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# Signal & systems

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A signal is a pattern of variation that carry information.
Signals are represented mathematically as a function of one or more independent variable

basic concept of signals

types of signals
system concepts

Published in: Engineering
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• nice work

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• Thanks so much.

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• Good work, at a cursory glance I thnk there are a few mistakes. For example Slide No 81. Definition of a stable signal is confusing. If A is constant real number , so long as x(t) is bounded A x(t) = y(t) will also be bounded . Check the spelling in 'bonded'. More later.

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### Signal & systems

1. 1. Signal • A signal is a pattern of variation that carry information. • Signals are represented mathematically as a function of one or more independent variable • A picture is brightness as a function of two spatial variables, x and y. • In this course signals involving a single independent variable, generally refer to as a time, t are considered. Although it may not represent time in specific application • A signal is a real-valued or scalar-valued function of an independent variable t.
2. 2. Signal Examples • Electrical signals --- voltages and currents in a circuit • Acoustic signals --- audio or speech signals (analog or digital) • Video signals --- intensity variations in an image (e.g. a CAT scan) • Biological signals --- sequence of bases in a gene • Noise: unwanted signal :
3. 3. Measuring Signals -1 -0.8 -0.6 -0.4 -0.2 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1 22 43 64 85 106 127 148 169 190 211 232 253 274 295 316 337 358 379 400 421 442 463 484 505 526 547 568 589 610 631 652 673 694 715 Period Amplitude
4. 4. Definitions • Voltage – the force which moves an electrical current against resistance • Waveform – the shape of the signal (previous slide is a sine wave) derived from its amplitude and frequency over a fixed time (other waveform is the square wave) • Amplitude – the maximum value of a signal, measured from its average state • Frequency (pitch) – the number of cycles produced in a second – Hertz (Hz). Relate this to the speed of a processor eg 1.4GigaHertz or 1.4 billion cycles per second
5. 5. Signal Basics  Continuous time (CT) and discrete time (DT) signals CT signals take on real or complex values as a function of an independent variable that ranges over the real numbers and are denoted as x(t). DT signals take on real or complex values as a function of an independent variable that ranges over the integers and are denoted as x[n]. Note the subtle use of parentheses and square brackets to distinguish between CT and DT signals.
6. 6. Analog Signals • Human Voice – best example • Ear recognises sounds 20KHz or less • AM Radio – 535KHz to 1605KHz • FM Radio – 88MHz to 108MHz
7. 7. Digital signals • Represented by Square Wave • All data represented by binary values • Single Binary Digit – Bit • Transmission of contiguous group of bits is a bit stream • Not all decimal values can be represented by binary 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0
8. 8. Analogue vs. Digital Analogue Advantages • Best suited for audio and video • Consume less bandwidth • Available world wide • Less susceptible to noise Digital Advantages • Best for computer data • Can be easily compressed • Can be encrypted • Equipment is more common and less expensive • Can provide better clarity
9. 9. Analog or Digital • Analog Message: continuous in amplitude and over time – AM, FM for voice sound – Traditional TV for analog video – First generation cellular phone (analog mode) – Record player • Digital message: 0 or 1, or discrete value – VCD, DVD – 2G/3G cellular phone – Data on your disk – Your grade • Digital age: why digital communication will prevail
10. 10. A/D and D/A • Analog to Digital conversion; Digital to Analog conversion – Gateway from the communication device to the channel • Nyquist Sampling theorem – From time domain: If the highest frequency in the signal is B Hz, the signal can be reconstructed from its samples, taken at a rate not less than 2B samples per second
11. 11. A/D and D/A • Quantization – From amplitude domain – N bit quantization, L intervals L=2N – Usually 8 to 16 bits – Error Performance: Signal to noise ratio
12. 12. Real vs. Complex Q. Why do we deal with complex signals? A. They are often analytically simpler to deal with than real signals, especially in digital communications.
