New communication model


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A new communication model introduced by Prof: Ajantha Hapuarachchi of University of Colombo, Sri Lanka.

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New communication model

  1. 1. Abstract: Researcher: Prof:Ajantha HapuarchchiHead-Journalism Unit-University of Colombo- Sri Lanka
  2. 2. This is a especial type of presentation, and a researchpaper which is an introduction to a newcommunication model as the first eastern model ofcommunication from Sri Lanka. Over the years,communication models and theories which were bornin the west and developed to explain the process ofcommunication were followed by almost all. Thoughwe need to get away from the western ideology andconcepts or need to have an emergence of a newOrientalsm we still hold on to them.
  3. 3. As the first Sri Lankan female professor in Journalismand Communication studies, in the University ofColombo, I have initiated an oriental communicationmodel based on the theory of “Kalama Sutta, named“Communication Model of EpistemologyTheory” as against the western models. I presentedthis in the 21st AMIC annual conference and 40thanniversary calibration on the 13th at the ConcordeHotel in Sha Alam, Malaysia.
  4. 4. The main purpose of this research is to create a newcommunication model based on the Buddhistphilosophy , paying a much attention to theepistemology theory which no one had paid attentionso far. We have the cognitive theory, uses andgratification, play theory and entertainment,Expectancy, cultural and critical theory, socialcategory theory, and Interactive or Office oftechnology assessment theory. But no epistemologytheory.
  5. 5. Hypothetically I had some doubts about the birthplaceof effective communication, it was in the Buddhistphilosophy and its texts. Therefore I selected and usedthe methodology of textual analyzing. Because thetheory and the model was entirely based on“Thripitaka”, especially the „Kalama Sutta” inAnguththara Nikaya .
  6. 6. The problem of research and hypothesis of thisresearch also was whether the birth place ofcommunication elements, process and its behavior wasin the east rather than the west-which we are used to.
  7. 7. Researchers are now attempting to buildcomprehensive communicative models based ontheories created by the challenges of new technology.But, in studying these theories one can see that theyare only technological changes but not the initiativecommunication process.
  8. 8. Models are communication tools that illustratecommunication behavior abstract. They range fromthe very simple stage to a very complex stage. The firstmodel of communication theory was based onAristotle‟s teaching, as the classical communicationmodel, which was in the Greek era. It has only*sender-*message-* and &*receiver. After Aristotle,the models and theories of communication studiescame into the syllabus by 1940s.
  9. 9. From then linear model of communication by Shanan-Weaver, many of the models was presented by BruceWestley and Malcolm M.Maclean, David Berlo ,Wilbur Schramm, Donald and Virginia Fry, DeFleurand Ball-Rokeach, Harald Lasswell , and Thorson whowere the pioneers. Some of those include circular andmultidimensional models.
  10. 10. This new model /theory which I am presenting isentirely based on the Buddhist Philosophy and itexplains how one can grasp a message scrutinizing itepistemologically. The ultimate consequence or resultis the acceptance or the rejection after examining itcritically. The consequences depends on the receivers‟epistemology capacity.
  11. 11. When we delve deeply into the Buddhist philosophythe first features for theories in the communicationprocess can be seen in the Buddha‟s teaching andpreaching before the theories which I mentioned abovecame into existence.
  12. 12. During the period of Buddha who lived in 6thcentury - before Aristotle, the origin of this theorywhich was explains how to grasp a messageproperly. This new theory is based on the “KalamaSutra in Anguttra Nikaya” (Chapter) (p.114-pleaserefer the original thripitaka) in Thripitaka. (ThreeBaskets) (see appendix) I have taken only thekalama sutta for this model. It will be in theexplanation of theory. This is the firstcommunication theory of how one can accept orreject the message wherever he gets it from. Whenone goes through this sutra, one can find how amessage can be grasped without taking priorbeliefs, stances, reports and religious texts and soon.
  13. 13. This theory is structured as follows:The Communication is:“One who gets a messagefrom anywherewith whatever consequenceafter scrutinizing it by himself epistemologicallyThis could be explained as a part of self communication and communication with others.Key words: Epistemology, Inspect, Kalama Sutta, Anguththara Nikaya, Buddhist philosophy, Scrutinize
  14. 14. IntroductionWhat is the communication process?Communication is a universal human activity, but it isalso one of the most idiosyncratic. Although we all do itwe use it differently. Explaining something universal,yet personal, is a challenge. To help explaining theelements in the communication situation, scholarsconstruct theoretical models.
