Your Interactive Guide
to the Digital World
Discovering
Computers 2012
Chapter 10
Managing a Database
Objectives Overview
Define the term,
database, and explain
how a database
interacts with data and
information
Define the t...
Objectives Overview
Discuss the functions
common to most
database management
systems
Describe characteristics
of relationa...
Databases, Data, and Information
Database
• Collection of
data organized
in a manner
that allows
access,
retrieval, and
us...
Databases, Data, and Information
Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 10
5Pages 514 – 515
Figure 10-1
Databases, Data, and Information
• Database software, often called a database
management system (DBMS), allows users to:
D...
Databases, Data, and Information
• Data integrity identifies the quality of the data
• Garbage in, garbage out (GIGO) poin...
Databases, Data, and Information
• Valuable information should have the following
characteristics:
Discovering Computers 2...
The Hierarchy of Data
• Data is organized in layers
– Files, records, fields, characters
Discovering Computers 2012: Chapt...
The Hierarchy of Data
• A character is one byte
– Numbers, letters, space,
punctuation marks, or
other symbols
• A field i...
The Hierarchy of Data
• Common data types include:
Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 10
11Page 518
Text Numeric AutoNumb...
The Hierarchy of Data
Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 10
12Page 519
Figure 10-4
• A record is a group of related field...
Maintaining Data
• File maintenance refers to the procedures that
keep data current
Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 10...
Maintaining Data
• Users add new records to a file when they obtain
new data
Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 10
14Page...
Maintaining Data
• Users modify a record to correct inaccurate data
or update old data
Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter...
Maintaining Data
• When a record no longer is needed, a user deletes
it from a file
Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 10...
Maintaining Data
• Validation compares data with a set of rules or
values to find out if the data is correct
Discovering C...
File Processing Versus Databases
Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 10
18Pages 524 - 526
File processing system
• Each de...
File Processing Versus Databases
Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 10
19Page 525
Figure 10-10
Database Management Systems
Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 10
20Page 527
Figure 10-11
Database Management Systems
• A data dictionary contains data about each file in
the database and each field in those file...
Database Management Systems
• A DBMS provides several tools that allow users
and programs to retrieve and maintain data in...
Database Management Systems
• A query language consists of simple, English-like
statements that allow users to specify the...
Database Management Systems
Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 10
24Page 529
Figure 10-13
Database Management Systems
• A form is a window on the screen that provides
areas for entering or modifying data in a dat...
Database Management Systems
• A report generator allows users to design a report
on the screen, retrieve data into the rep...
Database Management Systems
A DBMS provides means to
ensure that only authorized users
access data at permitted times
•Acc...
Database Management Systems
• A DMBS provides a variety of techniques to
restore the database to a usable form in case it ...
Database Management Systems
Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 10
29Page 532
Figure 10-17
Relational, Object-Oriented, and
Multidimensional Databases
Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 10
30Page 533
Figure 10-18...
Relational, Object-Oriented, and
Multidimensional Databases
• A relational database
stores data in tables
that consist of ...
Relational, Object-Oriented, and
Multidimensional Databases
• Structured Query Language (SQL) is a query
language that all...
Relational, Object-Oriented, and
Multidimensional Databases
• An object-oriented database (OODB) stores data
in objects
• ...
Relational, Object-Oriented, and
Multidimensional Databases
Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 10
34Page 535
Figure 10-22
Relational, Object-Oriented, and
Multidimensional Databases
• A multidimensional database can store data in more
than two ...
Web Databases
• Databases on the Web allow you to:
Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 10
36Page 536
Shop for
products or
...
Web Databases
Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 10
37Page 536
Figure 10-23
Video: How a Photo Sharing Site
Keeps Its Data
Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 10
38
CLICK TO START
Database Administration
• It is important to have a carefully designed
database
Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 10
39P...
Database Administration
Database analysts and administrators are responsible
for managing and coordinating all database ac...
Database Administration
• Employees should learn
how to use the data in
the database effectively
– Interact with database
...