13. 13. What is a communications system? • Communications Systems: Systems designed to transmit and receive information Info Source Info Source Info Sink Info Sink Comm System
14. 14. Block Diagram Receiver Rx received message to sink )(~ tm Transmitter Tx s(t) transmitted signal Channel r(t) received signal m(t) message from source Info Source Info Source Info Sink Info Sink n(t) noise
15. 15. A discrete-time signal is defined at discrete times.
16. 16. Elementary Signals Sinusoidal & Exponential Signals • Sinusoids and exponentials are important in signal and system analysis because they arise naturally in the solutions of the differential equations. • Sinusoidal Signals can expressed in either of two ways : cyclic frequency form- A sin 2Пfot = A sin(2П/To)t radian frequency form- A sin ωot ωo= 2Пfo= 2П/To To= Time Period of the Sinusoidal Wave
17. 17. Sinusoidal & Exponential Signals Contd. x(t) = A sin (2Пfot+ θ) = A sin (ωot+ θ) x(t) = Aeat Real Exponential = Aejω̥t = A[cos (ωot) +j sin (ωot)] ComplexExponential θ = Phase of sinusoidal wave A = amplitude of a sinusoidal or exponential signal fo= fundamental cyclic frequency of sinusoidal signal ωo= radian frequency Sinusoidal signal
18. 18. Unit Step Function ( ) 1 , 0 u 1/ 2 , 0 0 , 0 t t t t >  = =  < Precise Graph Commonly-Used Graph
19. 19. Signum Function ( ) ( ) 1 , 0 sgn 0 , 0 2u 1 1 , 0 t t t t t >    = = = −   − <  Precise Graph Commonly-Used Graph The signum function, is closely related to the unit-step function.
20. 20. Unit Ramp Function ( ) ( ) ( ) , 0 ramp u u 0 , 0 t t t t d t t t λ λ −∞ >  = = =  ≤  ∫ •The unit ramp function is the integral of the unit step function. •It is called the unit ramp function because for positive t, its slope is one amplitude unit per time.
21. 21. Rectangular Pulse or Gate Function Rectangular pulse, ( ) 1/ , / 2 0 , / 2 a a t a t t a δ  < =  >
22. 22. Unit Impulse Function ( ) ( ) As approaches zero, g approaches a unit step andg approaches a unit impulse a t t′ So unit impulse function is the derivative of the unit step function or unit step is the integral of the unit impulse function Functions that approach unit step and unit impulse
23. 23. Representation of Impulse Function The area under an impulse is called its strength or weight. It is represented graphically by a vertical arrow. An impulse with a strength of one is called a unit impulse.
24. 24. Properties of the Impulse Function ( ) ( ) ( )0 0g gt t t dt tδ ∞ −∞ − =∫ The Sampling Property ( )( ) ( )0 0 1 a t t t t a δ δ− = − The Scaling Property The Replication Property g(t)⊗ δ(t) = g (t)
25. 25. Unit Impulse Train The unit impulse train is a sum of infinitely uniformly- spaced impulses and is given by ( ) ( ) , an integerT n t t nT nδ δ ∞ =−∞ = −∑
26. 26. The Unit Rectangle Function The unit rectangle or gate signal can be represented as combination of two shifted unit step signals as shown
27. 27. The Unit Triangle Function A triangular pulse whose height and area are both one but its base width is not, is called unit triangle function. The unit triangle is related to the unit rectangle through an operation called convolution.
