SCI – A Pathway to Food Security  - Experiences from HP and UKD - PEOPLE’S SCIENCE INSTITUTE, DEHRADUN
<ul><li>Sub-Tropical to Dry Temperate climate (Elevation: 200 m - > 2200 m) </li></ul><ul><li>Mean annual rainfall – 1500 ...
Uttarakhand: Trends in Rice & Wheat Production Source: Department of Agriculture, Uttarakhand, 2009 Total Geographical Are...
Uttarakhand : A Food Deficit State Source: Uttarakhand at a Glance, 2008
Himachal Pradesh: Trends in Rice & Wheat Production Source: Department of Agriculture, HP, 2009 Total Geographical Area (l...
Himachal Pradesh : A  Food  Deficit State Source: Statistical Outline of H.P., 2008
SRI : Practices and Principles  SRI’s package of practices involving sustainable management of plants, soil, water and nut...
Wheat Finger Millet Kidney Bean
Adaptations for Wheat, Finger Millet & Kidney Bean <ul><ul><li>PAM: Panchgavya, Amritghol, Matkakhad </li></ul></ul>Practi...
Results of Trials on Other Crops (2006-08) The average percent increase in grain yield was more than 60 per cent 2006 2007...
Coverage under SRI during Kharif 2009 <ul><ul><li>Average landholding under SRI : 0.04 ha/household.  </li></ul></ul><ul><...
Alterations in Practices - SRI  Recommended  Practices Normal Year Drought Year (2009) Young Seedling 8-12 days 10-25 days...
Comparative Crop Cutting Results of 2009 The grain yields of conventional crop decreased by 31% as compared to reduction o...
Adaptations for Other Kharif Crops Practice Conventional SCI Maize SCI Black Gram SCI Soyabean Young  Seedling Direct seed...
Adaptations for Other Rabi Crops Practice Conventional SCI Mustard SCI Peas SCI Lentil SCI Gram Young  Seedling Direct see...
Coverage under SCI (2009 -10) Kharif  Rabi Name of crop Total Farmers Area (in Ha) Name of crop Total  Farmers Area (in Ha...
Crop Performance of SCI-Coarse Cereals of Kharif 2009 Particulars Finger Millet Maize Conven. SCI Conven. SCI Avg. no. of ...
Crop Performance of SCI- Pulses of Kharif 2009 Particulars Black Gram Soyabean Kidney Bean Conven. SCI Conven. SCI Conven....
Crop Performance of SWI crop cuttings (Rabi 2009) Particulars Con. SWI Average no. of effective tillers/ hill 2 10 Average...
Crop Performance of SCI- Other Crops of Rabi 2009 Particulars Mustard Pea (Vegetable) Gram  Conv. SCI Conv. SCI Conv. SCI ...
Coverage & Crop Performance under SCI (2010-11) Rabi 2010:  Wheat : 8267 farmers (358.84 ha) Other Crops: 745 farmers (34....
Research on SCI  <ul><li>Trials on Wheat crop performance under direct seed sowing with different spacing  </li></ul><ul><...
Results of Trials conducted on directly seeded SWI crop  Dharamshala Block, Kangra  Jhandutta Block, Bilaspur Variety: HS ...
Results of Trials conducted on directly seeded SWI crop  Karsog Block, Mandi Variety: HPW 249 Parameter Conv. LS-Drill LS-...
Results of Trials on SWI Crop Performance under Direct Seed Sowing (Dehradun) Maximum grain and straw yield was obtained u...
Results of Trials conducted on Transplanted SWI crop  41 to 87 per cent increase in grain yield was obtained under transpl...
Results of SWI trials conducted on inter cropping with pulses Treatment -1 Treatment -2 Treatment-3 Parameter Wheat (HS 27...
Results of Trials on Maize with Different Spacing (cm) Results of Trials on Maize with Different No. of  Seeds Parameters ...
Cost Benefit Analysis for SCI Crops and Conventional method of Cultivation B:C Ratio is more than 2:1 for most SCI crops S...
Upscaling Strategy Saturate villages where SRI has been successfully demonstrated by increasing the number of households a...
Critical Areas for Upscaling SCI <ul><li>Research </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Improvements in package of practices </li></ul></u...