Summary
How data and
information are
valuable assets to
an organization
Methods for
maintaining high-
quality data
Assessi...
Your Interactive Guide
to the Digital World
Discovering
Computers 2012
Chapter 10
Managing a Database
Chapter 10 Complete
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Chapter 10

  1. 1. Your Interactive Guide to the Digital World Discovering Computers 2012 Chapter 10 Managing a Database
  2. 2. Objectives Overview Define the term, database, and explain how a database interacts with data and information Define the term, data integrity, and describe the qualities of valuable information Discuss the terms character, field, record, and file Describe file maintenance techniques and validation techniques Differentiate between a file processing approach and the database approach Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 10 2See Page 513 for Detailed Objectives
  3. 3. Objectives Overview Discuss the functions common to most database management systems Describe characteristics of relational, object- oriented, and multidimensional databases Explain how to access Web databases Identify database design guidelines and discuss the responsibilities of database analysts and administrators Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 10 3See Page 513 for Detailed Objectives
  4. 4. Databases, Data, and Information Database • Collection of data organized in a manner that allows access, retrieval, and use of that data Data • Collection of unprocessed items • Text • Numbers • Images • Audio • Video Information • Processed data • Documents • Audio • Images • Video Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 10 4Page 514
  5. 5. Databases, Data, and Information Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 10 5Pages 514 – 515 Figure 10-1
  6. 6. Databases, Data, and Information • Database software, often called a database management system (DBMS), allows users to: Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 10 6Page 515 Create a computerized database Add, modify, and delete data Sort and retrieve data Create forms and reports from the data
  7. 7. Databases, Data, and Information • Data integrity identifies the quality of the data • Garbage in, garbage out (GIGO) points out the accuracy of a computer’s output depends on the accuracy of the input Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 10 7Page 516
  8. 8. Databases, Data, and Information • Valuable information should have the following characteristics: Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 10 8Pages 516 - 517 Accurate Verifiable Timely Organized Accessible Useful Cost- effective
  9. 9. The Hierarchy of Data • Data is organized in layers – Files, records, fields, characters Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 10 9Page 517 Figure 10-2
  10. 10. The Hierarchy of Data • A character is one byte – Numbers, letters, space, punctuation marks, or other symbols • A field is a combination of one or more related characters – Field name – Field size – Data type Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 10 10Page 518 Figure 10-3
  11. 11. The Hierarchy of Data • Common data types include: Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 10 11Page 518 Text Numeric AutoNumber Currency Date Memo Yes/No Hyperlink Object Attachment
  12. 12. The Hierarchy of Data Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 10 12Page 519 Figure 10-4 • A record is a group of related fields – A primary key uniquely identifies each record • A data file is a collection of related records
  13. 13. Maintaining Data • File maintenance refers to the procedures that keep data current Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 10 13Page 520 Adding records Modifying records Deleting records
  14. 14. Maintaining Data • Users add new records to a file when they obtain new data Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 10 14Page 520 Figure 10-5
  15. 15. Maintaining Data • Users modify a record to correct inaccurate data or update old data Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 10 15Page 521 Figure 10-6
  16. 16. Maintaining Data • When a record no longer is needed, a user deletes it from a file Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 10 16Page 522 Figure 10-7
  17. 17. Maintaining Data • Validation compares data with a set of rules or values to find out if the data is correct Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 10 17Pages 522 - 524 Alphabetic/Numeric check Range check Consistency check Completeness check Check digit Other checks
  18. 18. File Processing Versus Databases Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 10 18Pages 524 - 526 File processing system • Each department has its own set of files • Used for many years • Have data redundancy • Isolate data Database approach • Programs and users share data • Reduce data redundancy • Improve data integrity • Share data • Allows easier access • Reduces development time • Can be more vulnerable
  19. 19. File Processing Versus Databases Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 10 19Page 525 Figure 10-10
  20. 20. Database Management Systems Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 10 20Page 527 Figure 10-11
  21. 21. Database Management Systems • A data dictionary contains data about each file in the database and each field in those files Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 10 21Pages 527 – 528 Figure 10-12