28. 28. Sinc Function ( ) ( )sin sinc t t t π π =
29. 29. Discrete-Time Signals • Sampling is the acquisition of the values of a continuous-time signal at discrete points in time • x(t) is a continuous-time signal, x[n] is a discrete- time signal [ ] ( )x x where is the time between sampless sn nT T=
30. 30. Discrete Time Exponential and Sinusoidal Signals • DT signals can be defined in a manner analogous to their continuous-time counter part x[n] = A sin (2Пn/No+θ) = A sin (2ПFon+ θ) x[n] = an n = the discrete time A = amplitude θ = phase shifting radians, No = Discrete Period of the wave 1/N0= Fo= Ωo/2 П = Discrete Frequency Discrete Time Sinusoidal Signal Discrete Time Exponential Signal
31. 31. Discrete Time Sinusoidal Signals
32. 32. Discrete Time Unit Step Function or Unit Sequence Function [ ] 1 , 0 u 0 , 0 n n n ≥ =  <
33. 33. Discrete Time Unit Ramp Function [ ] [ ] , 0 ramp u 1 0 , 0 n m n n n m n =−∞ ≥  = = −  <  ∑
34. 34. Discrete Time Unit Impulse Function or Unit Pulse Sequence [ ] 1 , 0 0 , 0 n n n δ = =  ≠ [ ] [ ] for any non-zero, finite integer .n an aδ δ=
35. 35. Unit Pulse Sequence Contd. • The discrete-time unit impulse is a function in the ordinary sense in contrast with the continuous- time unit impulse. • It has a sampling property. • It has no scaling property i.e. δ[n]= δ[an] for any non-zero finite integer ‘a’
36. 36. Operations of Signals • Sometime a given mathematical function may completely describe a signal . • Different operations are required for different purposes of arbitrary signals. • The operations on signals can be Time Shifting Time Scaling Time Inversion or Time Folding
37. 37. Time Shifting • The original signal x(t) is shifted by an amount tₒ. • X(t)X(t-to) Signal Delayed Shift to the right
38. 38. Time Shifting Contd. • X(t)X(t+to) Signal Advanced Shift to the left
39. 39. Time Scaling • For the given function x(t), x(at) is the time scaled version of x(t) • For a 1,period of function x(t) reduces and˃ function speeds up. Graph of the function shrinks. • For a 1, the period of the x(t) increases˂ and the function slows down. Graph of the function expands.
40. 40. Time scaling Contd. Example: Given x(t) and we are to find y(t) = x(2t). The period of x(t) is 2 and the period of y(t) is 1,
41. 41. Time scaling Contd. • Given y(t), – find w(t) = y(3t) and v(t) = y(t/3).
42. 42. Time Reversal • Time reversal is also called time folding • In Time reversal signal is reversed with respect to time i.e. y(t) = x(-t) is obtained for the given function
43. 43. Time reversal Contd.
44. 44. 0 0, an integern n n n→ +Time shifting Operations of Discrete Time Functions
45. 45. Operations of Discrete Functions Contd. Scaling; Signal Compression n Kn→ K an integer > 1
46. 46. Classification of Signals • Deterministic & Non Deterministic Signals • Periodic & A periodic Signals • Even & Odd Signals • Energy & Power Signals
47. 47. Deterministic & Non Deterministic Signals Deterministic signals • Behavior of these signals is predictable w.r.t time • There is no uncertainty with respect to its value at any time. • These signals can be expressed mathematically. For example x(t) = sin(3t) is deterministic signal.
48. 48. Deterministic & Non Deterministic Signals Contd. Non Deterministic or Random signals • Behavior of these signals is random i.e. not predictable w.r.t time. • There is an uncertainty with respect to its value at any time. • These signals can’t be expressed mathematically. • For example Thermal Noise generated is non deterministic signal.