252, Vasant Vihar, Phase I Dehra Doon - 248 006 Uttarakhand INDIA Web : www.peoplesscienceinstitute.com  Mail  : cpwdpsi@g...
<ul><ul><li>R ice-wheat is the predominant system, with yields lower than 2 T/ha  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Subsistence o...
Field Support Activities Field Marking Seed Sowing Line Sowing Weeding
SCI – A Boon for Mountain Farmers   <ul><li>88% of farmers are small and marginal farmers with less than 0.4 ha (1 acre) p...
SCI- Farmers’ Perceived Benefits & Constraints <ul><li>A. BENEFITS </li></ul><ul><li>Less seed requirement </li></ul><ul><...
Cost Benefit Analysis for SWI Crop and Conventional method of Cultivation B:C Ratio is more than 2:1 for SWI crop Expendit...
Impact of SWI crop on Soil Nutrient Status  Nitrogen Phosphorus Organic Carbon Treatment BS AH %  Red. BS AH %  Red. BS AH...
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PSI's SCI Experiences

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PSI's SCI Experiences

  1. 1. SCI – A Pathway to Food Security - Experiences from HP and UKD - PEOPLE’S SCIENCE INSTITUTE, DEHRADUN
  2. 2. <ul><li>Sub-Tropical to Dry Temperate climate (Elevation: 200 m - > 2200 m) </li></ul><ul><li>Mean annual rainfall – 1500 mm </li></ul><ul><li>Soils – shallow to deep loamy, having high organic matter </li></ul><ul><li>15 % of geographical area under cultivation </li></ul><ul><li>12 % of the NSA is irrigated (mostly rainfed terraced farming) </li></ul><ul><li>Isolated, fragmented and small landholdings (average – 1 acre/hh) </li></ul><ul><li>Common crops – wheat (37%), paddy (31%), maize (26%) and millets </li></ul>Western Himalayan Region
  3. 3. Uttarakhand: Trends in Rice & Wheat Production Source: Department of Agriculture, Uttarakhand, 2009 Total Geographical Area (lakh ha) Total Population (lakh) Average Rainfall (mm) Net Sown Area (lakh ha) Area under Paddy (lakh ha) Total Rice Production (lakh tonnes) Average Yield of Rice (t/ha) Area under Wheat (lakh ha) Total Wheat Production (lakh tonnes) Average Yield of Wheat (t/ha) 53.49 85 1547 7.66 2.76 5.50 1.9 3.92 8.15 2.1
  4. 4. Uttarakhand : A Food Deficit State Source: Uttarakhand at a Glance, 2008
  5. 5. Himachal Pradesh: Trends in Rice & Wheat Production Source: Department of Agriculture, HP, 2009 Total Geographical Area (lakh ha) Total Population (lakh) Average Rainfall (mm) Net Sown Area (lakh ha) Area under Paddy (lakh ha) Total Rice Production (lakh tonnes) Average Yield of Rice (t/ha) Area under Wheat (lakh ha) Total Wheat Production (lakh tonnes) Average Yield of Wheat (t/ha) 55.67 60.78 1469 5.60 0.8 1.07 1.34 3.27 5.44 1.66
  6. 6. Himachal Pradesh : A Food Deficit State Source: Statistical Outline of H.P., 2008
  7. 7. SRI : Practices and Principles SRI’s package of practices involving sustainable management of plants, soil, water and nutrients resulting in higher production with reduced external inputs could be extrapolated to other crops RECOMMENDED PRACTICES PRINCIPLES 1 Transplanting of young seedlings Utilizing early vigour of young seedlings 2 Wider spacing Reducing competition for light and nutrients 3 Single seedling per hill Reducing external inputs in form of seeds, water, etc 4 Alternate wetting and drying with shallow irrigation Keeping soil from becoming anoxic 5 Inter-cultivation with weeder Promoting healthy root growth 6 Addition of organic matter Increasing soil microbial activity and enhancing soil organic matter
