personalexperience and byconnectingnew information to whattheyalready believe or know.Attitude
Here students engaged in full inquiry are learning in anenvironment which induces them to• Think of a question, and shape it into something theycan investigate - Hypothesizing• Planning an investigation• Collecting data• Analyzing that data• Forming a conclusion• Communicating their findings – verbally or in writing.Engage, Explore, Explain, Elaborate,Evaluate (Five Es)
When students’ aretaught about plants,roots, leaves and flowers;they are provided withlive samples and takento a garden. As a resultthey are able to exit theclassroom, find familiarplants and point out thename and parts of them.Here, as a consequenceof Active Learning,students connectexperiments to real-lifescientific knowledgewhich has long-lastinglearning effects.Whether the hands-onactivities are “naming plants,planting seeds and watchingthem grow over a period oftime” or “making the digestivesystem, -science can be fun”and these activities areremembered as positiveexperiences. Hands-onscience educationexperiences can have lastingand personal effects onstudents.Active learning-Hands on activities/Think-Pair-Share/Group work
• Real-life interactivity withfauna and/or floraprovides stronger focus forlearning, as students aregenuinely interested inliving things. Facilitatinglearning opportunitieswhere students discoverfor themselves uniquecharacteristics of livingthings is a high-impactteaching strategy.• This can also facilitate life-changing experiences thatlead to understandings forsustainable living.Think-Pair-Share
As science knowledge is sociallyconstructed , group involvement has animpact on the participants‟ long-termmemories.The discovery or investigation of sciencewith peers provides opportunities forsocial interaction and an element of fun.Moreover, group experiments in primaryscience act as a foundationalexperience for secondary work.Group work
Thoughtfully-organised excursionscan provide students withmemorable science investigations.Excursions for developing scienceunderstanding
• Any topic can be used to create a play.The script for the play can be written by thestudents themselves. The play can beperformed by as few as three actors, orwith as many as seven or more actors usingcostumes.• The educational goals of the play, somehelpful references, and a few frequentlyasked questions are also included.• These scientific plays are a dramaticnarrative, often spoken out to theaudience. It is also often a rhythmiccollage of voices.A Science Theater Play
• A symposium is a meeting whereparticipants give oral presentations onsubjects revolving around a commontheme.• Each student selects one subtopic from alist, research information on it, prepare anddeliver a comprehensive, concise, andcomplete oral presentation to the class.Each presentation must be at least threeminutes and not more than five minutes inlength. A time for questioning will followeach presentation.MINI-CONFERENCES
• Write down the most important word or shortphraseor symbol for the center.Think about it; circle it.• Post other important conceptsand their words outside the circle• Edit this first phaseThink about the relation of outside items to thecenter itemErase, edit, and/or shorten words to key ideasRelocate important items closer to each otherfor better organizationIf possible, use color to organize informationLink concepts with words to clarify theirrelationshipsCONCEPT MAPS
This map is yourpersonal learningdocumentIt combines what youknew with what youare learningand what you mayneed to completeyour "picture"Concept map – contd.
Bloom’s Educationalguidelines form aframework fordeveloping lower- andhigher-orderquestioning.Thesequestions extendStudents’ thinking pastexplanations ofobservations.Effective teachersquestion studentsconstantly to makestudents’ think anddetermine their level ofunderstanding.
The following lesson plan onlyfocuses on the lessonstructure; a complete planwould require other aspectssuch as standards, keyconcepts and priorknowledge, resources,teaching strategies,classroom management,assessment, and evaluation
IntroductionInvestigate students‟ prior knowledge:What do you know about the heart?(Knowledge)Where is your heart located in yourbody? (Comprehension)What is the main function of theheart? (Analysis)What can you do to maintain ahealthy heart? (Analysis)Why do you think it is important toexercise? (Synthesis)What would you like to learn aboutthe heart and the importance ofexercise? (Evaluation)
BodyStudents form groups and run a seriesof one-minute physical activities(sitting, walking, skipping, and running).They record pulse rates for one minutebefore and after each activity.What were the pulse ratedifferences?What was different between eachactivity?Why do you think your pulse ratechanged?How did your body feel after eachactivity?What do you think would happen toyour pulse rate if you exercisedregularly?How might regular exercise help yourheart? Why?Students create a table of their resultsand complete their scientific reportswith explanations.
ConclusionA class discussion is held to determinestudents‟ learning around the sciencetopic.What did you learn from today‟slesson?What can increase your heart rate?What do you think happens when yourheart rate increases?Is it important to exercise? Why?Which activity exercises your heartbetter? Why?How do you think exercising will helpyou to have a healthier life?How might walking or riding your bikeinstead of being driven to places helpyou?