  15. 15. Models often provide a simplified visual explanationof complex processes. A model allows theorists toisolate themselves and define individual elements ofthe communication process and show theirrelationship as a whole. Models and theories werecreated and based on this entity. Everycommunication situation, no matter how unique andsingular, contains the following elements: Two ormore communicators, one or more messages. One ormore channels, certain amount of interference,feedback exchange between communicators,communication setting or context. While the numberof basic elements is small, the process itself is rich.Each time we communicate, the elements interrelatedifferently and produce unique outcomes.
  16. 16. The new model basically interacts with selfcommunication/intra personal communication. But inother hand similar to common way what we use.Meanings as well as the symbols are mutuallyrecognizable and meaningful. Often, however,communication fails because the symbols that oneperson uses do not match the meaning that anotherperson assigns to them. Misunderstanding of symbolsoften arises from differences in the communicator‟spoint of view or perspective.
  17. 17. Messages in the communication process must passthrough the “self” of each communicator. This „self‟can roughly be defined as the total composite of aperson‟s personality, experiences, and identity. No twoselves are identical and this makes commonunderstanding of symbols difficult. Understanding themessage with the help of symbols is quite challengingin context in effective communication.
  18. 18. Literary review of the Theories of Communication Communication theory is the branch of communication study that attempts to deal with mentioned areas/ problems below: Theories that reveal the overall processes involved communication and media, Theories that explain why and how people receive, process and interpret messages, Theories that describe how and why people use those messages; and Theories that interpret the psychological social and cultural effects of communication processes.(Black.J.2005)
  19. 19.  Researches in the area of communication effects have led to the development of various theories. A theory is a set of related statements that seek to explain and predict behavior. When we peruse the history of media, researches indicate that investigators moved over the time from powerful effects to minimal effects and then to mixed effects. Then they showed the effect through theories such as social learning, individual differences, cultivated , agenda setting, uses and gratification and so on.
  20. 20. Features related to the new theory“According to the Buddha‟s Teaching, doubt (vicikiccha) is one of the five hindrances (nivarana) to the clear understanding of truth and to spiritual progress (or for that mater to any progress). Doubt, however, is not a „sin‟, because there are no articles of faith in Buddhism. In fact there is no „sin‟ in Buddhism, as sin is understood in some religions. The root of all evil is ignorance (avijja) and false views (miccha ditthi) .It is an undeniable face that as long as there is doubt, perplexity, wavering, no progress is possible.
  21. 21. It is also equally undeniable that there must be doubtas long as one does not understand or see clearly. Butin order to progress further it is absolutely necessaryto get rid of doubt. To get rid of doubt one has to seeclearly.
  22. 22. There is no point in saying that one should not doubtor one should believe. Just to say „ I believe „ does notmean that you understand and see. When a studentworks on a mathematical problem, he comes to a stagebeyond which he does not know how to proceed, andwhere he is in doubt and perplexity. As long as he hasthis doubt, he cannot proceed. If he wants to proceed,he must resolve this doubt. And there are ways ofresolving that doubt. Just to say „I believe‟, or „ I donot doubt‟ will certainly not solve the problem. Toforce oneself to believe and to accept a thing withoutunderstanding is political, and not spiritual orintellectual.
  23. 23. The Buddha was always eager to dispel doubt. Evenjust a few minutes before his death, he requested hisdisciples several times to ask him if they had anydoubts about his teaching, and not to feel sorry laterthat they could not clear those doubts. But the discipleswere silent. What he said then was touching; ‟if it isthrough respect for the teacher that you do not askanything, let even one of you inform his friend”. (SriRahula-1985)
  24. 24. Models of Communication The statistical analysis of the basic process of communication including the measurement of information contents and channel capacity are primarily based on the ideas of C.D. Shannon. This is the first leaner communication model which paved the way for other models to explain the process. It says that the message goes to one person to another through a cannel as sketched below,
  25. 25. This is a limited effects model which is in early steptoward an interaction model of communication.Through communication, we share meanings withothers by sending and receiving messages. It includesevery element that could affect two or more people asthey are knowingly or unknowingly related to oneanother. You will find this model as a tool indiscovering how messages operate and in examiningyour own communication encounters.
  26. 26. The model is drawn or built to show where the structure is that represents your understanding of communication .You can focus on any or all of the components of the processes we have examined so far.These models describe the essential elements of the communication process graphically.They develop a saying or an epigram that sum up anyone‟s perception of the state of being in communication.