  8. 8. Wheat Finger Millet Kidney Bean
  9. 9. Adaptations for Wheat, Finger Millet & Kidney Bean <ul><ul><li>PAM: Panchgavya, Amritghol, Matkakhad </li></ul></ul>Practice Wheat Finger Millet (Mandwa) Kidney Bean (Rajma) Young Seedlings Direct seed sowing in line / Transplanting of 10-25 days old seedlings Direct seed sowing in line / Transplanting of 15-20 days old seedlings Direct seed sowing in line Wider Spacing P to P : 15/20cm R to R : 15/20 cm P to P : 20 cm R to R : 20 cm P to P : 25 cm R to R : 30 cm Single Seedling / hill 1-2 seed/seedling per hill Line sowing or 1 seedling/hill 1-2 seed/ hill Inter Culture 2+ (manual weeding/ weeder/ rake) 2+ (manual weeding) 2+ (manual weeding) Organic Matter Compost + PAM Compost + PAM Compost + PAM
  10. 10. Results of Trials on Other Crops (2006-08) The average percent increase in grain yield was more than 60 per cent 2006 2007 2008 Crop No. of Farmers (Area in Ha) Conv. Grain Yield (Q/ha) SCI Grain Yield (Q/ha) % Incr. No. of Farmers (Area in Ha) Conv. Grain Yield (Q/ha) SCI Grain Yield (Q/ha) % Incr. No. of Farmers (Area in Ha) Conv. Grain Yield (Q/ha) SCI Grain Yield (Q/ha) % Incr. Wheat (I) Research Farm (5.0 Ha) 16 22 (38%) 30 (0.224 Ha) 23.5 42.5 (81%) 557 (14.5 ha) 24.4 48 (97%) Wheat (UI) - - - 19 (0.086 Ha) 15.5 25 (61%) 491 (6.7 Ha) 17.7 32.1 (81%) Mandwa - - - 5 (0.40 Ha) 18 24 (33%) 43 (0.80 Ha) 15 24 (60%) Rajma - - - 5 (0.40 Ha) 14 20 (43%) 113 (2.26 Ha) 18 30 (67%)
  11. 11. Coverage under SRI during Kharif 2009 <ul><ul><li>Average landholding under SRI : 0.04 ha/household. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In addition, about 1,700 farmers were mobilized to apply SRI principles in other crops covering 41.98 ha </li></ul></ul>% Rainfall Departure during 2009 Source: Indian Meteorological Department, 2009 Field Condition Farmers Area (ha) Target Achievement Target Achievement Irrigated - 3,161 - 104.24 Rainfed - 10,313 - 447.30 Total 16,000 13,474 (84%) 897 551.54 (61%) State June July August September Uttarakhand -58% -46% -52% +31% Himachal Pradesh -59% -25% -37% + 6%
  12. 12. Alterations in Practices - SRI Recommended Practices Normal Year Drought Year (2009) Young Seedling 8-12 days 10-25 days Wider Spacing 25 x 25 cm P to P : 15-25cm R to R : 15-20cm Single Seedling / hill 1 / hill 1-3/ hill Alternative Wetting & Drying  Not under control Inter Cultivation 2+ (mechanical weeding) 1+ (mechanical/ manual weeding) Organic Matter PAM PAM
  13. 13. Comparative Crop Cutting Results of 2009 The grain yields of conventional crop decreased by 31% as compared to reduction of only 13% in SRI crop. In the drought year while non-SRI yields stood close to 25 quintals per ha, the SRI yields were about 48 quintals per ha (average increase of 92 %). S. No. Particulars Normal Year (2006-2008) Drought Year (2009) Conventional SRI Conventional SRI 1 Average no. of effective tillers/ Plant 7 21 5 18 2 Average Plant Height (cm) 99 122 88 102 3 Average Panicle Length (cm) 18 24 19 25 4 Average No. of Grains/Panicle 93 177 90 174 5 Grain Yield (Q/ha) 36 55 25 48 6 Straw Yield (Q/ha) 111 145 51 85