49. 49. Periodic and Non-periodic Signals • Given x(t) is a continuous-time signal • x (t) is periodic iff x(t) = x(t+Tₒ) for any T and any integer n • Example – x(t) = A cos(ωt) – x(t+Tₒ) = A cos[ω(t+Tₒ)] = A cos(ωt+ωTₒ)= A cos(ωt+2π) = A cos(ωt) – Note: Tₒ =1/fₒ ; ω=2πfₒ
50. 50. Periodic and Non-periodic Signals Contd. • For non-periodic signals x(t) ≠ x(t+Tₒ) • A non-periodic signal is assumed to have a period T = ∞ • Example of non periodic signal is an exponential signal
51. 51. Important Condition of Periodicity for Discrete Time Signals • A discrete time signal is periodic if x(n) = x(n+N) • For satisfying the above condition the frequency of the discrete time signal should be ratio of two integers i.e. fₒ = k/N
52. 52. Sum of periodic Signals • X(t) = x1(t) + X2(t) • X(t+T) = x1(t+m1T1) + X2(t+m2T2) • m1T1=m2T2 = Tₒ = Fundamental period • Example: cos(tπ/3)+sin(tπ/4) – T1=(2π)/(π/3)=6; T2 =(2π)/(π/4)=8; – T1/T2=6/8 = ¾ = (rational number) = m2/m1 – m1T1=m2T2  Find m1 and m2 – 6.4 = 3.8 = 24 = Tₒ
53. 53. Sum of periodic Signals – may not always be periodic! T1=(2π)/(1)= 2π; T2 =(2π)/(sqrt(2)); T1/T2= sqrt(2); – Note: T1/T2 = sqrt(2) is an irrational number – X(t) is aperiodic tttxtxtx 2sincos)()()( 21 +=+=
54. 54. Even and Odd Signals Even Functions Odd Functions gt()=g−t() gt()=−g−t()
55. 55. Even and Odd Parts of Functions ( ) ( ) ( )g g The of a function is g 2 e t t t + − =even part ( ) ( ) ( )g g The of a function is g 2 o t t t − − =odd part A function whose even part is zero, is odd and a function whose odd part is zero, is even.
56. 56. Various Combinations of even and odd functions Function type Sum Difference Product Quotient Both even Even Even Even Even Both odd Odd Odd Even Even Even and odd Neither Neither Odd Odd
57. 57. Product of Two Even Functions Product of Even and Odd Functions
58. 58. Product of Even and Odd Functions Contd. Product of an Even Function and an Odd Function
59. 59. Product of an Even Function and an Odd Function Product of Even and Odd Functions Contd.
60. 60. Product of Two Odd Functions Product of Even and Odd Functions Contd.
61. 61. Derivatives and Integrals of Functions Function type Derivative Integral Even Odd Odd + constant Odd Even Even
62. 62. Discrete Time Even and Odd Signals [ ] [ ] [ ]g g g 2 e n n n + − = [ ] [ ] [ ]g g g 2 o n n n − − = [ ] [ ]g gn n= − [ ] [ ]g gn n= − −
63. 63. Combination of even and odd function for DT Signals Function type Sum Difference Product Quotient Both even Even Even Even Even Both odd Odd Odd Even Even Even and odd Even or Odd Even or odd Odd Odd
64. 64. Products of DT Even and Odd Functions Two Even Functions
65. 65. Products of DT Even and Odd Functions Contd. An Even Function and an Odd Function
66. 66. Proof Examples • Prove that product of two even signals is even. • Prove that product of two odd signals is odd. • What is the product of an even signal and an odd signal? Prove it! )()()( )()()( )()()( 21 21 21 txtxtx txtxtx txtxtx =× =−×−=− →×= Eventx txtxtx txtxtx txtxtx ←− =−=−× =−×−=− →×= )( )()()( )()()( )()()( 21 21 21 Change t -t
67. 67. Products of DT Even and Odd Functions Contd. Two Odd Functions
68. 68. Energy and Power Signals Energy Signal • A signal with finite energy and zero power is called Energy Signal i.e.for energy signal 0<E<∞ and P =0 • Signal energy of a signal is defined as the area under the square of the magnitude of the signal. • The units of signal energy depends on the unit of the signal. ( ) 2 x xE t dt ∞ −∞ = ∫
69. 69. Energy and Power Signals Contd. Power Signal • Some signals have infinite signal energy. In that caseit is more convenient to deal with average signal power. • For power signals 0<P<∞ and E = ∞ • Average power of the signal is given by ( ) / 2 2 x / 2 1 lim x T T T P t dt T→∞ − = ∫
70. 70. Energy and Power Signals Contd. • For a periodic signal x(t) the average signal power is • T is any period of the signal. • Periodic signals are generally power signals. ( ) 2 x 1 x T P t dt T = ∫