  27. 27. A message or messages may be sent through one or more channels, and the interaction occurs in it and it is affected by a definite context.This new models deals with a personality as shown in the following graph of identity wheel especially with academic and educational capacity, to get the semantics. And it assumes that individuals take an active role in the communication process and are supreme selectors in their message behavior.
  28. 28. Communication model of epistemologytheoryBackground of the New ModelThis model is entirely based on the Kalama Sutta textin Anguththara Nikaya. (see appendix) It is theinitiative stage , how and what people shouldunderstand of the message from wherever they receive.According to the Anguththara Nikaya it is discussed asfollows:
  29. 29. “The Buddha once visited a small town called Kesaputtain the kingdom of Kosala. The inhabitants of this townwere known by the common name Kalama. When theyheard that the Buddha was in their town, the Kalamaspaid him a visit, and told him;“Sir, there are some recluses and Brahmanas who visitKesaputta. They explain and illumine only their owndoctrines, and despise, condemn and spurn other’sdoctrines. Then come other recluses and Brahmanas, andthey, too, in their turn, explain and illumine only their owndoctrines, and despise, condemn and spurn other’sdoctrines. But, for us, Sir we have always doubt andperplexity as to who among these venerable recluses andbrahmanas spoke the truth, and who spoke falsehood”.
  30. 30. Then advice of the Buddha to them is unique in thehistory of religions:“Yes, Kalamas, it is proper that you have doubt, that you haveperplexity, for a doubt has arisen in a matter which is doubtful.Now, look you Kalamas, do not be led by reports, or tradition, orhearsay. Be not led by the authority of religious texts, nor by merelogic or inference, nor by considering appearance, or by the delightin speculative opinions, nor by seeming possibilities, nor by theidea: this is our teacher”. But, O kalamas, when you know foryourselves that certain things are unwholesome (akusala) andwrong, and bad, then give them up…. And when you know foryourselves that certain things are wholesome (kusala ) and good,then accept them and follow them” (Sri Rahula-1985)
  31. 31. The process:“One who gets a messagefrom anywherewith whatever consequenceafter scrutinizing it by himself epistemologically –it is communicationProf: Ajantha Hapuarchchi ljqreka fldfyka fyda ,nd.kakd ixfoaYhla Tyq úiskau {dkúNd.d;aulj ishqïf,i mrSlaId lrñka ,nd.kakd M,h ikaksfõokhhs
  32. 32. This could be explained as a part of selfcommunication and communication with others. Whilethe elements are small, the process is rich. The keyconcept is scrutinize d on epistemological dimensionsof the message user. His needs attitudes, values, andpsychological oriented personality variables affect it.
  33. 33. DiscussionAccording to the above mentioned extracts the Buddha‟spreaching in Kalama Sutta gives various communicativemeanings. It shows the basic elements, the process , ofcommunication and aspect of circular model . The Buddhapreached that if there is a doubt there is no truth. Inunderstanding the truth of a message one is expected todissuade the doubt connected to it. It is the first time thatwe find accuracy and the source of the news focused on.„Truth first” in journalism is based on this.
  34. 34. What is unique in this model is the receivers‟ role. Thereceiver pays attention to the communicator. Thisimplies what psychologists call “state of readiness” tothe information-that is being transmitted. Perception isthe mental activity by which sensory input (from oureyes and ears) is classified into recognizable categoriesand meanings. Once we have perceived the symbol, webegin the process of interpreting, or assigning meaningto it. The receiver reverse labels the text or image. Inreverse labeling, a receiver assigns a pattern ofmeaning to a perceived symbol. To assign meaning, wesearch and compare trace configurations.
  35. 35. Initiating an act of communication a person mustintend a certain meaning in a message, identify anappropriate configuration of traces by experiencingtheir meanings, and then determine if a given symbolis a suitable means for expressing the desired message.To accomplish this the person must search his or hertotal array of stored traces for appropriate messages.We can compare this mental search like a computer‟ssearch through a vast data bank.
  36. 36. Once we have decided which pattern of internal experiencebest corresponds to the perceived symbol, we haveinterpreted the message. That is, the symbol has activated apattern of subjective experiences, images, understandingsand feelings-that have been stored in our memory, apattern that was imprinted as a result of earlier learning.Communication is an interactive process at this point,people are not merely passive senders and receivers. Theyrespond to the content of others meanings ask forclarification, and indicate agreement. Each person shiftsroles to become a communicator at one moment and areceiver at another. These points require clarification.