  14. 14. Adaptations for Other Kharif Crops Practice Conventional SCI Maize SCI Black Gram SCI Soyabean Young Seedling Direct seed Sowing Direct seed sowing in line Direct seed sowing in line Direct seed sowing in line Spacing Broadcasting P to P : 30/40 cm R to R : 30/40 cm P to P : 25 cm R to R : 30cm P to P : 30 cm R to R : 30 cm Single Seedling/hill - 1-2 seed/hill 1-2 seed/ hill 1-2 seed/hill Inter- Culture 1+ (manual weeding) 3+ (manual weeding) 2+ (manual weeding) 2+ (manual weeding) Organic matter Compost Compost, PAM Compost, PAM Compost, PAM
  15. 15. Adaptations for Other Rabi Crops Practice Conventional SCI Mustard SCI Peas SCI Lentil SCI Gram Young Seedling Direct seed Sowing Direct seed sowing in line Direct seed sowing in line Direct seed sowing in line Direct seed sowing in line Spacing Broadcasting R to R : 15/20 cm P to P: 20 cm R to R: 30 cm P to P : 15 cm R to R : 15 cm P to P : 15-20 cm R to R : 30-45 cm Single Seedling/hill - 1-2 seed/hill 1-2 seed/ hill 1-2 seed/hill 1-2 seed/hill Inter- Culture 1+ (manual weeding) 2+ (manual weeding) 2+ (manual weeding) 2+ (manual weeding) 2+ (manual weeding) Organic matter Compost Compost, PAM Compost, PAM Compost, PAM Compost, PAM
  16. 16. Coverage under SCI (2009 -10) Kharif Rabi Name of crop Total Farmers Area (in Ha) Name of crop Total Farmers Area (in Ha) Maize 183 10.34 Wheat 4151 84.03 Finger Millet ( Mandwa ) 340 8.04 Mustard 68 1.74 Kidney bean ( Rajma ) 679 14.01 Peas 215 3.92 Black gram ( Urad ) 314 2.00 Gram 48 2.68 Soyabean 77 2.47 Lentil 31 1.88 Others 111 5.12 Others 82 1.46 1,704 41.98 4,595 95.71
  17. 17. Crop Performance of SCI-Coarse Cereals of Kharif 2009 Particulars Finger Millet Maize Conven. SCI Conven. SCI Avg. no. of ears/plant (in maize: cob/plant) 3 5 2 3 Average Plant Height (cm) 69 87 142 177 Average no. of grains /ear (in maize: corns/cob) 310 493 230 380 Grain Yield (T/ha) 1.2 2.2 1.7 2.3 % Inc. in Grain Yield - 83 - 35
  18. 18. Crop Performance of SCI- Pulses of Kharif 2009 Particulars Black Gram Soyabean Kidney Bean Conven. SCI Conven. SCI Conven. SCI Avg. no. of pods /plant 46 79 35 56 36 55 Average Plant Height (cm) 42 56 47 66 160 210 Average no. of grains /pod 4 5 3 4 5 7 Grain Yield (T/ha) 1.1 1.8 2.8 3.6 1.3 1.9 % Inc. in Grain Yield - 64 - 29 - 46
  19. 19. Crop Performance of SWI crop cuttings (Rabi 2009) Particulars Con. SWI Average no. of effective tillers/ hill 2 10 Average Plant Height (cm) 83 105 Average Panicle Length (cm) 9 13 Average no. of grains /Panicle 39 60 Grain Yield (Q/ha) 28 51 Straw Yield (Q/ha) 48 85 % Inc. in Grain Yield 82 % Inc. in Straw Yield 77
  20. 20. Crop Performance of SCI- Other Crops of Rabi 2009 Particulars Mustard Pea (Vegetable) Gram Conv. SCI Conv. SCI Conv. SCI Average Plant Height (cm) 105 150 53 61 33 40 Avg. no. of siliquae/pods per plant 150 275 19 27 9 14 Average no. of seed/siliquae or grains /pod 10 15 3 5 1 2 Grain Yield (T/ha) 1.4 2.0 21.3 30.2 0.9 1.3 % Inc. in Grain Yield 42 - 42 - 44
  21. 21. Coverage & Crop Performance under SCI (2010-11) Rabi 2010: Wheat : 8267 farmers (358.84 ha) Other Crops: 745 farmers (34.46 ha) Name of Kharif crops Total Farmers Area (in Ha) Conventional Grain Yield (T/ha) SCI Grain Yield (T/ha) % Inc. Maize 682 63.61 2.3 4.7 104 Finger Millet ( Mandwa ) 747 15.66 0.9 1.8 100 Kidney bean ( Rajma ) 624 12.65 1.2 1.8 50 Black gram ( Urad ) 147 4.66 0.6 1.0 67 Soyabean 307 7.56 1.5 2.9 93 Others 160 6.67 - - 2,667 110.81