  22. 22. Database Management Systems • A DBMS provides several tools that allow users and programs to retrieve and maintain data in the database Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 10 22Page 528 Query language Query by example Form Report generator
  23. 23. Database Management Systems • A query language consists of simple, English-like statements that allow users to specify the data to display, print, or store • Query by example (QBE) provides a GUI to assist users with retrieving data Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 10 23Page 528
  24. 24. Database Management Systems Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 10 24Page 529 Figure 10-13
  25. 25. Database Management Systems • A form is a window on the screen that provides areas for entering or modifying data in a database Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 10 25Page 530 Figure 10-15
  26. 26. Database Management Systems • A report generator allows users to design a report on the screen, retrieve data into the report design, and then display or print the report Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 10 26Page 531 Figure 10-16
  27. 27. Database Management Systems A DBMS provides means to ensure that only authorized users access data at permitted times •Access privileges •Principle of least privilege Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 10 27Page 531
  28. 28. Database Management Systems • A DMBS provides a variety of techniques to restore the database to a usable form in case it is damaged or destroyed Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 10 28Pages 531 - 532 Backup Log Recovery utility Continuous backup
  29. 29. Database Management Systems Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 10 29Page 532 Figure 10-17
  30. 30. Relational, Object-Oriented, and Multidimensional Databases Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 10 30Page 533 Figure 10-18 • A data model consists of rules and standards that define how the database organizes data
  31. 31. Relational, Object-Oriented, and Multidimensional Databases • A relational database stores data in tables that consist of rows and columns – Each row has a primary key – Each column has a unique name • A relationship is a link within the data Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 10 31Page 533 Figure 10-20
  32. 32. Relational, Object-Oriented, and Multidimensional Databases • Structured Query Language (SQL) is a query language that allows users to manage, update, and retrieve data Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 10 32Page 534 Figure 10-21
  33. 33. Relational, Object-Oriented, and Multidimensional Databases • An object-oriented database (OODB) stores data in objects • Examples of applications appropriate for an object-oriented database include: Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 10 33Page 534 Multimedia database Groupware database Computer- aided design database Hypertext database
  34. 34. Relational, Object-Oriented, and Multidimensional Databases Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 10 34Page 535 Figure 10-22
  35. 35. Relational, Object-Oriented, and Multidimensional Databases • A multidimensional database can store data in more than two dimensions of data – Sometimes known as a hypercube – Can consolidate data much faster than a relational database • A data warehouse is a huge database that stores and manages the data required to analyze historical and current transactions Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 10 35Pages 535 - 536
  36. 36. Web Databases • Databases on the Web allow you to: Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 10 36Page 536 Shop for products or services Buy or sell stocks Search for a job Make airline reservations Register for college classes Check semester grades
  37. 37. Web Databases Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 10 37Page 536 Figure 10-23
  38. 38. Video: How a Photo Sharing Site Keeps Its Data Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 10 38 CLICK TO START
  39. 39. Database Administration • It is important to have a carefully designed database Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 10 39Page 537 Figure 10-24
  40. 40. Database Administration Database analysts and administrators are responsible for managing and coordinating all database activities Database Analyst (DA) Decides on proper field placement, defines data relationship, and identifies users’ access privileges Database Administrator (DBA) Creates and maintains the data dictionary, manages security, monitors performance, and checks backup and recovery procedures Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 10 40Page 538
  41. 41. Database Administration • Employees should learn how to use the data in the database effectively – Interact with database – Identify new data for the database – Maintain the database Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 10 41Page 538 Figure 10-25
  42. 42. Summary How data and information are valuable assets to an organization Methods for maintaining high- quality data Assessing the quality of valuable information Advantages of organizing data in a database Various types of databases Roles of the database analysts and administrators Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 10 42Page 539
  43. 43. Your Interactive Guide to the Digital World Discovering Computers 2012 Chapter 10 Managing a Database Chapter 10 Complete

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