  37. 37. There are two stages in this situation. The firststage is common phase which is grasping themessage. It is related to the Magic bullet orHyperdemic needle theory in transmitting news.Therefore receivers become passive. Once you getit, you become suppressed by the news. This willhappen in the news transmitting. But the receiverat the special phase starts to select or scrutinize.This is the major deference in this model fromother models. The receiver needs efficiency insteadof interference or noise. Noise always takes place inany of the communication settings. But if there isno efficiency of a person he /she fails to perceivethe real meaning of the message.
  38. 38. Therefore the long term effect is very healthy with thismodel. If a person gets a message he has time torethink and argue with himself, examine the topic andcritically analyze. Therefore the long term effects aremostly in contents of books or informative creations.This is also a unique element of this model. The firststage is the passive and the second stage is active.
  39. 39. Anyone can see some of the similarities and differenceswhen comparing other models with this. As elements, ithas sender/communicator, source, message, channel,and the receiver. Efficiency is more important than thenoise. People respond messages because of personalcharacteristics, the contexts of communication and thetypes of communication involved, among other factors.
  40. 40. Although the Channel is not mentioned in the sketch ,we have suspicions that there had had variouschannels, because if there are messages, there may bechannels. Most probably face to face, oral and anyother forms of channels. Schrammes‟ model alsomentioned the sender, receiver ,message and theinterpretation only.
  41. 41. As it is mentioned in Kalama Sutra the news sourcesare reports, religious texts, teaching, hearsay etc. Theywere supposed to be in the written or oral forms at thattime. In the Kalama Sutra, it is mentioned thatconsidering appearances, inference, speculation,opinions, and seeming possibilities paved the way foraccuracy of news sources. This is the sender orcommunicator.
  42. 42. The phrase mentioned bellow is related to thedestination of a message. It is transacted with aperson‟s understanding ability, which says,“When you know for yourselves that certain things areunwholesome (akusala) and wrong, and bad, then givethem up ……And when you know for yourselves thatcertain things are wholesome (kusala) and good, thenaccept them and follow them”
  43. 43. This is the main idea of this model. That is why thismodel folds in to circular model. It deals with aperson‟s personality. It deals with a person‟sknowledge. Personality and knowledge help a personto scrutinize epistemologically. Scrutinizing is lookingat something examining it carefully and thoroughly.Epistemology means the study of knowledge science.Theory of knowledge explains knowledge as analyzingthe truth, belief and justification. The ultimatemessage of this model is unique, because no one hasexplained a theory or model based on epistemology.
  44. 44. According to the Kalama sutta if the receiver is anintelligent person then the effect also is fruitful,because he or she is be able to grasp a messageproperly. But if the person is not intelligent then thepurpose of the message fails.
  45. 45. The conclusion Responder or the receiver is the supreme message consumer in this model. Receiver is more powerful than the communicator. Receiver has to face two stages-common and special. In the common phase he or she is a passive receiver. In the special phase he is an active receiver. Consequence is also an important element rather than the noise. This is entirely connected with the self communication/Intra personal communication. On the other hand, it is similar to other process.
  46. 46. Though the elements are small, the process is rich.This is the first instant in history which explains the elements and process of communication.Sources of the news or messages are indicated in the communication history for the first time.Media literacy is also derived from this theory. In other words scrutinizing epistemologically is similar to the definition of media literacy. Anyone can see what we follow as media literacy which is not new. It is also connected this model. The books and encyclopedias define media literacy as follows;
  47. 47.  “….The ability to effectively and efficiently comprehend and utilize mass media content.” ( Black J.1993) The idea of this definition means that the media consumers must develop the ability or facility to better interpret media content. Efficiency is more important . The code of ethics in journalism is also initiated from this text prior to B.C. This is very important for the new or social media users because some of the websites have information without the sources which loses the credibility of the message.
  48. 48. Appendix Tipitaka-From the Dhamma Encyclopedia The complete Tipitaka is 40 volumes long. Tipitaka (Tripitaka in Sanskrit) is the name given to the Buddhist sacred scriptures and is made up of two words; ti meaning „three‟ and pitaka meaning „basket‟.
  49. 49. The word basket was given to these writings because theywere orally transmitted for some centuries(from about 483BC), the way a basket of earth at a construction site mightbe relayed from the head of one worker to another. It waswritten on palm leaves in the Pali language around 100 BC.The three parts of the Tipitaka are Sutta Pitaka. TheVinaya Pitaka, and the Abhidhamma Pitaka. The Tipitakawas composed in the Pali language and takes up more thanforty volumes in an English translation, roughly about20,000 pages. It is the largest sacred book of any of thegreat world religions.