  22. 22. Research on SCI <ul><li>Trials on Wheat crop performance under direct seed sowing with different spacing </li></ul><ul><li>Trials on Wheat crop performance under transplantation with different spacing </li></ul><ul><li>Trials on Wheat crop performance under inter cropping with pulses crops </li></ul><ul><li>Trials on Maize, Mustard and Peas with different spacing and no. of seeds </li></ul><ul><li>Trials on newly designed seed drill </li></ul>
  23. 23. Results of Trials conducted on directly seeded SWI crop Dharamshala Block, Kangra Jhandutta Block, Bilaspur Variety: HS 295 Variety: HS 277 Parameter Conv. LS SWI -1 SWI-2 Conv. LS SWI-1 SWI-2 Line Distance (cm) 25 25 x 25 20 x 20 22.5 20 x 20 15 x 15 Seed Distance (cm) 25 x 25 20 x 20 20 x 20 15 x 15 No. of seed/hill 2 1 2 1 2 1 No. of Tillers/Plant 2 10 13 7 12 7 2 14 10 Avg. Plant Height (in cm) 73 70 72 80 85 76 73 84 85 82 Avg. Ear Length (in cm) 7.5 11 9.5 8.0 9.5 9 11 9.3 13 13 Avg. No .of grain/Ear 31 58 46 41 49 55 64 82 92 87 Grain Yield (Q/ha) 15 25 20 17 22 25 30 43 60 33 Straw Yield (Q/ha) 24 30 40 28 30 35 62 70 83 65
  24. 24. Results of Trials conducted on directly seeded SWI crop Karsog Block, Mandi Variety: HPW 249 Parameter Conv. LS-Drill LS-Plough SWI -1 SWI-2 Line Distance (cm) 25 25 25 x 25 20 x 20 Seed Distance (cm) 25 x 25 20 x 20 No. of seed/hill 2 1 2 1 No. of Tillers/Plant 2 4 1 11 9 8 11 Avg. Plant Height (in cm) 63 66 67 67 71 67 68 Avg. Ear Length (in cm) 8.8 9.2 8.4 11 11.2 10.8 11.8 Avg. No .of grain/Ear 45 49 48 59 62 53 65 Grain Yield (Q/ha) 20 35 30 42 44 50 53 Straw Yield (Q/ha) 30 48 38 67 80 67 80
  25. 25. Results of Trials on SWI Crop Performance under Direct Seed Sowing (Dehradun) Maximum grain and straw yield was obtained under line to line and seed to seed spacing of 20cm Variety: PBW 502 Plot Size: 25 sq.m. T -1 T -2 T-3 T-4 T-5 Parameter Conv. SWI SWI SWI SWI SWI Line Distance (in cm) 10 15 20 25 20 Plant Distance (in cm) 10 15 20 25 15 No. of seed/hill 2 seeds 2 seeds 2 seeds 2 seeds 2 seeds Total No. Of Productive Tillers/Hill 5 12 14 20 15 19 Average Plant Height (in cm) 69 76 83 82 74 81 Average Ear Length (in cm) 15 16.7 18.2 20.5 18.6 17.6 Grain Yield (Q/ha) 29 43 49 54 33 49 Straw Yield (Q/ha) 46 59 66 70 49 65
  26. 26. Results of Trials conducted on Transplanted SWI crop 41 to 87 per cent increase in grain yield was obtained under transplanted SWI Dharamshala Block, Kangra Jhandutta Block, Bilaspur Variety: HS 295 Variety: HS 277 Parameter Conv. SWI-1 SWI -2 SWI-3 Conv. SWI-1 SWI-2 SWI-2 Line Distance (cm) 25 x 25 20 x 20 15 x 15 20 x 20 20 x 20 15 x 15 Seed Distance (cm) 25 x 25 20 x 20 15 x 15 15 x 15 20 x 20 15 x 15 No. of seed/hill 2 2 2 1 1 1 No. of Tillers/Plant 2 13 7 5 2 14 12 9 Avg. Plant Height (in cm) 73 85 78 82 73 84 84 84 Avg. Ear Length (in cm) 7.5 11 9 9 11 14.4 12 9 Avg. No .of grain/Ear 29 44 35 37 41 58 49 35 Grain Yield (Q/ha) 9 13 15 10 30 63 55 50 Straw Yield (Q/ha) 16 20 24 16 62 90 75 70