71. 71. Signal Energy and Power for DT Signal •The signal energy of a for a discrete time signal x[n] is [ ] 2 x x n E n ∞ =−∞ = ∑ •A discrtet time signal with finite energy and zero power is called Energy Signal i.e.for energy signal 0<E<∞ and P =0
72. 72. Signal Energy and Power for DT Signal Contd. The average signal power of a discrete time power signal x[n] is [ ] 1 2 x 1 lim x 2 N N n N P n N − →∞ =− = ∑ [ ] 2 x 1 x n N P n N = = ∑ For a periodic signal x[n] the average signal power is The notation means the sum over any set of consecutive 's exactly in length. n N n N =    ÷  ÷   ∑
73. 73. What is System? • Systems process input signals to produce output signals • A system is combination of elements that manipulates one or more signals to accomplish a function and produces some output. system output signal input signal
74. 74. Examples of Systems – A circuit involving a capacitor can be viewed as a system that transforms the source voltage (signal) to the voltage (signal) across the capacitor – A communication system is generally composed of three sub-systems, the transmitter, the channel and the receiver. The channel typically attenuates and adds noise to the transmitted signal which must be processed by the receiver – Biomedical system resulting in biomedical signal processing – Control systems
75. 75. System - Example • Consider an RL series circuit – Using a first order equation: dt tdi LRtitVVtV dt tdi LtV LR L )( )()()( )( )( +⋅=+= = LV(t) R
76. 76. Mathematical Modeling of Continuous Systems Most continuous time systems represent how continuous signals are transformed via differential equations. E.g. RC circuit System indicating car velocity )( 1 )( 1)( tv RC tv RCdt tdv sc c =+ )()( )( tftv dt tdv m =+ ρ
77. 77. Mathematical Modeling of Discrete Time Systems Most discrete time systems represent how discrete signals are transformed via difference equations e.g. bank account, discrete car velocity system ][]1[01.1][ nxnyny +−= ][]1[][ nf m nv m m nv ∆+ ∆ =− ∆+ − ρρ
78. 78. Order of System • Order of the Continuous System is the highest power of the derivative associated with the output in the differential equation • For example the order of the system shown is 1. )()( )( tftv dt tdv m =+ ρ
79. 79. Order of System Contd. • Order of the Discrete Time system is the highest number in the difference equation by which the output is delayed • For example the order of the system shown is 1. ][]1[01.1][ nxnyny +−=
80. 80. Interconnected Systems notes • Parallel • Serial (cascaded) • Feedback LV(t) R L C
81. 81. Interconnected System Example • Consider the following systems with 4 subsystem • Each subsystem transforms it input signal • The result will be: – y3(t)=y1(t)+y2(t)=T1[x(t)]+T2[x(t)] – y4(t)=T3[y3(t)]= T3(T1[x(t)]+T2[x(t)]) – y(t)= y4(t)* y5(t)= T3(T1[x(t)]+T2[x(t)])* T4[x(t)]
82. 82. Feedback System • Used in automatic control – e(t)=x(t)-y3(t)= x(t)-T3[y(t)]= – y(t)= T2[m(t)]=T2(T1[e(t)])   y(t)=T2(T1[x(t)-y3(t)])= T2(T1( [x(t)] - T3[y(t)] ) ) = – =T2(T1([x(t)] –T3[y(t)]))
83. 83. Types of Systems • Causal & Anticausal • Linear & Non Linear • Time Variant &Time-invariant • Stable & Unstable • Static & Dynamic • Invertible & Inverse Systems
84. 84. Causal & Anticausal Systems • Causal system : A system is said to be causal if the present value of the output signal depends only on the present and/or past values of the input signal. • Example: y[n]=x[n]+1/2x[n-1]
85. 85. Causal & Anticausal Systems Contd. • Anticausal system : A system is said to be anticausal if the present value of the output signal depends only on the future values of the input signal. • Example: y[n]=x[n+1]+1/2x[n-1]
86. 86. Linear & Non Linear Systems • A system is said to be linear if it satisfies the principle of superposition • For checking the linearity of the given system, firstly we check the response due to linear combination of inputs • Then we combine the two outputs linearly in the same manner as the inputs are combined and again total response is checked • If response in step 2 and 3 are the same,the system is linear othewise it is non linear.
