Self Knowledge by Will


Published on

Published in: Business, Health & Medicine
1 Comment
No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide
  • Self Knowledge by Will

    1. 1. Self-knowledge On Management By Gumporn S. (Will) 501-9839
    2. 2. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs <ul><li>Background - 1943 Abraham Maslow published his Hierarchy of Needs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Divided needs into two groups - deficiency needs and growth needs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Within the deficiency needs each lower need must be at least partially met before moving to the next higher need. </li></ul></ul>
    3. 3. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs <ul><li>1.Physiological - Life Support,Hunger, Thirst, Air, Bodily comforts,Elimination, Sex </li></ul><ul><li>2.Safety - Security / Out of danger,Peers, Curriculum, Teachers-Administrators </li></ul><ul><li>3.Sense of Belonging - Being affiliated with, and accepted by, others. </li></ul><ul><li>Growth Needs </li></ul><ul><li>4.Esteem - To achieve, be competent, and be recognized –has both an internal and an external component. </li></ul><ul><li>5.Self-actualization - To find fulfillment and realize one’s potential - a concern for personal growth. </li></ul><ul><li>Deficiency Needs </li></ul>
    4. 4. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs <ul><li>Maslow later added two growth needs prior to self-actualization and one after it. The needs added prior to self-actualization are: </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitive - a need to know, understand, and explore, and </li></ul><ul><li>Aesthetic - a need for symmetry, order, and beauty </li></ul><ul><li>The need added after Self-Actualization was Transcendence - To help others find self- fulfillment and realize their potential. </li></ul>
    5. 5. Maslow on Management Source:
    6. 6. Intrinsic vs. Extrinsic Motivation <ul><li>• Intrinsic (or Inner) Motivation </li></ul><ul><li>causes people to participate in an activity for their own enjoyment. </li></ul><ul><li>– For example, kids play sports </li></ul><ul><li>because it is fun and they like being with their friends. </li></ul><ul><li>Extrinsic (or External) Motivation </li></ul>causes people to do something for a reward or to avoid a penalty – For example, a professional athlete might enjoy the sport, but he/she chooses to play for a particular team because it pays more money or has more prestige.
    7. 7. Intrinsic vs. Extrinsic Motivation (Cont.) <ul><li>Reasons </li></ul><ul><li>People are usually attracted to a job for extrinsic reasons (good pay, good benefits, good working conditions) </li></ul><ul><li>People usually stay with a job for intrinsic reasons (they like the people they work with, they find the job challenging, people praise them for the job they do) </li></ul><ul><li>Motivation </li></ul><ul><li>Paying people more money ( extrinsic motivation) does not make them work harder . (But it might keep them from leaving and it might attract new employees). </li></ul><ul><li>Intrinsic motivation is what builds loyalty and dedication in your employees. </li></ul>
    8. 8. McGregor’s X,Y and Z Theories Douglas McGregor popularized the human relations approach to management in the 1960s <ul><li>Theory X: </li></ul><ul><li>Theory Y: </li></ul><ul><li>assumes individuals consider work as natural as play or rest and enjoy the satisfaction of </li></ul><ul><li>esteem and self-actualization needs </li></ul><ul><li>assumes workers dislike and avoid </li></ul><ul><li>work , so managers must use coercion, threats, and various control schemes to get workers to </li></ul><ul><li>meet objectives </li></ul>Theory Z : introduced in 1981 by William Ouchi, and is based on the Japanese approach to motivating workers, emphasizing trust, quality, collective decision making, and cultural values
    9. 9. Classical approaches to management include:
    10. 10. Scientific management (Frederick Taylor) <ul><ul><li>Develop rules of motion, standardized work implements, and proper working conditions for every job. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Carefully select workers with the right abilities for the job. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Carefully train workers and provide proper incentives. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Support workers by carefully planning their work and removing obstacles. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Scientific management </li></ul><ul><li>(the Gilbreths) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Motion study-Science of reducing a job or task to its basic physical motions. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eliminating wasted motions improves performance. </li></ul></ul>
    11. 11. Administrative principles (Henri Fayol) Rules of management : <ul><ul><li>Foresight — to complete a plan of action for the future. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organization — to provide and mobilize resources to implement the plan. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Command — to lead, select, and evaluate workers to get the best work toward the plan. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coordination — to fit diverse efforts together and ensure information is shared and problems solved. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Control — to make sure things happen according to plan and to take necessary corrective action. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scalar chain — there should be a clear and unbroken line of communication from the top to the bottom of the organization. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unity of command — each person should receive orders from only one boss. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unity of direction — one person should be in charge of all activities with the same performance objective. </li></ul></ul>
    12. 12. Bureaucratic organization (Max Weber) <ul><ul><ul><li>An ideal, intentionally rational, and very efficient form of organization. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Based on principles of logic, order, and legitimate authority. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Characteristics: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clear division of labor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clear hierarchy of authority </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Formal rules and procedures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Impersonality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Careers based on merit </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Possible disadvantages of bureaucracy: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Excessive paperwork or “red tape” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Slowness in handling problems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rigidity in the face of shifting needs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Resistance to change </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Employee apathy(not active) </li></ul></ul>