  27. 27. Results of SWI trials conducted on inter cropping with pulses Treatment -1 Treatment -2 Treatment-3 Parameter Wheat (HS 277) + Lentil /Masur (HPL 5) Wheat (HS 277) + Gram (HPG 17) Wheat (HS 277) + Masur (HPL 5) + Gram (HPG 17) Line Distance (cm) 25 x 25 25 x 25 25 x 25 Crop Production Wheat – 18.3 Q/ha Wheat - 18.7 Q/ha Wheat – 9.5 Q/ha Crop Production Masur – 12.3 Q/ha Gram - 23.3 Q/ha Masur – 3 Q/ha Crop Production Gram – 7.5 Q/ha
  28. 28. Results of Trials on Maize with Different Spacing (cm) Results of Trials on Maize with Different No. of Seeds Parameters Average Plant Height (cm) Average Grains/Cob Average Cob Length (cm) Grain Yield (T/Ha) 50-50 X 50-05 (T-1) 185 322 25 5.7 40-40 X 40-40 (T-2) 192 356 29 6.5 30-30 X 30-30 (T-3) 187 297 23 5.8 Line sowing ( T-4) 193 255 20 4.8 Farmers’ Practice (T-5) 155 191 17 2.3 Note: Line to Line, 30cm Parameters Average Plant Height (cm) Average Grains/Cob Average Cob Length (cm) Grain Yield (T/Ha) One seed (T-1) 227 341 28 6.1 Two Seed (T-2) 188 309 25 5.3 Farmers' Practice (T-3) 171 215 20 2.8 Note: Line to Line 40cm , Plant to Plant 40 cm.
  29. 29. Cost Benefit Analysis for SCI Crops and Conventional method of Cultivation B:C Ratio is more than 2:1 for most SCI crops S. No. Method Conventional SCI Total Expen-diture (Rs./ha) Gross Income (Rs./ha) Net Profit (Rs./ha) C-B Ratio Total Expen-diture (Rs./ha) Gross Income (Rs./ha) Net Profit (Rs./ha) C-B Ratio 1 Direct seed sowing (Wheat) 22,720 30,600 7,880 1:1.3 25,850 51,600 25,750 1:2.0 2 Finger Millet (Mandwa) 14,920 25,900 10,980 1:1.7 15,640 34,400 18,760 1:2.2 3 Kidney Bean (Rajma) 28,250 56,000 27,775 1:2.0 30,250 80,000 49,750 1:2.6 4 Mustard 21,630 32,000 10,370 1:1.4 17,500 48,000 30,500 1:2.7
  30. 30. Upscaling Strategy Saturate villages where SRI has been successfully demonstrated by increasing the number of households and area coverage per household. Av. Family Size : 5-6 members/hhold Av. Landholding: 0.3-0.4 ha/hhold; 0.1ha irrigated (5 nalis) Adoption of SCI in 3.25 lakh ha (45% of NSA) in UKD and in 1.31 lakh ha (23% of NSA) in HP can lead to states’ foodgrain security Daily Requirement (gm/p/d) Total Annual HH Req. (T) Average SCI Production (T/ha/season) Target Area Coverage (Ha/ HH) Cereals 420 0.85-1.00 3 = 120 kg/nali/yr 0.14 = 7 nalis Pulses 40 0.08-0.09 1.5 = 60 kg/nali/yr 0.03 = 1.5 nalis
  31. 31. Critical Areas for Upscaling SCI <ul><li>Research </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Improvements in package of practices </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Effective Capacity building strategy </li></ul><ul><li>Networking amongst stakeholders </li></ul><ul><li>Convergence with other programmes </li></ul><ul><li>Policy Framework </li></ul>Farmers should be provided flexibility for adoption of different principles under SCI
  32. 32. 252, Vasant Vihar, Phase I Dehra Doon - 248 006 Uttarakhand INDIA Web : www.peoplesscienceinstitute.com Mail : cpwdpsi@gmail.com Phone : +91 135 2763649, 2773849 Fax : +91 135 2763186 Thank You