87. 87. Time Invariant and Time Variant Systems • A system is said to be time invariant if a time delay or time advance of the input signal leads to a identical time shift in the output signal. 0 0 0 ( ) { ( )} { { ( )}} { ( )} i t t y t H x t t H S x t HS x t = − = = 0 0 0 0 ( ) { ( )} { { ( )}} { ( )} t t t y t S y t S H x t S H x t = = =
88. 88. Stable & Unstable Systems • A system is said to be bounded-input bounded- output stable (BIBO stable) iff every bounded input results in a bounded output. i.e. | ( ) | | ( ) |x yt x t M t y t M∀ ≤ < ∞ → ∀ ≤ < ∞
89. 89. Stable & Unstable Systems Contd. Example - y[n]=1/3(x[n]+x[n-1]+x[n-2]) 1 [ ] [ ] [ 1] [ 2] 3 1 (| [ ]| | [ 1]| | [ 2]|) 3 1 ( ) 3 x x x x y n x n x n x n x n x n x n M M M M = + − + − ≤ + − + − ≤ + + =
90. 90. Stable & Unstable Systems Contd. Example: The system represented by y(t) = A x(t) is unstable ; A 1˃ Reason: let us assume x(t) = u(t), then at every instant u(t) will keep on multiplying with A and hence it will not be bonded.
91. 91. Static & Dynamic Systems • A static system is memoryless system • It has no storage devices • its output signal depends on present values of the input signal • For example
92. 92. Static & Dynamic Systems Contd. • A dynamic system possesses memory • It has the storage devices • A system is said to possess memory if its output signal depends on past values and future values of the input signal
93. 93. Example: Static or Dynamic?
94. 94. Example: Static or Dynamic? Answer: • The system shown above is RC circuit • R is memoryless • C is memory device as it stores charge because of which voltage across it can’t change immediately • Hence given system is dynamic or memory system
95. 95. Invertible & Inverse Systems • If a system is invertible it has an Inverse System • Example: y(t)=2x(t) – System is invertible must have inverse, that is: – For any x(t) we get a distinct output y(t) – Thus, the system must have an Inverse • x(t)=1/2 y(t)=z(t) y(t) System Inverse System x(t) x(t) y(t)=2x(t)System (multiplier) Inverse System (divider) x(t) x(t)
96. 96. LTI Systems • LTI Systems are completely characterized by its unit sample response • The output of any LTI System is a convolution of the input signal with the unit-impulse response, i.e.
97. 97. Properties of Convolution Commutative Property ][*][][*][ nxnhnhnx = Distributive Property ])[*][(])[*][( ])[][(*][ 21 21 nhnxnhnx nhnhnx + =+ Associative Property ][*])[*][( ][*])[*][( ][*][*][ 12 21 21 nhnhnx nhnhnx nhnhnx = =
98. 98. Useful Properties of (DT) LTI Systems • Causality: • Stability: Bounded Input ↔ Bounded Output 00][ <= nnh ∞<∑ ∞ −∞=k kh ][ ∞<−≤−= ∞<≤ ∑∑ ∞ −∞= ∞ −∞= kk knhxknhkxny xnx ][][][][ ][for max max
99. 99. THANKS