  50. 50. It is also known as the Pali canon since the language isin Pali and to better differentiate it from theMahayana Tripitaka (only one letter difference)Sutta PitakaDigha Nikaya the „long collection‟Majjhima Nikaya the “middle-length collection”Samyutta Nikaya the “numerical discourses”Khuddaka nikaya the “collection of little texts‟Vinaya Pitaka
  51. 51. I. Suttavibhanga the basic rules of conduct (patimokkha) for bhikkhus and bhikkhunis, along with the „origin story” for each oneII. Khandhaka A. Mahavagga in addition to rules of conduct and etiquette for the sangha, this section contains several important Sutta-like texts, including an account of the period immediately following the Buddha‟s awakening, his first sermons to the group of five monks, and stories of how some of his great desciples joined th sangha and themselves attained Awakening.
  52. 52. B. Cullavagga an elaboration of the bhikkhus‟ etiquette and duties, as well as the rules and procedures for addressing offences that may be committed within the sangha.III. Parivara a recapitulation of the previous sections, with summaries of the rules classified and re-classified in various ways for instructional purposes.Abhidhamma Pitaka Dhammasangani (“enumeration of Phenomena”).This book enumerates all the paramatta dhamma (ultimate realities) to be found in the world.
  53. 53. Vibhanga (“The book of treatises”). This bookcontinues the analysis of the Dhatukatha(“discussion with reference to the elements .Areiteration of the foregoing, in the form ofquestions and answers.Puggalapannatti(“description of individuals”).Somewhat out of place in the abhidhamma pitaka,this book contains descriptions of a number ofpersonality-types. Kathavatthu (“points ofcontroversy”).Another odd inclusion in theabhidhamma, this book contains questions andanswers that were complied ny moggaliputta tissain the 3rd century BC, in order to help clarifypoints of controversy that existed between thevarious early schools of Buddhism at the time.
  54. 54. Yamaka (“the book of Paris”).This book is a logicalanalysis of many concepts presented in the earlierbooks. In the words of Mrs. Rhys Davids, an eminent20th century Pali scholar, the ten chapters of theyamaka amount to little more than “ten valleys of drybones”.
  55. 55. Patthana (“The book of relations”).This book, by farthe longest single volume in the Tipitaka (over6000pages long in the Siamese edition), describes the24 paccayas, or law of conditionally, through whichthe dhammas interact. These laws, when applied inevery possible permutation with the dhammasdescribed in the Dhammasangani, give rise to allknowable experience. ( Wikipedia )
  56. 56. Some schools of Buddhism, on the other hand, rejectedan inflexible reverence of accepted doctrine. as Buddhasaid, according to the canonical scriptures;Now, kalamas, don‟t go by reports, by legends, bytraditions, by scripture, by logical conjecture, byinference, by analogies, by agreement throughpondering view, by probability, or by the thought, “thiscontemplative is our teacher‟. When you for yourselvesthat, „These qualities are skillful; these qualities areblameless; these qualities are praised by the wise; thesequalities, when adopted &carried out, lead to welfare& to happiness”-then you should enter& remain inthem. (Wikipedia)
  57. 57. References:Berlo, D. K. (1960) The Process of Communication, New York, Holt, Rinehart & Winston.Black.Jay (1993) Introduction media Communication. USA ,McGraw-Hill,Dainton, Marianne Zelley, Elaine. D (2010) Applying Communication Theory for Professional Life, New Delhi, Sage.Ellmore tery R ( 1990), NTC’s Mass Media Dictionary, USA, National text book company.Eittle, John, Stephen .W (2009) Encyclopedia of Communication Theory, New Delhi, Sage.Festinger, L. (1957) A Theories of Cognitive Dissonance, USA.McGrow-Hill.Griffin, E. (2000) A First Look at Communication Theory, (4th ed.) New York:McGraw - Hill.
  58. 58. Hamilton.sue (2000) Early Buddhism, RutledgeKalama Sutta, Anguttara Nikaya lll.65,(2)Kalupahana,David 1975 –Causality: The central philosophy of Buddhism, the university press of Hawai.McQuail, Denis. (2010) Mcquail’s Mass Communication Theory, New Delhi, Sage.Schulz, Poter. J (2010) Communication Theory, New Delhi, Sage.Sri Rahula ,Walpola (1985) What the Buddha Thought, UK, Unwin Brothers Ltd.Swell David (2000) Cultural Theory, New Delhi, Sage.Windahl, Sven (2009) Using Communication Theory, New Delhi, Sage.