  33. 33. <ul><ul><li>R ice-wheat is the predominant system, with yields lower than 2 T/ha </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Subsistence oriented agriculture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Forestry & livestock rearing - an integral component of farming </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Active participation of women </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High utilization of organic matter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mostly local varieties </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inadequate market linkages and non accessibility to roads </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Restricted availability of credit and extension services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Weak village level institutions </li></ul></ul>Crop Production System in W. Himalayas Introduction of SRI in 2006
  34. 34. Field Support Activities Field Marking Seed Sowing Line Sowing Weeding
  35. 35. SCI – A Boon for Mountain Farmers <ul><li>88% of farmers are small and marginal farmers with less than 0.4 ha (1 acre) per family. </li></ul><ul><li>Rice and wheat are the staple food of the populace. </li></ul><ul><li>Higher stalk volume means more fodder for the cattle. </li></ul><ul><li>More farmyard manure and possibly increased milk yields. </li></ul>POTENTIAL TO ADDRESS THE FOOD SECURITY AND LIVELIHOOD NEEDS OF SMALL AND MARGINAL FARMERS
  36. 36. SCI- Farmers’ Perceived Benefits & Constraints <ul><li>A. BENEFITS </li></ul><ul><li>Less seed requirement </li></ul><ul><li>Saving in water </li></ul><ul><li>Less disease occurrence </li></ul><ul><li>Less lodging </li></ul><ul><li>Early maturity </li></ul><ul><li>High grain yields </li></ul><ul><li>High grain quality </li></ul><ul><li>Increased biomass </li></ul><ul><li>Improves soil fertility </li></ul><ul><li>B. CONSTRAINTS </li></ul><ul><li>Difficulty in changing mindset </li></ul><ul><li>Time bound operations </li></ul><ul><li>Labour intensive </li></ul><ul><li>Unavailability of irrigation and rainfall aberrations </li></ul><ul><li>Limited availability of quality equipments </li></ul><ul><li>Inadequate compost material </li></ul><ul><li>More effort required in operating weeder for small terraces & hard soil </li></ul>
  37. 37. Cost Benefit Analysis for SWI Crop and Conventional method of Cultivation B:C Ratio is more than 2:1 for SWI crop Expenditure (in Rs./ha) Method Plough- ing Seed Seed Sowing Manure Weeding Insect & Pest Control Harvesting & Threshing Others Total Conven-tional 10,000 2,500 4,062 2,400 1,200 850 4,100 2,000 27,112 SWI 10,000 500 6,250 3,450 5,400 500 4,800 2,500 33,400 Avg. Crop Yields (Q/ha) Value of Grain and Straw (Rs.) Net Profit (Rs/ha) Benefit- Cost Ratio Grain Straw Grain Straw Total Conven-tional 28 48 30,800 9,600 40,400 13,288 1.5 :1 SWI 50 85 55,000 17,000 72,000 38,600 2.2:1
  38. 38. Impact of SWI crop on Soil Nutrient Status Nitrogen Phosphorus Organic Carbon Treatment BS AH % Red. BS AH % Red. BS AH % Inc. Conv. Method 3.78 3.39 10 6.76 4.11 39 0.90 1.51 68 10 cm x 10 cm 10 cm x 10 cm 6.33 1.74 73 6.37 3.26 49 1.05 1.85 77 15 cm x 15 cm 15 cm x 15 cm 2.91 2.17 25 6.46 2.89 55 0.74 2.04 175 20 cm x 20 cm 20 cm x 20 cm 4.26 2.75 35 4.73 2.48 47 1.01 1.73 72 25 cm x 25 cm 25 cm x 25 cm 4.40 1.81 59 6.95 3.64 48 1.04 1.66 60 20 cm x 20 cm 15 cm x 15 cm 2.41 1.84 24 6.15 3.79 38 0.91 1.83 102 SWI Method 4.06 2.06 49 6.13 3.21 48 0.95 1.82 92

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